Authors: A. Dutta, J. Burns, K.D Wong, R. Jain, K. Young
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Authors: A. Dutta, J. Burns, K.D Wong, R. Jain, K. Young Telcordia Technologies Henning Schulzrinne, Columbia University. Multi-layered Mobility Management for Survivable Network. Outline. Motivation Related Work Technology Description SIP based Mobility Management

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Authors: A. Dutta, J. Burns, K.D Wong, R. Jain, K. Young

Telcordia Technologies

Henning Schulzrinne, Columbia University

Multi-layered Mobility Management for Survivable Network


Outline
Outline

  • Motivation

  • Related Work

  • Technology Description

    • SIP based Mobility Management

    • MIP-LR (Mobile IP with Location Register)

    • MMP (Micro Mobility Management)

  • Integrated Approach

  • Simulation/Experimental Results

  • Conclusions/Future Work


Motivation
Motivation

  • Propose an Integrated Mobility Management Approach for Survivable Network that will:

    • Support Personal mobility independent of user location across domains using unique URI scheme

    • Support session and service mobility independent of the network attached

    • Provide continuous connectivity support for Real-Time (RTP/UDP/IP- e.g., audio/video streaming) and Non-Real-time (TCP/IP- e.g., ftp, telnet) application

    • Provide intra-domain and inter-domain terminal mobility (pre-session and mid-session)

    • Survivability and reliability by replicating server functionality in the nodes in the air and on the ground

    • Bound by handoff delay and latency budget for real-time application

    • Use best features of each mobility management scheme


Multimedia Protocol Stack

Media Transport

Quality of Service

media encaps

(H.261. MPEG)

Signaling

DHCP/DRCP

SAP

SDP

SIP

Application

Application Daemon

H.323

RSVP

RTCP

RTSP

DNS

RTP

LDAP

TCP

UDP

MMP

MIPv6

ICMP

IGMP

MIP variant

Kernel

Network

MIP-LR

IPv4, IPv6, IP Multicast

PPP

AAL3/4

AAL5

PPP

188-220

ADDSI

Link

802.11

V.34

Physical

SONET

ATM

HCLOS

EPLRS

SINCGARS

Application Layer

approach

Network Layer



Imm technology description
IMM Technology Description

  • Multi-layer approach to mobility management involves the following components

  • Application-based component

    • Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) and Domain Name Service (DNS) servers interact with Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) servers to provide location update and personal mobility while providing continuous connectivity for real-time applications (e.g., streaming audio/video).

  • Network layer component

    • Mobile IP with Location Registers (MIP-LR) significantly improves Mobile IP survivability and performance by allowing replication of the MIP home agent functionality; handles non-real-time application (ftp,telnet, chat).

  • Local mobility component

    • Micro-mobility Management Protocol (MMP) inherits cellular systems principle for mobility management, passive connectivity and handoff control but is designed for IP paradigm. Sets up forwarding caches for each mobile host to handle intra-domain micro-mobility.


Expected performance improvement of each mobility component

State of the Art

Performance Improveent

  • Mobile IP requires IP-in-IP encapsulation (20-byte header overhead)

  • Application-layer approach provides 35% more bandwidth utilization

  • Mobile IP triangular routing increases latency

  • Application-layer approach provides 50% latency improvement (reduction from ~27ms to ~16 ms for large packets)

  • Mobile IP registration adds overhead

  • MIP-LR provides 50% reduction in management overhead (goal is latency of ~10.5 ms vs. baseline of ~18.5 ms in MIP case for a packet size of 1Kbyte in a small campus environment)

  • Mobile IP provides reduced bandwidth for large degrees of local mobility

  • MMP provides increase in throughput of 100% (goal of ~1000 kb/s throughput compared with baseline of ~500 kb/s throughput at 60 handoffs/min)

Expected Performance Improvement of each mobility component


Sip based mobility key features
SIP Based Mobility Key Features

  • Mobility as part of application layer signaling

    • No need to change kernel in the end terminals for RTP/UDP application unlike Mobile IP

    • Interaction with DNS, HTTP, LDAP for location management

    • Provides session, service mobility and personal mobility using unique URI scheme

  • Redundancy/survivability

    • Determine multiple SIP servers during auto-configuration

      • Via DRCP configuration option, multicast discovery, use of SRV record in DNS

      • Retransmission during call setup using session timer or switches to secondary server

  • Hierarchical SIP registration

    • No need to go back to home registrar, register in the visiting domain - less delay

    • Registration gets proxied to other SIP servers - Hierarchical registrars - Optimized

