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A Mechanism for Equitable Bandwidth Allocation under QoS and Budget Constraints. Sreenivas Gollapudi Oracle Corporation / SUNY at Buffalo. D. Sivakumar IBM Almaden Research Center. Presented by: Abdul Hasib CPSC 601.43 Topics in Multimedia Networking .

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A mechanism for equitable bandwidth allocation under qos and budget constraints

A Mechanism for Equitable Bandwidth Allocationunder QoS and Budget Constraints

Sreenivas Gollapudi

Oracle Corporation /

SUNY at Buffalo

D. Sivakumar

IBM Almaden Research Center

Presented by:

Abdul Hasib

CPSC 601.43 Topics in Multimedia Networking

The Twelfth IEEE International Workshop on Quality of Service IWQoS, 2004.


Presentation outline
Presentation outline

  • Quality of Service (QoS)

    • Integrated Service

    • Differentiated Service

  • Objective and previous work

  • Desired Properties

  • Basic principle

  • Bandwidth allocation algorithm

  • Comparison parameter

  • Experimental Results


Quality of service qos
Quality of Service (QoS)

  • Internet provides “Best effort” service

    • Simple

    • No admission control

    • No guarantee; no performance assurance

    • Single level of service

    • Not suitable for booming real time applications.

      The capability to provide resource assurance and service differentiation in a network is often referred to as quality of service (QoS).


Technologies
Technologies

  • QoS parameters

    • Throughput; Delay; Jitter; Data corruption etc.

  • Developed technologies categorized by two key QoS issues:

    • Resource allocation

      • Integrated Service

      • Differentiated Service

    • Performance optimization

      • Multiprotocol label switching (MPLS)

      • Traffic engineering


Integrated services int serv
Integrated Services (Int-serv)

  • Per-flow resource reservation.

  • Steps:

    • Application requests its required resource.

    • The network uses a routing protocol to find a path based on the requested resources.

    • Reservation protocol (RSVP) is used to install the reservation state along that path.

    • At each hop, admission control checks whether sufficient resources are available to accept the new reservation.

    • After reservation, the application can start to send traffic over the path for which it has exclusive use of the resources.


Int serv cont
Int-serv (cont.)

  • Two services level

    • guaranteed (delay) service, controlled load service.


Int serv cont1
Int-serv (cont.)

  • Disadvantage:

    • Applicable to long lasting traffic (video conferencing);

    • Scalability problem

      • may not be able to cope with a very large number of flows at high speeds

      • requires the support of accounting and settlement between different service providers

  • Potential Application Area:

    • IP telephony, video conferencing over corporate intranets


Differentiated service diff serv

Interior

Router

Egress

Edge

Router

Ingress

Edge Router

Differentiated Service (Diff-serv)

Uses a combination of edge policing, provisioning, and traffic prioritization to achieve service differentiation.

  • Resource allocation to aggregated traffic rather than individual flows.

  • Traffic policing on the edge and class-based forwarding in the core.


Router functionality
Router Functionality

  • Network edge routers:

    • Packet classification: service level agreement (SLA) and traffic type.

    • Responsible for mapping packets to their appropriate forwarding classes, per-hop behavior (PHB). Each PHB is represented by a 6 bit DSCP

    • Set DSCP in packet header DS field, modified TOS field.

    • Nonconforming traffic may be dropped, delayed, or marked with a different forwarding class.

  • Interior routers:traffic classification and forwarding

    •  use DSCP as index into forwarding table


Router functionality cont
Router Functionality (cont.)

  • Network edge routers:

    • traffic conditioning (policing, marking, dropping), SLA negotiation.


Diff serv
Diff-serv

  • Define forwarding behavior not end-to-end services.

  • Guarantee by provisioning rather than reservation:

    • For each forwarding class, the amount of traffic that users can inject into the network is limited at the edge

      of the network.

      • service providers can adjust the level of resource provisioning;

      • control the degree of resource assurance to the users.

  • Qualitative QoS scheme.


Presentation outline1
Presentation outline

  • Quality of Service (QoS)

    • Integrated Service

    • Differentiated Service

  • Objective and previous work

  • Desired Properties

  • Basic principle

  • Bandwidth allocation algorithm

  • Comparison parameter

  • Experimental Results


Objective and previous work
Objective and previous work

  • Fair and efficient bandwidth management.

  • Allocation based on differential pricing scheme.

    Previous work

  • Allocation is based on a single preferred bandwidth (A) request of user.

  • Uniform allocation rule:

    • Initially allocate an equal share (X) to every user,

    • if A<X, user will receive exactly A.

    • Excess bandwidth will be equally re-apportioned among all remaining users.


Desired properties
Desired properties

  • Feasibility: ; ai=allocated bandwidth to user i

  • Efficiency:

    • If the sum of ideal allocations exceeds the supply, then no user should receive more than his ideal allocation;

    • if supply exceeds the sum of ideal allocations, then no user should receive less than his ideal allocation.

  • Strategy proof ness: Mis-reporting bandwidth requirement should not give incentive to user.

  • Envy-freeness: When the allocations have been determined, no user would prefer other users allocation to his.


Basic principle
Basic principle

  • Network coordinator

    • is used to deploy the bandwidth allocation mechanism in a general network;

    • handles the functions of admission control.

  • Bandwidth allocation is based on:

    • Service provider (vendor) parameter

      • Cost function, c(b)= ; = constant

      • Capacity and utilization information of all links along path, P.


Basic principle cont
Basic principle (cont.)

  • Bandwidth allocation is based on:

    • User (agent) parameter:

      • Utility function,

      • Pricing level, li

        - User can choose to pay more for a QoS requirement to increase the likelihood of receiving the better service.

        - where, ci= cost function for agent I

        C= revenue goal






Comparison parameter
Comparison parameter

(1) Quality of Service: For an agent with optimal allocation

, an allocation b of bandwidth is defined to achieve a QoS value of Q( , b) = b/

(2) Probability of allocation: Fraction of agents who receive at least , their minimum acceptable allocation ( ).

(3) Fairness rank, F(i) is proportional to





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