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Unit 3 Culture and Strategy. Risk Management and Strategic Planning. Reading. Objectives. After studying this chapter and related materials you should be able to understand: Culture, difference and reproduction Organisational culture Cultural web

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Presentation Transcript
objectives
Objectives
  • After studying this chapter and related materials you should be able to understand:
    • Culture, difference and reproduction
    • Organisational culture
    • Cultural web
  • and critically evaluate, explain and apply the above concepts.
discussion point
Discussion Point

What is Culture?

Why is organisational culture important??

case study 3 the walt disney company
Larry Lynch of the Disney Institute, Walt Disney World, Florida, explains the role of the WDC “university” in inducting new staff:

“… it all begins the day new Cast Members arrive for orientation at Disney University, the company\'s internal training operation. The timing couldn\'t be better to show them how our company thinks, to offer concrete examples of how creativity and innovation have helped us grow, and to emphasize how our ongoing traditions have been the steady hand that guides us. Those traditions are pointed out again when new Cast Members are introduced to their assigned workplaces. As they learn the culture of the company, they recognize the traditions in the standard operating procedures and established norms of their work areas…”

Case Study 3: The Walt Disney Company
organisational culture
Organisational culture refers to organisational beliefs, values and attitudes (Schein, 1985; Martin and Siehl, 1983).

It describes out the way things are done in a particular organisation and forms the basis for the rules of acceptable and unacceptable behaviour. Organisational culture is thus the arbiter of organisational norms and it therefore acts as a powerful force in encouraging or frustrating the emergence of new missions and strategies. This is particularly so where culture is deeply embedded.

The term cultural web (Johnson and Scholes 1993) is a useful device for highlighting the different strands of an organisation\'s culture - symbols, rituals, stories and power, which add up to a paradigm - an agreed way of going about things.

Organisational Culture
mission and culture
Cultural variance between countries in which tourism organisations operate can be understood by reference to differences in:

attitudes to authority

attitudes to work and leisure

beliefs including religion and materialism

traditions

pursuit of individual or community goals

definitions of good and bad, worthy and unworthy (the moral and ethical system)

sources of status

Cultural norms are transmitted by and changed by

the family

education

mass media

the arts

government

Mission and Culture
reproduction and path dependency
Cultural reproduction (Bourdieu, 1973) refers to the way in which culture (including values, attitudes, goals, and practices) is maintained over time and transmitted from one generation to the next.

Acculturation refers to the process by which new members are inducted into the value systems of a culture.

Path dependency occurs when certain decisions and events create paths or routes into the future and exert long term effects on subsequent decisions and events.

Reproduction and Path Dependency
the cultural web
A cultural web (Johnson et al., 2008) is a useful device for highlighting the different strands of an organisation\'s culture. These include:

symbols

rituals and routines

stories

power structures and organisational structures

control systems

The Cultural Web
cultural types
Defenders

Conservative

seek security

Cautious

avoid change

Inflexible

set in their ways

reactive

Prospectors

outward-looking

responsive to environment

daring

opportunistic

flexible

adaptive

proactive

Cultural Types

Miles and Snow (1978) distinguish between defender types, and prospector types of cultures in organisations.

task 1
Task 1

Prepare Vision, Mission and Objectives for your organisation

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