  • Performance

    • No triangular routing—reduces delay

    • No IP-IP tunneling—reduces network load and saves overhead

  • When both CH and MH move

    • Use SIP’s Record Route feature to go through SIP server

  • When SIP server also moves

    • Use Dynamic DNS


Sip based mobility in military environment

LDAP

DNS

LDAP

DNS

Stream

Server

Stream

Server

SIP

Server

SIP

Server

5. INVITE Proxy message

Proxying Registration

4. Invite

1B

1A

6. Proxy

Pre-session

Move

Mid-session

Move

1. Register

MN

2. Invite

3. Client moved

192.6.10.18

192.6.11.20

MN

7. Re-invite

SIP-Based Mobility in Military Environment

Domain 1

Domain 2

DNS

DRCP

Server

Server

Server

Re-direct

Server

SIP

Mobile

Node

Server

192.4.8.18

CH moves

Correspondent

Host

192.4.8.20

On-going Media

Session (RTP)


Mobile ip with location registers mip lr basic principles
Mobile IP with Location Registers (MIP-LR) Basic Principles

  • Uses Location Register (LR) databases like commercial cellular systems

    • Home Location Register stores location, performs authentication, no tunneling

    • Visitor Location Register performs authentication and registration

  • Upper protocol layers (TCP, UDP) remain unaware of host mobility

  • MIP-LR is especially suited to military networks as compared to Mobile IP since it provides

    • Better performance: less delay and network load on ground and ACN

      • avoiding triangular routing and IP-IP encapsulation

    • Bettersurvivability: allows multiple replicated LRs and LRs placed outside the vulnerable area in ACN


Mip lr mobility in military environment

3. Register

4. Query

5. New

address

VLR 1

HLR 1

3. Register

2. Register

4. Query

1. Move

7. Move

p.q.r.s

6. Data Packets

Mobile Node

j.k.l.m

8. Update CH

MIP-LR Mobility in Military Environment

Domain 1

Domain 2

LDAP

DNS

LDAP

DNS

Stream

Server

Stream

Server

HLR 3

HLR 4

3. Register

DHCP/

DRCP

VLR 2

HLR 2

a.b.c.d

Correspondent

Host (CH)


Micro mobility management protocol mmp
Micro-Mobility Management Protocol (MMP)

  • Features (of using MMP for local mobility management)

    • Forwarding caches for each mobile host to handle intra-domain mobility.

    • Fast handoffs – reduced data losses at handoffs

    • Passive connectivity/paging capabilities

    • Minimal signaling overhead, and no encapsulation overhead makes efficient use of low-bandwidth links

  • Extended version of MMP improves over other proposed forwarding-cache-based local mobility schemes such as Cellular IP and HAWAII

    • Military requirements

      • Robustness, reliability

      • Network mobility

      • Hierarchical network

    • More robust to gateway failure: multiple gateways possible

    • More robust to node failure: multiple paths to gateway(s) allowed

    • Optimizes period of gateway beacon messages

  • Application to military environment

    • Variations

      • Large domain version - Large number of MMP nodes under a gateway

      • Small domain version - (e.g., Gateway/MMP node does co-exist in the same host in the smallest domain version)


Mmp multiple paths multiple gateways illustration
MMP - Multiple Paths, Multiple Gateways Illustration

  • Can be exploited by nodes with multiple layer 2 (radio) links, but does not require all nodes to have multiple layer 2 links

    • Each node has primary gateway (and optionally a secondary gateway)

    • For primary gateway, has primary interface (and optionally, a secondary interface)

  • Concept illustrated below

    • Black links: primary path to primary gateway

    • Blue links: secondary path to primary gateway

    • Magenta links: path to secondary gateway

    • Beige links: additional radio links that are none of the above

CH

Gateway 1

Gateway 2

CH- Correspondent Node

X - Cross-over-node

X

X

X

1,2 - MMP Node

1

2

Mobile Node


Integration of mobility components
Integration of Mobility Components

SIP

Server

SIP

Server

MIP-LR

MIP-LR

gateway

gateway

Domain 1

Domain 2

SIP, MIP-LR for

Inter-domain mobility

SIP - Real-time traffic

MIP-LR - Non-Real-time traffic

MMP for

(Intra-domain Mobility)

Shorter range ground radio links

MIP-LR

SIP

server

MIP-LR

Brigade TOC

Brigade TOC

Brigade TOC

SIP

Server

Brigade TOC

Brigade TOC

Subnet

a.b.c.0

DRCP

l.m.q.0

l.m.n.0

l.m.p.0

CH

MH

MH

MH

a.b.c.d

l.m.n.x

Inter-domain move

IP address changes

l.m.n.x

l.m.n.x

Intra-domain move

IP address does not change


Sip mip transport delay vs packet size simulation
SIP-MIP transport delay vs. Packet size (Simulation)

