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Oil Spill Compensation U.S. and China 船舶油污损害赔 偿中美比较研究. George W. Conk 乔治康克教授,高级研究员 Adjunct Professor & Senior Fellow Fordham Law School 福特 汉姆大学 - 纽约 [email protected] Torts Today www.tortstoday.blogspot.com. 1. 1.

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oil spill compensation u s and china

Oil Spill CompensationU.S. and China 船舶油污损害赔偿中美比较研究

George W. Conk 乔治康克教授,高级研究员

Adjunct Professor & Senior Fellow

Fordham Law School福特汉姆大学 - 纽约

[email protected]

Torts Today www.tortstoday.blogspot.com

Oil Spill Compensation - U.S. & China

1

1

how do the u s and chinese oil pollution compensation systems differ

How do the U.S. and Chinese oil pollution compensation systems differ?

中国的油污染赔偿法和美国相比有什么不同?

Oil Spill Compensation - U.S. & China

oil spill compensation t imeline
Oil Spill Compensation Timeline
  • 1989 Exxon Valdez oil tanker spill
  • 1990 Oil Pollution Act
  • April – June 2010 Deepwater Horizon/BP spill
  • GCCF/BP temporary compensation program
  • May 2011 SPC opinion vessel oil spill compensation
  • June 2011 Bohai Bay Conoco/CNOOC spill

Oil Spill Compensation - U.S. & China

oil spill compensation t imeline1
Oil Spill Compensation Timeline
  • December 2011Aquaculturists file suit in Tianjin
  • January 2012 Conoco/CNOOC settles w/ PRC
  • February 2012 Deepwater Horizon settlement
  • 38 fisheries group actions filed Tianjin and Qingdao Maritime Courts
  • Courts take no action on fishermen’s complaints
  • July 2012 Shandong fishermen file lawsuit in Texas

Oil Spill Compensation - U.S. & China

aquaculturists petition gov t march 2013
Aquaculturists petition Gov’t – March 2013
  • "208 fish farmers asked the NDRC to order ConocoPhillips to compensate for losses caused by pollution from the 201 Bohai Bay oil spills.They claimed they lost about 500 million yuan ($80.45 million) from damage to their fisheries, but unlike farmers in nearby Laoting county, they received no compensation”.

Oil Spill Compensation - U.S. & China

bp s deep water horizon gulf oil spill april july 2010 5 million barrels
BP’s Deep Water Horizon Gulf Oil Spill - April – July 2010 5 million barrels*墨西哥湾油污染世界上最大的油膜

Oil Spill Compensation - U.S. & China

public claims by u s
Public claims by U.S.
  • Settled 解决方案
  • Criminal penalties 惩罚 - $4 billion payable over 5 years
  • But Oil pollution act trial now underway for cleanup costs and Clean Water Act and Oil Pollution Act civil penalties处罚
  • Trial issue: was BP grossly negligent
  • BP 重大过失或故意?

Oil Spill Compensation - U.S. & China

opa clean water act
OPA - Clean Water Act

美国政府请求对BP处罚

  • U.S. seeks $17 billion civil penalties
  • 法官将决定
  • Negligence 过失事故
  • $1,000/barrel
  • 或者
  • Gross negligence or willful misconduct
  • 重大过失或故意 $3,000/barrel

Oil Spill Compensation - U.S. & China

oil pollution act 1990 33 u s c 2702
Oil Pollution Act (1990) 33 U.S.C. § 2702
  • “...each responsible party for a vessel or a facility from which oil is discharged.... into or upon the navigable waters or adjoining shorelines ...is liable for the removal costs and damages ...that result from such incident.”
  • 被侵权人不用证明过错

Oil Spill Compensation - U.S. & China

oil pollution act 33 u s c 2705
Oil Pollution Act - 油污染立法33 U.S.C. 2705
  • “The responsible party shall establish a procedure for the payment or settlement of claims for interim, short-term damages. “
  • “造成油泄漏的责任人应当建立暂时性快速赔偿机制。”

Oil Spill Compensation - U.S. & China

slide11

2010 - 2012

  • BP-controlled temporary claims center
  • BP的索赔中心
  • Total paid: $ 3,639,323,129.54

Oil Spill Compensation - U.S. & China

gccf average temporary claim paid
GCCF - Average temporary claim paid $$平均支付的暂时性赔 偿

Oil Spill Compensation - U.S. & China

economic loss zones
Economic loss zones 经济损失区

Oil Spill Compensation - U.S. & China

slide15
Deepwater Horizon Court-Supervised Settlement Program $7.8 billionwww.deepwaterhorizonsettlements.com
  • 110,000 law suits filed
  • 110,000 案件起诉
  • Court-approved class action
  • 法院同意集体诉讼
  • Court-supervised claims office
  • 法院监管索赔单位

