Mexico histories
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Mexico Histories . Mesoamerica Chronology. Paleo-Indian (50-25,000 ya - 7000 BC) hunting and gathering. Probably arrived via Bering Strait Archaic (7000 - 2300 BC )  (agricultural transition, increasingly sedentary, unlike northern Amerindians)

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Mexico Histories

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Mexico histories

Mexico Histories


Mesoamerica chronology

MesoamericaChronology

  • Paleo-Indian (50-25,000 ya - 7000 BC) hunting and gathering. Probably arrived via Bering Strait

  • Archaic (7000 - 2300 BC )  (agricultural transition, increasingly sedentary, unlike northern Amerindians)

  • Pre-classic (2300 BC - AD 250)    (Olmec culture of the Gulf coast)

    • “CULTURE HEARTH”: subsistence –> civilization

    • Closest civilization is 7,000 miles away in China

  • Classic (AD 250-900)

  • Post-Classic (AD 900-1520)


Pre columbian scalar comparisons

Pre-Columbian scalar comparisons

  • 10,000 ancient cities

  • Olmec-1200 BC: Egypt ruled by Ramses the Great. No civilization in W. Europe

  • Teotihuacan-600 AD: 200,000 pop when Constantinople had 500,000 pop

  • Tenochtitlan, Aztec capital- 16th C: 5x larger than London.


Mesoamerican culture

“Mesoamerican Culture”

  • Maize: atole, tamales, tortillas

    • Maize god central in Popol Vuh, also central for Aztecs

  • Computations, and Celestial Cycles

    • Venus

    • Zero

    • Base 20 system

  • Calendars

    • Solar Calendar—more accurate than contemporary Europe’s—like Gregorian. 18 months x 20 days+5 days

    • Sacred Round: 270 days

    • Calendar Round: 52 years

    • Long count: begins with 0 (Aug 11, 3114 BC)5000 years


Olmec culture 1200 400 bc

Olmec Culture: 1200-400 BC


Olmecs

Olmecs

  • Discovered in 19th C.

  • Dated in 1950’s

  • Heads 5-11 feet high

  • Architecture and sculpture: stone age technology

    • No pack animals, yet stone came from 30-80 miles away

    • No wheels for construction

    • Stone tools: obsidian, no metal tools

  • Trade with people in Honduras

    • Stimulated cultural growth: religions, feathered serpent deities, pyramids, ball playing, sculpture, maize


The classic period

The Classic Period

  • AD 250-900

    • Teotihuacan in Central Mexico;

    • city-states in the Maya lowlands

    • Monte Alban in southern Mexico

  • Warfare and urban collapse by the end

    • Power shifts to southern cities: Chichen Itza


Teotihuacan

Teotihuacan


Teotihuacan the place where the gods were made

Teotihuacan: “The place where the gods were made”

  • Grew during first two centuries AD60000-80,000 inhabitants

  • Eventually 125,000 (6th largest city in the world during 4th C. )

  • Extensive interaction with other Mesoamerican Indians (Tikal and Copan)

  • Controlled area the size of Belgium

  • Resource rich, but rulers are anonymous

  • No written record

  • Cataclysmic end 650-750 AD, but WHY?


Map of teo tihuacan

Map of Teo-tihuacan

http://archaeology.la.asu.edu/teo/intro/citymp2.htm


Sun pyramid

Sun Pyramid


Post classic period

Post classic period

  • AD 900 - 1520

    • Aztecs/Tenochtitlan in Central Mexico;

    • Maya highlands


Post classic aztec empire

Post-Classic: Aztec Empire

  • Emerged 1200 AD on ruins of previous cultures

    • Eclectic borrowing from Maya and Teotihuacan

  • Triple Alliance

  • Tribute as far away as Guatemala; Indirect rule.

  • Strong military

  • Rigidly classist

  • Human sacrifice (like earlier cultures)


Tenochtitlan 1325

Tenochtitlan-1325


Tenochtitlan

Tenochtitlan

  • Capital of loose confederation of city-states with 25 million pop. Area size of Italy

  • Pop. 250,000

    • 100,000 canoes

  • Engineering feats building rich farmland in lake Tenochtitlan

  • Wide bridges and causeways, gardens, zoos and aviaries

  • Clean: drainage system and nightly garbage pickup


Valley of mexico

Valley of Mexico

  • Aztec settled—ideal conditions for original plant domestication

  • Mexico City emerged here later

  • Climatic conditions:

    • 8000 feet

    • Mild temperatures

    • Fertile soils

    • Adequate water


Cortez lands

Cortez Lands:

  • 1519 Cortez lands at Veracruz

  • “I and my companions suffer from a disease of the heart that can be cured only with gold,”

  • Previously shipwrecked sailors

    • Jeronimo de Aguilar/ La Malinche

    • Gonzalo Guerrero

  • Cortez allies with Tlazcalans

  • 1521 Cortez takes the Aztec capital


Why were aztecs defeated

Why were Aztecs defeated?