Total number of hops = 12, N=4, M=4, P=4, p=1

SD - Signaling + Data

D - Data


Experimental Test-bed Results (SIP vs. Mobile IP)

40%

utilization

35% Utilization Gain






Experimental Results (MIP-LR vs MIP)

MIP-LR vs. MIP Delay

20

18

50% reduction in

management

overhead

16

14

MIP

12

Round trip time in Msec

MIP-LR

10

8

6

4

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

1100

Bytes per packet


Conclusions future work
Conclusions/Future Work

  • Integrated Mobility Management approach takes advantage of best features of each Mobility Management component

  • Server based component provides survivability, redundancy and reliability features

  • Each mobility component provides better performance compared to traditional Mobile IP approach

  • Integrated Mobility Management is being prototyped in the laboratory test-bed

  • An application layer approach to MIP-LR is being investigated

  • Scalability analysis and deployment scenario in the military networks are some of the future work



SIP Server modes of operation

(Proxy & Re-Direct)

SIP

UA

SIP

UA


Sip mobility basic flows
SIP Mobility Basic Flows

User

application

LDAP

Database

Caller A (SIP UA)

SIP Re-direct server/registrar

Callee B (SIP UA)

Callee B (new location)

REGISTER

INVITE B

302 moved temporarily

ACK

INVITE

180 RINGING

200 OK

ACK

Callee moved

during call

RTP Media stream

Re-register

Re-INVITE with new Contact address

SIP signaling and RTP/UDP session remains intact


Sip protocol design flows
SIP Protocol Design Flows

LDAP

Database

LDAP

Database

LDAP

Database

LDAP

Database

Ground

Ground

ACN

ACN

CH (SIP UA)

SIP server

DOMAIN 2

MH (SIP UA)

DOMAIN 1

MH (new location)

DISCOVER

multiple

SIP servers

DISCOVER multiple

SIP servers

REGISTER

Proxy Registration

INVITE MN

Moved temporarily

INVITE

Proxy INVITE

OK

ACK

MH moved

mid-call

RTP Media stream

Configuration & registration

Re-INVITE with new Contact (IP)address in SDP

SIP signaling and RTP/UDP application remains intact


Sip mobility basics

Home Network

HA

data

Tunnelled data

CH

FA

data

MN

SIP

Server

SIP

Server

1

Home Network

Home Network

2

CH

3

CH

4

Foreign Network

MN

5

MN

moves

MN

SIP Mobility - Basics

1. SIP INVITE

2. 302 client moved

3. SIP INVITE

4. SIP OK

5. Data

Plain Mobile IP

SIP Personal Mobility

SIP

Server

SIP

Server

CH

2

Home Network

3

CH

4

1

Foreign Network

1. MN moves

2. MN re-invites

3. SIP OK

4. Data

MN

moves

MN

SIP Mid-session mobility

When both move


Mip lr design protocol flow

MH

New VLR

HLR 1

HLR 2

HLR 3

CH

Registration

(a)

Registration

(b)

(c)

Registration Accept

Registration Accept

(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

MIP-LR Design: Protocol Flow

ACN

(FAILED)

GROUND

GROUND

Query

MH Care of Address

Data Packets sent directly


An abstraction of basic mmp
An Abstraction of Basic MMP

MIP-LR, MIP, etc.

(macro-mobility)

Internet

gateway

gateway

MMP

(micro-mobility)


Large domain vs small domain implementation
Large Domain vs. Small Domain Implementation

  • What is optimal size of domain?

    • Too many mobile nodes in a domain may cause scalability problems

    • Too few mobile nodes in a domain may not exploit use of micro-mobility scheme

    • How many mobile nodes in a brigade, ACN coverage area, and what is the variability in this number? What are mobility rate statistics?

  • Large domain: gateway at ACN, has following advantages:

    • Large micro-mobility domain => more efficient mobility management signaling, fewer inter-domain handoffs

  • Small domain: gateway on the ground, e.g. in brigade TOC or lower in the hierarchy, has following advantages:

    • Continues to operate if/when the ACNs leave or fly out of range




Results from analytical model mip vs mip lr
Results from analytical model MIP vs. MIP-LR


Mmp registration call flow
MMP - Registration Call Flow

MN

BS/FLA

IRR

IRP

G/FA

FAuS

HA

CN

Roaming

detection

beacon

Cache init

Registration

Authentication

Mobile IP reg.

Mobile IP reg. response

Authentication response

Registration Reply


Mmp other call flows
MMP - Other Call Flows

MN

BS/FLA

IRR

IRP

G/FA

FAuS

HA

CN

Keep-alive

route update

Paging

Keep-alive

paging update

Registration

Mobile IP

Keep-alive

Registration

Mobile IP reg.

Mobile IP reg. response

Registration Reply


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