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CHE 113. FORENSIC ANTHROPOLOGY A Very Brief Overview. Thanks to help from Prof. Ann Bunch, SUNY Oswego. Forensic Anthropology Brief Overview. Defined as “the field of study that deals with the analysis of human skeletal remains resulting from unexplained deaths.”

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Forensic anthropology a very brief overview

CHE 113

FORENSIC ANTHROPOLOGYA Very Brief Overview

Thanks to help from

Prof. Ann Bunch, SUNY Oswego


Forensic anthropology brief overview
Forensic AnthropologyBrief Overview

  • Defined as “the field of study that deals with the analysis of human skeletal remains resulting from unexplained deaths.”

  • Often done in a legal context

  • An applied science

  • Five subdisciplines:

    • 1. Biological, or physical anthropology

    • 2. Archaeology

    • 3. Cultural anthropology

    • 4. Linguistics

    • 5. Applied anthropology


Forensic anthropology
Forensic Anthropology

Goal: Biological Profile

Includes:

1. General Description

2. Sex of decedent

3. Age of decedent

4. Ancestry of decedent

5. Stature of decedent

6. Assessment of trauma

(ante-, peri-, post mortem)

7. Pathologies noted


Osteology study of skeletal remains
Osteology: study of skeletal remains

Each bone studied INDIVIDUALLY

206 Skeletal Bones (total)


Osteology study of skeletal remains1
Osteology: study of skeletal remains

Each bone studied INDIVIDUALLY


Osteology
Osteology

Human bone –vs- Animal bone

Macroscopic differences

Radiology

Observation

Measurement

Microscopic differences




Macroscopic differences
Macroscopic differences

Baboon femur

Human femur


Microscopic differences
Microscopic differences

human

Spongy bone

mouse


Osteology3
Osteology

Radiographs


Information from skeletal remains sex of decedent
Information from skeletal remains Sex of decedent

Skull

Hip bone Femur


Information from skeletal remains sex of decedent1
Information from skeletal remains Sex of decedent

http://medlib.med.utah.edu/kw/osteo/forensics/sasta.html


Information from skeletal remains sex of decedent2
Information from skeletal remainsSex of decedent

MALE OR FEMALE SKELETON?

(a) IS FEMALE and (b) IS MALE

Handout


Information from skeletal remains sex of decedent3
Information from skeletal remainsSex of decedent

Male

MALE OR FEMALE SKELETON?

(a) IS FEMALE and (b) IS MALE

Female


Information from skeletal remains sex of decedent4
Information from skeletal remains Sex of decedent

http://medlib.med.utah.edu/kw/osteo/forensics/sasta.html


What can we learn from skeletons age at death
What can we learn from skeletons? Age at Death

Hip bone most useful for adults

Estimate given as a range

(30 – 35 yrs old)

Teeth: Erupted or Not?

Epiphyses: fused or unfused?

Auricular surface

Pubic symphysis


Age at death long bone development
Age at DeathLong Bone Development


Age at Death

http://medlib.med.utah.edu/kw/osteo/forensics/sasta.html


Age at Death

http://medlib.med.utah.edu/kw/osteo/forensics/sasta.html


Osteology4
Osteology

Teeth also studied

Deciduous –vs- Permanent


Age at Death

http://medlib.med.utah.edu/kw/osteo/forensics/sasta.html


Epiphyses - A part of bone separated from the main body of the bone by a layer of cartilage and subsequently uniting with the bone through further ossification

Unfused = juvenile

Fused = adult


Spine
Spine the bone by a layer of cartilage and subsequently uniting with the bone through further ossification


More info from skeletal remains
More info from skeletal remains the bone by a layer of cartilage and subsequently uniting with the bone through further ossification

ANCESTRY of decedent

Difficult determination to make

Facial bones most important

Nasal aperture

Teeth

Interorbital space

Mandible


Stature estimate
Stature estimate the bone by a layer of cartilage and subsequently uniting with the bone through further ossification

