What why for whom how social protection objectives and policy design
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What, why, for whom, how? Social protection objectives and policy design . ‘Social Protection Framework for GMS Cooperation’ – ADB GMS PPP Learning Program 2013 Asia Development Institute (ADI) Graduate School of Public Administration, Seoul National University Seoul, 7-12 July 2013

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What why for whom how social protection objectives and policy design

What, why, for whom, how?Social protection objectives and policy design

‘Social Protection Framework for GMS Cooperation’ –

ADB GMS PPP Learning Program 2013

Asia Development Institute (ADI)

Graduate School of Public Administration, Seoul National University

Seoul, 7-12 July 2013

Gabriele Köhler, development economist, Munich

8 July 2013



I) Some definitions

  • The interest in social protection

  • Types of social protection: social security, social assistance, active labour market policies, micro-based credit programmes, child protection

    II) Reasons for social protection

  • Social protection as a right

  • Social protection to address hunger, poverty, exclusion and vulnerabilities

    III) Designs of social protection

  • Social protection systems

  • Financing

  • “Policy construction”

    IV) Outlook: Ideal social protection

Guiding questions

Guiding Questions

  • 1)Please enumerate (in bullet points) the national development strategies and policies for social protection of your country (both current and future).

  • 2)What are the issues and constraints related to the effective functioning of the social protection system?

  • 3)What are the strengths and weaknesses of the current social protection system related to institutional arrangements, financing, coverage, and the instruments and approaches used?

  • 4)Are there plans for reforms or expansions of the current social protection system?

  • 5)Would your country social protection system include protection of migrant workers?

I some definitions

I. Some definitions

Social protection classification

Social protection classification

Social protection classification1

Social protection classification

What why for whom how social protection objectives and policy design

Unconditional Cash Transfers in Sub-Saharan Africa

Keys examples in asia and pacific

Keys examples in Asia and Pacific

  • Employment-based targeted schemes: India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Solomon Islands

  • Conditional Cash Transfers: Philippines, Indonesia

  • ‘Universal’ health systems: Thailand, China, Philippines

  • Universal pension schemes: Nepal

  • Child benefit – targeted: India, Nepal

What why for whom how social protection objectives and policy design

Social protection example

South Asia







Affirmative action

Human rights

  • National Rural Employment Guarantee (IND)

  • Employment Generation Programme for the Poorest (BGD)

  • Karnali Programme; Employment Guarantee Act (NPL)

  • Employment generation for rural unskilled workers (PAK)

  • Right to food/National Food Security Act (IND)

  • Mid-day meal (IND)

  • Right to education (all)

  • Right to health services (all)

  • Right to work (IND)

  • Right to information (IND, BGD, NPL)

  • Cooked school meals (IND)

  • Subsidized PDS (IND, NPL, BGD)

  • Subsidized grain prices

  • Universal old age pension (NPL)

  • Benazir Income Support Program (PAK)

  • Child benefit (NPL)

  • Unorganized sector health insurance (IND)

  • Secondary school stipend for girls (BGD)

  • Education for all (NPL)

  • Child grants for girls (IND)

  • Rural development and community based interventions (IND)

Ii reasons for social protection

II) Reasons for social protection

Right to social protection

Right to Social Protection

Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948):

Article 22:

  • Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security.

    International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

    (1966): Article 9:

  • The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone to social security, including social insurance.

Right to social protection1

Right to Social Protection

Convention on the Eradication of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) (1979): Articles 11(e), 13(a), 14(c)

  • The right to social security, particularly in cases of retirement, unemployment, sickness, invalidity and old age and other incapacity to work, as well as the right to paid leave;

  • The right to family benefits;

  • Taking into account the particular problems faced by rural women and the significant roles which rural women play in the economic survival of their families … (c) To benefit directly from social security programmes.

    The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) (1989): Article 26:

  • For every child the right to benefit from social security, including social insurance, and necessary measures to achieve the full realization of this right in accordance with national law.

    Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) (2006): Article 28(b)

  • To ensure access by persons with disabilities, in particular women and girls with disabilities and older persons with disabilities, to social protection programmes and poverty reduction programmes.

