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RIP version 1. Routing Protocols and Concepts – Chapter 5 Modified by Tony Chen. 06/10/2008. Notes:. If you see any mistake on my PowerPoint slides or if you have any questions about the materials, please feel free to email me at [email protected] . Thanks! Tony Chen College of DuPage

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Rip version 1

RIP version 1

Routing Protocols and Concepts – Chapter 5

Modified by Tony Chen

06/10/2008


Notes
Notes:

  • If you see any mistake on my PowerPoint slides or if you have any questions about the materials, please feel free to email me at [email protected]

    Thanks!

    Tony Chen

    College of DuPage

    Cisco Networking Academy


Objectives
Objectives

  • Describe the functions, characteristics, and operation of the RIPv1 protocol.

  • Configure a device for using RIPv1.

  • Verify proper RIPv1 operation.

  • Describe how RIPv1 performs automatic summarization.

  • Configure, verify, and troubleshoot default routes propagated in a routed network implementing RIPv1.

  • Use recommended techniques to solve problems related to RIPv1


Rip historical impact
RIP Historical Impact

  • RIP evolved from an earlier protocol developed at Xerox, called Gateway Information Protocol (GWINFO).

  • With the development of Xerox Network System (XNS), GWINFO evolved into RIP.

  • It later gained popularity because it was implemented in the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) as a daemon named routed (pronounced "route-dee", not "rout-ed").

  • Recognizing the need for standardization of the protocol, Charles Hedrick wrote RFC 1058 in 1988, in which he documented the existing protocol and specified some improvements.

  • Since then, RIP has been improved with RIPv2 in 1994 and with RIPng in 1997.

IPv6 form of RIP called RIPng (next generation) is now available


Ripv1
RIPv1

  • RIP Characteristics

    • A classful, Distance Vector (DV) routing protocol

    • Metric = hop count

    • Routes with a hop count > 15 are unreachable

    • Updates are broadcast every 30 seconds

    • The data portion of a RIP message is encapsulated into a UDP segment, with both source and destination port numbers set to 520.


Ripv11
RIPv1

  • RIP Message Format

  • RIP header - divided into 3 fields

    • Command field

      • REQUEST (1)- Request either a partial or full table update from another RIP router.

      • RESPONSE (2) - A response to a request.

    • Version field

      • 1 or 2

    • Must be zero

      • Must be zero" fields provide room for future expansion of the protocol.

  • Route Entry - composed of 3 fields

    • Address family identifier

      • CLNS, IPX, IP etc.

    • IP address

    • Metric


Ripv12
RIPv1

  • RIP Operation

    • RIP uses 2 message types:

      • Request message

        -This is sent out on startup by each RIP enabled interface

        -Requests all RIP enabled neighbors to send routing table

      • Response message

        -Message sent to requesting router containing routing table


Ripv13
RIPv1

  • IP addresses initially divided into classes

    -Class A

    -Class B

    -Class C

  • RIP is a classful routing protocol

    -Does not send subnet masks in routing updates


Common rip configuration issues
Common RIP configuration issues

RIP and IGRP:

  • Classful network statements only

  • IOS will take subnetted networks but will translate it into the classful network for the running-config.


Ripv14
RIPv1

  • Administrative Distance

    • RIP’s default administrative distance is 120


Basic ripv1 configuration
Basic RIPv1 Configuration

  • A typical topology suitable for use by RIPv1 includes:

    • -Three router set up

    • -No PCs attached to LANs

      -Use of 5 different IP subnets


Basic ripv1 configuration1
Basic RIPv1 Configuration

  • Router RIP Command

    • To enable RIP enter:

    • -Router rip at the global configuration prompt

    • -Prompt will look like R1(config-router)#


Basic ripv1 configuration2
Basic RIPv1 Configuration

  • Specifying Networks

    • Use the network command to:

    • -Enable RIP on all interfaces that belong to this network

    • -Advertise this network in RIP updates sent to other routers every 30 seconds


Verification and troubleshooting
Verification and Troubleshooting

  • Show ip Route

  • To verify and troubleshoot routing

    -Use the following

    commands:

    -show ip route

    -show ip protocols

    -debug ip rip


Verification and troubleshooting1
Verification and Troubleshooting

  • show ip protocols command

    -Displays routing protocol configured on router

POP QUIZ:

What is the different between the output of the command “show ip route” and “show ip protocol”?


Verification and troubleshooting2
Verification and Troubleshooting

  • Debug ip rip command

    -Used to display RIP routing updates as they are happening


Verification and troubleshooting3
Verification and Troubleshooting

  • Passive interface command

    -Used to prevent a router from sending updates through an interface

    -Example:

    Router(config-router)#passive-interface interface-type interface-number



Preventing routing updates through an interface
Preventing routing updates through an interface

Lab:

  • Route filtering works by regulating the routes that are entered into or advertised out of a route table.

    • As a result, a route filter influences which routes the router advertises to its neighbors.

  • On the other hand, routers running link state protocols determine routes based on information in the link-state database. Route filters have no effect on link-state advertisements or the link-state database.

    • (Tony) Route filtering could have negative effect on the link-state routing protocol.

  • Using the passive interface command can prevent routers from sending routing updates through a router interface, but the router continues to listen and use routing updates from that neighbor.