Measure long bone(s) available

Plug in value to formula

Range established for stature of decedent

5’ 2” – 5’ 5”


Other information trauma and pathologies
Other information the bone by a layer of cartilage and subsequently uniting with the bone through further ossificationTRAUMA and PATHOLOGIES

Ante- mortem

Post-mortem

Peri-mortem

Gunshot


Trauma
Trauma the bone by a layer of cartilage and subsequently uniting with the bone through further ossification


Individual identification
Individual Identification the bone by a layer of cartilage and subsequently uniting with the bone through further ossification

Person identified when it was found that the amalgam used in her dental restorations was of a type found only in specific areas on the Eastern Coast of the United States.

Habitual activity can wear away the protective, cartilagenous lining which reduces friction in joints. The humerus in this photograph were in contact for many years prior to this individual's death. The surfaces are smooth and shiny, indicating that the joint capsule and cartilage had worn away, allowing bone on bone contact in the cavity.

http://medlib.med.utah.edu/kw/osteo/forensics/sasta.html


Individual identification1
Individual Identification the bone by a layer of cartilage and subsequently uniting with the bone through further ossification

Dental implants, braces, and other types of dental work are often recovered with a body and are extremely useful in identification because they are so unique to the individual and are well detailed in antemortem radiographs and medical records.

Healed fracture on the sternal end of a midthoracic rib. The area within the red brackets is the site of injury. Note the more porous appearance of the bone in this area - this is woven bone.

http://medlib.med.utah.edu/kw/osteo/forensics/sasta.html


Case study
Case Study the bone by a layer of cartilage and subsequently uniting with the bone through further ossification

From Prof. Ann Bunch

SUNY Oswego

September 1999 Tourist Aircraft Crash on the Big Island of Hawaii


Big island aircraft crash
Big Island Aircraft Crash the bone by a layer of cartilage and subsequently uniting with the bone through further ossification

Piper Aircraft with 9 passengers, 1 pilot


Big island aircraft crash1
Big Island Aircraft Crash the bone by a layer of cartilage and subsequently uniting with the bone through further ossification

Aircraft’s path prior to crash & location of crash


Big island aircraft crash2
Big Island Aircraft Crash the bone by a layer of cartilage and subsequently uniting with the bone through further ossification

NTSB determination of cause = pilot error


Big island aircraft crash3
Big Island Aircraft Crash the bone by a layer of cartilage and subsequently uniting with the bone through further ossification


Big island aircraft crash4
Big Island Aircraft Crash the bone by a layer of cartilage and subsequently uniting with the bone through further ossification


Big island aircraft crash5
Big Island Aircraft Crash the bone by a layer of cartilage and subsequently uniting with the bone through further ossification

Document remains

present


Big island aircraft crash6
Big Island Aircraft Crash the bone by a layer of cartilage and subsequently uniting with the bone through further ossification

X-ray all remains/

Possible remains


Big island aircraft crash7
Big Island Aircraft Crash the bone by a layer of cartilage and subsequently uniting with the bone through further ossification


Big island aircraft crash8
Big Island Aircraft Crash the bone by a layer of cartilage and subsequently uniting with the bone through further ossification

Personal effects and

identification


Big island aircraft crash9
Big Island Aircraft Crash the bone by a layer of cartilage and subsequently uniting with the bone through further ossification

Identification “by

exclusion”

Osteoarthritis


Big island aircraft crash10
Big Island Aircraft Crash the bone by a layer of cartilage and subsequently uniting with the bone through further ossification


Big island aircraft crash11
Big Island Aircraft Crash the bone by a layer of cartilage and subsequently uniting with the bone through further ossification

Sorting out commingling


Other Types of Evidence the bone by a layer of cartilage and subsequently uniting with the bone through further ossification