  • Conquistadors:

    • European “war machine”  holy wars against Moors

    • Militant Catholicism—

      • Pope granted leadership in all dominions.

    • Driven by desire for gold

    • Better Technology

  • Aztec “Omens”—Moctezuma is indecisive

  • Different “rules of the game”

  • Internal weaknesses of Aztecs

    • Young civilizations

    • Resentful populations who had been exploited

    • Lack of immunity to European diseases: smallpox kills many


New spain 1521 1700

New Spain: 1521-1700

  • Port at Veracruz / Import of brood stocks of work animals

  • Encomienda system

  • Building of Mexico City and network of churches

  • Spain flourishes with silver

  • Mexican population decline from 12-25 million to 3 million by 1630

    • Disease

    • AbuseRefusal of baptism

    • Cultural dislocation


The church s influence

The Church’s Influence

  • Cortez recommends mendicant orders to convert natives to Catholicism: Franciscans, Dominicans, Augustinians

    • Vows of poverty; not secular priests. Humanists

    • Partial conversion: syncretic religion. “Virgin of Guadelupe”

    • Ethnography

    • Social reforms-slavery and encomienda outlawed

      • Bartholome de las Casas, Bishop of Chiapas

      • Provoked first talk of independence


Colonial legacies on the landscape

Colonial Legacies on the Landscape

  • Urban Landscapes:

    • Mexico city remade in Spanish colonial image

      • environmental problems

        • Flooding and Subsidence

        • Water supply

        • Air quality…altitude, and inversions like Denver

    • Provincial towns:

      • Plaza with church, royal palace and town hall

  • Rural Landscapes:

    • Encomienda Haciendas

      • Grazing—vaqueros

      • Agriculture supported by Debt Peonage

  • Mining:

    • 18th C. Mexico silver production = rest of world

    • Repartimento labor


  • Social legacies of new spain

    Social Legacies of New Spain

    • Social/ Racial Caste system: Enforced by law

      • White ruling class 1 million/7 million

        • Peninsulares--.3%

        • Criollos—18%

      • People of Color

        • Mestizos-11%

        • Indians—60%

        • Mulattos—10%

        • Black--.2%

  • FUSION: Intermediate class of native allies;

    • racial mixingMestizaje

    • political/governance institutions


  • Bourbon reforms 1700 1821

    Bourbon Reforms-1700-1821

    • French maneuver ruler Philip V to power

    • Modernization influenced by Enlightenment

      • Streamlined government

      • Broke up Spanish government monopoly to freer trade

      • Increased agricultural exports

    • Success encourages peninsulares to migrate

    • Racist class system remains economic growth remains in hands of white pop.

    • Tensions rise between peninsulares and criollos


    Independence

    Independence

    • Hidalgo: 1810:

      • “My children—will you free yourselves?”

      • Criollo, educated, priest, radical

      • Unwittingly fomented uprising against peninsulares

    • Criollos realize they are more like pen.than not

    • Mestizo uprising led by Jose Maria Morelos

      • Advocated end to caste system, equal rights, redistribution of church lands

    • Spain liberalizes rule in Mexico

    • Criollos alarmed by thisMilitary coup aided by church 1821: Plan de Iguala

      • Independence for everyone, constitutional monarchy, officially catholic, Iturbide installed as Emperor


    Years of chaos 1823 1876

    Years of Chaos: 1823-1876

    • Feuds and Class differences: 50 govs in 40 years

    • No social reforns

    • Losers and Heroes

      • Emperor Iturbide: (1823-1833) “distinguished for his immorality”and devastation of the fragile economy

        • The Gadsden Purchase

      • Santa Anna: 11 x in office: retreated to hacienda only to pop up to make matters worse

        • The Alamo 1835

        • Peace treaty: traded Texan independence for his life

      • Mexican American War


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