    • Keeping routing update messages from being sent through a router interface prevents other systems on that network from learning about routes dynamically.


Preventing routing updates through an interface1
Preventing routing updates through an interface

It will break the rip update

1

  • Again, this is only half the story.

    • When you use “passive interface” on a distance vector routing protocol, you need to complement it with “ip route” command.

You can use the “ip route” command to send route update back to establish the 2 way communication

2


Automatic summarization
Automatic Summarization

172.30.3.0

Modified Topology

  • The original scenario has been modified such that:

    Three classful networks are used:

    172.30.0.0/16

    192.168.4.0/24

    192.168.5.0/24

    The 172.30.0.0/16 network is subnetted into three subnets:

    172.30.1.0/24

    172.30.2.0/24

    172.30.3.0/24

    The following devices are part of the 172.30.0.0/16 classful network address:

    All interfaces on R1

    S0/0/0 and Fa0/0 on R2

172.30.2.0

172.30.1.0


Automatic summarization1
Automatic Summarization

  • Configuration Details

    -To remove the RIP routing process use the following command

    No router rip

    -To check the configuration use the following command

    Show run


Automatic summarization2
Automatic Summarization

  • Boundary Routers

    • RIP automatically summarizes classful networks

    • Boundary routers summarize RIP subnets from one major network to another.


Automatic summarization3
Automatic Summarization

Processing RIP Updates

  • 2 rules govern RIPv1 updates:

    -If a routing update and the interface it’s received on belong to the same network then

    The subnet mask of the interface is applied to the network in the routing update

    -If a routing update and the interface it’s received on belong to a different network then

    The classful subnet mask of the network is applied to the network in the routing update.


Automatic summarization4
Automatic Summarization

  • Sending RIP Updates

    • RIP uses automatic summarization to reduce the size of a routing table.


Automatic summarization5
Automatic Summarization

  • Advantages of automatic summarization:

    -The size of routing updates is reduced

    -Single routes are used to represent multiple routes which results in faster lookup in the routing table.


Automatic summarization6
Automatic Summarization

  • Disadvantage of Automatic Summarization:

    -Does not support discontiguous networks


Automatic summarization7
Automatic Summarization

  • Discontiguous Topologies do not converge with RIPv1

  • A router will only advertise major network addresses out interfaces that do not belong to the advertised route.



Default route and ripv1
Default Route and RIPv1

  • Modified Topology: Scenario C

  • Default routes

    • Packets that are not defined specifically in a routing table will go to the specified interface for the default route

    • Example: Customer routers use default routes to connect to an ISP router.

    • Command used to configure a default route is

    • ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 s0/0/1



Default route and ripv12
Default Route and RIPv1

  • Propagating the Default Route in RIPv1

  • Default-information originate command

    • -This command is used to specify that the router is to originate default information, by propagating the static default route in RIP update.


Default route with rip
Default route with RIP

Centre#show ip route

Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile,

Gateway of last resort is not set

R 192.168.4.0/24 [120/1] via 192.168.2.1, 00:00:11, Serial0

R 192.168.1.0/24 [120/1] via 192.168.2.1, 00:00:11, Serial0

C 192.168.2.0/24 is directly connected, Serial0

C 192.168.3.0/24 is directly connected, Ethernet0

Mobile#sho ip route

Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile,

Gateway of last resort is not set

R 192.168.4.0/24 [120/1] via 192.168.1.1, 00:00:04, Serial0

C 192.168.5.0/24 is directly connected, Ethernet0

C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, Serial0

R 192.168.2.0/24 [120/1] via 192.168.1.1, 00:00:04, Serial0

R 192.168.3.0/24 [120/2] via 192.168.1.1, 00:00:04, Serial0

Setup up a default route on the Centre router

Centre(config)#ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 loopback0

Centre(config)#router rip

Centre(config-router)#default-information originate

Mobile#sho ip route

Codes: C - connected, S - static, * - candidate default - RIP,

Gateway of last resort is 192.168.1.1 to network 0.0.0.0

R 192.168.4.0/24 [120/1] via 192.168.1.1, 00:00:09, Serial0

C 192.168.5.0/24 is directly connected, Ethernet0

C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, Serial0

R 192.168.2.0/24 [120/1] via 192.168.1.1, 00:00:04, Serial0

R 192.168.3.0/24 [120/2] via 192.168.1.1, 00:00:09, Serial0

R* 0.0.0.0/0 [120/2] via 192.168.1.1, 00:00:09, Serial0

Centre#sh ip route

Codes: C - connected, S - static, * - candidate default

Gateway of last resort is 0.0.0.0 to network 0.0.0.0

C 172.16.1.1 is directly connected, Loopback0

R 192.168.4.0/24 [100/8576] via 192.168.2.1, 00:00:22, Serial0

R 192.168.5.0/24 [120/2] via 192.168.2.1, 00:00:22, Serial0

S* 0.0.0.0/0 is directly connected, Loopback0


Summary
Summary

  • RIP characteristics include:

    Classful, distance vector routing protocol

    Metric is Hop Count

    Does not support VLSM or discontiguous subnets

    Updates every 30 seconds

  • Rip messages are encapsulated in a UDP segment with source and destination ports of 520



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