Oil Spill Compensation - U.S. & China

slide16
Deepwater Horizon Court-Supervised Settlement Program $7.8 billionwww.deepwaterhorizonsettlements.com
  • Economic Settlement Awards to Date请
  • 79,628 人请求赔偿
  • 95% 同意
  • 2012 年11 月6日
  • 支付$ 1,357,711,475

Oil Spill Compensation - U.S. & China

bohai bay aquaculture
Bohai Bay aquaculture渤海湾渔业

Oil Spill Compensation - U.S. & China

bohai bay spill june 2011 3 000 barrels 2011 6 3000 conoco phillips china ltd cnooc 51
Bohai Bay Spill June 2011 3,000 barrels +/- 2011年6月渤海湾共有3000桶原油泄露 Conoco Phillips China Ltd.经营管理者:康菲中国 CNOOC 51%所有人:中海油

Oil Spill Compensation - U.S. & China

slide19
中国海洋局的事故调查报告
  • 油污染区
  • 4,900 sq. km. 四千九百平方公里
  • Total spill 3,500 barrels +/-桶
  • Spill did not affect Shandong waters
  • 污染没有影响到山东水域

Oil Spill Compensation - U.S. & China

bohai bay state compensation scheme
Bohai Bay - state compensation scheme

Oil Spill Compensation - U.S. & China

state compensation fund copc moa
State compensation fund COPC – MOA 康菲和农业部达成协议设立的国家赔偿基金
  • 2012年1月- ¥2.28 billion ($360 million)
  • 康菲和中海油将支付人民币1.683 billion
  • 1) compensation of economiclosses due to damage to natural aquatic organisms
  • 渔业赔偿
  • 2) restoration of natural fishery resources
  • 自然渔业资源

Oil Spill Compensation - U.S. & China

adequate compensation
Adequate compensation?
  • 河北乐亭县
  • 虾203 元/每亩 ($32/acre/shrimp)
  • 扇贝 236元/每亩acre ($38/acre/scallops)
  • “take it or leave it”
  • Must sign general release

Oil Spill Compensation - U.S. & China

29 hebei fishermen file joint action in tianjin maritime court november 18 2011
29 Hebei fishermen file joint action in Tianjin Maritime Court November 18, 2011
  • The only fisheries case to be “accepted” by any court 法院受理的唯一案件
  • No further action taken by court
  • 法院没有进一步行动

Oil Spill Compensation - U.S. & China

maritime courts fail to act
Maritime Courts fail to act
  • 38 other “legal teams” file law suits
  • 其他三十八个起诉没有被立案
  • Courts neither accept nor reject cases

Oil Spill Compensation - U.S. & China

most fishermen accept the money
Most fishermen accept the money
  • 大部分原告和政府达成协议
  • Give up right to sue放弃诉讼的权利

Oil Spill Compensation - U.S. & China

prc environmental protection law 1989
PRC Environmental Protection Law (1989)中华人民共和国环境保护法
  • Article 41A unit that has caused an environmental pollution hazard shall have theobligation to eliminate it and make compensation to the unit or individualthat suffered direct losses. 
  • 第四十一条 造成环境污染危害的,有责任排除危害,并对直接受到损害的单位或者个人赔偿损失。

Oil Spill Compensation - U.S. & China

slide27
海洋环境保护法 1999
  • 第七十三条 违反本法有关规定,有下列行为之一的,由依照本法规定行使海洋环境监督管理权的部门责令限期改正,并处以罚款
  • Does the ministry of agriculture have the right to decide for the fishermen?

Oil Spill Compensation - U.S. & China

slide28
民事诉讼法第112条
  • 人民法院收到起诉状或者口头起诉,经 审查,认为符合起诉条件的,应当在七日内立案,并通知当事人;认为不符合起诉条件的,应当在七日内裁定不予受理;原告对裁定不服的,可以提起上诉
  • Why do the courts not act according to this law?

Oil Spill Compensation - U.S. & China

civil procedure law 112
Civil Procedure law 112
  • When a people’s court receives a motion of complaint… if the complaint does not meet the requirements of a civil lawsuit, the court shall, within seven days, make a ruling to reject the complaint. If the plaintiff does not agree with the ruling, he may appeal on the ruling.

Oil Spill Compensation - U.S. & China

shandong fishermen s complaint in u s federal court in texas
Shandong Fishermen’s complaint in U.S. Federal Court in Texas
  • “ In China’s court system, an injured party must ask a Chinese government court for permission to bring a suit. The Shandong fishermen asked for permission to sue, but unsurprisingly, the Chinese government court has blocked the suit. ”
  • 法院不方便吗?
  • 美国公司,中国公司一样不一样?

Oil Spill Compensation - U.S. & China

slide31
美国法院应该受理中国渔民的起诉吗?
  • Cong v. COPC– 联邦法院, 休士顿, 德克萨斯 - 在康菲的总公司附近
  • Jurisdiction美国法院有管辖权?
  • Adequacy of Chinese forum
  • 中国的法律足够完善吗?
  • Forum non-conveniens
  • 美国的法院合适吗?

Oil Spill Compensation - U.S. & China

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