Right to social protection2

Right to Social Protection

ILO Convention C102: Social Security (Minimum Standards) Convention, 1952

  • Outlines rights to benefits for residents of a country: accident, illness, unemployment, maternity, old age

    ILO Recommendation R202: Social Protection Floor 2012

  • Four income “guarantees”: children, poor, elderly, health

What why for whom how social protection objectives and policy design


Voluntary insuranceunder government regulation

level of protection

Social security benefitsof guaranteed levels

Social Protection Floor:Access to essential health care and basic income security for all



individual/household income


ILO’s two-dimensional strategy for the extension of social security: Building comprehensive social security systems

extension strategy

  • Verticaldimension:progressivelyensuringhigherlevels of protection, guidedby Convention No.102 and moreadvancedstandards

floor level

Outcomes can be guaranteed through different means – there is no one-size-fits-all

Social Protection Floor Recommendation, adopted at ILC 2012

  • Horizontal dimension:Guaranteeingaccess to essential healthcareand minimumincomesecurityfor all, guidedbyRecommendation No. 202

Asia pacific people deprived

Asia-Pacific: people deprived

Source: Asia-Pacific Regional MDG report 2011/12 (ESCAP/ADB/UNDP)

Unequal progress in asia pacific

Unequal progress in Asia-Pacific

Source: Asia-Pacific Regional MDG report 2011/12 (ESCAP/ADB/UNDP)

What why for whom how social protection objectives and policy design

Food inequalities

Causes of under five deaths in 2008

Causes of under-five deaths in 2008

Income poverty

Income poverty

  • Absolute number and share of extremely poor people has declined since 1990 globally

  • But: number of extremely poor increased in Africa and South Asia

    • $1.25 per personday income poverty measure

  • Number of poor and vulnerable people

    • under $1.25: 1.2 billion persons globally

    • Under $2: 2.5 billion persons globally

The great recession

The Great Recession

Working children ages 5 11 5 14 in percent of age cohort

WorkingChildren Ages 5-11 & 5-14 in percent of age cohort

Working poverty

Working poverty

Disasters and conflict

Disasters and conflict

What why for whom how social protection objectives and policy design


Social exclusions –

manifest in every society

  • Income/economic class

  • Ethnicity

  • Religion

  • Language

  • Caste/clan

  • Age

  • Widowhood, orphan-hood

  • Geographic location/urban versus rural

  • Citizenship and migration status

  • Health condition/communicable/visible diseases

  • Ability/disability

  • Menstruation

  • Sexual orientation

  • Recurrent emergency situations

  • Conflict situation

  • Looks

Iii systems

III. Systems

  • Most countries have social assistance programmes

  • Some are large

  • Most are fragmented

  • Most are separated from social insurance

    • Need to build a system of social protection

Low coverage rates old age pension coverage

Low coverage rates: Old age pension coverage

Low coverage rates unemployment protection old age pension coverage

Low coverage rates: unemployment protectionOld age pension coverage

Systems approaches

Systems approaches

Indonesia family based social assistance programmes

Indonesia: family-based social assistance programmes

Philippines objectives of the conditional cash transfer

Philippines: objectives of the conditional cash transfer

Selection Procedures of Target Households

  • To raise the average consumption rate in food expenditure of poor households

  • To increase the enrollment in and attendance rate of children in school

  • To improve preventive health care among pregnant women and young children

  • To reduce the incidence of child labor

  • To encourage parents to invest in their children’s (and their own) human capital through investments in their health and nutrition, education, and participation in community activities

Geographical Targeting

Household Assessment (Enumeration)

Selection of Poor Beneficiaries using Proxy Means Test

Eligibility Check

System building design components

System building: design components

  • Universal for some types of social assistance (pensions, child grants)

  • Targeted for other types – by income levels, identity groups, disadvantaged regions

  • Conditional on behaviours

  • Unconditional

What why for whom how social protection objectives and policy design

Indonesia: national targeting system

  • The National Targeting System identifies and chooses beneficiaries (households, individuals, etc.) of targeted poverty reduction or social protection programs.



  • Past system: each program has its own list of targeting system

  • Now gradually moves into unified targeting system

  • Minimizing inclusion & exclusion errors


of Programs


of Programs



  • actuarial calculations of population trends

  • trends for beneficiary entitlements over time

  • estimating the required budget, revenue collection

  • negotiating fiscal space to reliably fund social protection over the long term



Annual costs of social protection programmes middle income countries

Annual costs of social protection programmes– middle income countries

Social protection expenditures in of gdp 75 low income countries

Social protection expendituresin % of GDP, 75 low-income countries

What why for whom how social protection objectives and policy design

Vietnam example: developing a social protection floor

System building social protection policy construction

System building: social protection policy construction

  • Define policy principles and objectives

  • build coalitions or a social compact

  • agree on “bottom-up” or “top-down” approach

  • create and adopt the necessary legislation

  • recognise and seize policy moments

Social protection policy construction

Social protection policy construction

Iv outlook ideal social protection


Rights 7 th asean go ngo forum for social welfare and development


  • Everyone, especially vulnerable, entitled to equal access to social protection covering essential services;

  • Access to social protection – a human right to be promoted, protected and fulfilled;

  • Universality of protection based on social solidarity, non- discrimination, accessibility, gender equality, social inclusiveness, coherence, accountability, collective financing and risk pooling;

  • Implementation of SPF is part of national strategies towards higher level of protection;

  • Investment in people to empower them and adjust to changes in the economy and labour markets;

  • Cross-cutting issue, needs coordinated and holistic approaches;

  • Family unit is an important element in support to the vulnerable;

  • Governments, communities, civil society, private sector and social partners - key stakeholders;

  • Inclusive, participatory and rights-based approach in planning, programming and budgeting, implementation, M&E.