Wreckage fragments

Wreckage in situ


Federal government cases
Federal Government Cases the bone by a layer of cartilage and subsequently uniting with the bone through further ossification

From Prof. Ann Bunch

SUNY Oswego

Ha Tay Province, Socialist Republic of Vietnam

1995-1996 Recovery Mission


1972 b 52 crash site
1972 B-52 Crash Site the bone by a layer of cartilage and subsequently uniting with the bone through further ossification

Christmas Bombing of Hanoi, Operation “Rolling Thunder”


Witness interviews
Witness interviews the bone by a layer of cartilage and subsequently uniting with the bone through further ossification


1972 b 52 crash site1
1972 B-52 Crash Site the bone by a layer of cartilage and subsequently uniting with the bone through further ossification

Pond after draining


B 52 crash site
B-52 Crash Site the bone by a layer of cartilage and subsequently uniting with the bone through further ossification

Surrounding terrain


The “Bottomless Pit” the bone by a layer of cartilage and subsequently uniting with the bone through further ossification


Wet-screening stations the bone by a layer of cartilage and subsequently uniting with the bone through further ossification


Wet-screening stations in operation the bone by a layer of cartilage and subsequently uniting with the bone through further ossification


Progress after one field activity
Progress after one field activity the bone by a layer of cartilage and subsequently uniting with the bone through further ossification

Test Pit

Test Pit


6 weeks progress
6 weeks’ progress the bone by a layer of cartilage and subsequently uniting with the bone through further ossification


6 weeks progress1
6 weeks’ progress the bone by a layer of cartilage and subsequently uniting with the bone through further ossification


Recovery continues
Recovery continues the bone by a layer of cartilage and subsequently uniting with the bone through further ossification


Focal point of recovery
Focal point of recovery the bone by a layer of cartilage and subsequently uniting with the bone through further ossification


Evidence
Evidence the bone by a layer of cartilage and subsequently uniting with the bone through further ossification


Final view of excavation
Final View of Excavation the bone by a layer of cartilage and subsequently uniting with the bone through further ossification


More evidence
More Evidence the bone by a layer of cartilage and subsequently uniting with the bone through further ossification


More evidence1
More evidence the bone by a layer of cartilage and subsequently uniting with the bone through further ossification


Case status
Case Status the bone by a layer of cartilage and subsequently uniting with the bone through further ossification

  • Remains of tail gunner identified with mtDNA

  • Captain’s rank insignia recovered from site = presence of second MIA?

  • Family of tail gunner not willing to accept ID until more solid evidence of other MIA is found/presented

  • Prof. Ann Bunch, SUNY Oswego


Harper bone kennedy
Harper Bone/Kennedy the bone by a layer of cartilage and subsequently uniting with the bone through further ossification

Found the day after the assassination 25 ft. from the car path in the Plaza.

Believed to be a parietal bone

mcadams.posc.mu.edu/ harper.htm


Harper bone kennedy1
Harper Bone/Kennedy the bone by a layer of cartilage and subsequently uniting with the bone through further ossification

Believed to be a parietal bone

mcadams.posc.mu.edu/ harper.htm


Harper bone kennedy2
Harper Bone the bone by a layer of cartilage and subsequently uniting with the bone through further ossification- Kennedy


Forensic anthropology1
Forensic Anthropology the bone by a layer of cartilage and subsequently uniting with the bone through further ossification

  • http://www.crimelibrary.com/criminal_mind/forensics/anthropology/1.html

  • http://www.forensicanthro.com/

  • http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/biology/forensics/index.shtml


Forensic anthropology conclusions and summary
Forensic Anthropology the bone by a layer of cartilage and subsequently uniting with the bone through further ossificationConclusions and Summary

1. General Description

2. Sex of decedent

3. Age of decedent

4. Ancestry of decedent

5. Stature of decedent

6. Assessment of trauma

(ante-, peri-, post mortem)

7. Pathologies noted

Exclusionary and identification evidence

Class and individual evidence


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