Mdgs 2002 2015

MDGs 2002-2015

Sdgs mdgs beyond 2015 five transformative shifts

SDGs/MDGs beyond 2015:“five transformative shifts”

1. Leave no one behind.

2. Put sustainable development at the core.

3. Transform economies for jobs and inclusive growth.

4. Build peace and effective, open and accountable institutions for all.

5. From vision to action.

Ideal social protection


  • Rights based - Universal right/universal coverage

  • Citizenship- or residents-based

  • Coherence with other policy areas

  • Accompanied by supply side measures (social services, health and education)

  • Accompanied by decent work policy & action

    • Addresses crises, chronic poverty, vulnerabilities, inequalities, social exclusion

    • Well-targeted and publicised entitlements and special efforts to reach disadvantaged households/communities

  • Sustainable, predictable, meaningful benefit levels

  • Affordable and long-term sustainability

  • Tax financed, linking social protection reform and tax reform

  • Empowerment: guaranteeing space for civil society and public action

  • Built on notion of social solidarity

  • Advanced IT

  • Monitoring & evaluation systems

  • Transparency and right to information

    • Accountability and complaint and appeals mechanisms

    • Systemic – uniting fragmented programmes systems

    • Legally binding



ADB Blog on social protection. http://blogs.adb.org/author/social-protection-team

ADB 2001. Social protection in Asia and the Pacific. Isabel Ortiz, editor. Manila

ADB 2008. Social protection index for committed poverty reduction. Manila.

ASEAN 2012. RECOMMENDATIONS. THE SEVENTH ASEAN GO-NGO FORUM FOR SOCIAL WELFARE AND DEVELOPMENT “Promoting Social Services and Social Protection for Vulnerable Groups” . 12 September 2012, Ha Noi, Viet Nam. www.socialsecurityextension.org/gimi/gess/RessFileDownload.do

Bachelet Michelle 2011. Social protection floor for a fair and inclusive globalization. Report of the Advisory Group. ILO 2011. http://www.ilo.org/global/about-­‐the-­‐ ilo/press-­‐and-­‐media-­‐centre/news/WCMS_166292/lang-­‐-­‐en/index.htm

Barrientos, Armando , Miguel Niño-Zarazú and MathildeMaitrot Brooks 2010. Social Assistance in Developing Countries Database. Version 5.0 July 2010. World Poverty Institute. The University of Manchester. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1672090

Centre for Social Protection 2013. Talking Point on Systems of Social Protection, CSP Newsletter 23, February 2013, IDS. By Gabriele Köhler. http://www.ids.ac.uk/files/dmfile/CSPNewsletter23formattedFinal2.pdf.

ESCAP, 2011. The promise of protection. Social Protection and development in Asia and the Pacific. Bangkok


Hickey, Sam 2008. Conceptualising the politics of social protection in Africa. In A. Barrientos & D. Hulme (Eds.), Social Protection for the Poor and Poorest: Concepts, Policies and Politics. London: Palgrave. Holmes, R. (2008). Child Poverty: a role for cash transfers?

Resources cont d

Resources cont´d

ILO 2012. Social Protection Floors Recommendation, 2012 (No. 202)http://www.social-protection.org/gimi/gess/RessShowRessource.do?ressourceId=31088

ILO 2012. Social protection floors for social justice and a fair globalization. Report IV (1) . Geneva ILC.101/IV/http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/secsoc/downloads/policy/rapiven.pdf

 ILO GESS website http://www.social-protection.org/gimi/gess

ISSA. International Social Security Association. http://www.issa.int/Observatory/Country-Profiles

Köhler, G. Cali M., Stirbu M., Social Protection in South Asia. A Review. UNICEF Regional Office for South Asia. http://www.unicef.org/socialpolicy/files/social_protection_in_south_asia_-_a_review_-_unicef_rosa_2009.pdf

Koehler, G. (2013) ‘Social protection: Political reform and policy innovations in South Asia’, in K. Bender, M. Kaltenborn and C. Pfleiderer (eds) Social Protection in Developing Countries. Reforming Systems, Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 185-94.

UNICEF, 2012. Integrated Social Protection Systems: Enhancing Equity for Children. UNICEF Social Protection Strategic Framework . http://www.unicef.org/socialprotection/framework/files/Consultation_Report_THEMATIC-External_Consultation_(PHASE_2)-MARCH2012.pdf

World Bank 2012. Resilience, Opportunity and Equity. The World Bank’s Social Protection and Labor Strategy 2012–2022. www.worldbank.org

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