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Course Part 3. Various Topics. Course Organization. Part 3 Scheduling Project Management Product and Service Design Process Selection and Layout Design of Work Systems Facility location. Chapter 15 - Scheduling.

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Course Part 3

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Course part 3 l.jpg

Course Part 3

Various Topics

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley


Course organization l.jpg

Course Organization

  • Part 3

    • Scheduling

    • Project Management

    • Product and Service Design

    • Process Selection and Layout

    • Design of Work Systems

    • Facility location

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley


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Chapter 15 - Scheduling

Terminology, lead time, priority rules, theory of constraints (discussed in Capacity), volume considerations

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley


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Volume considerations

  • High volume (repetitive, cont. flow)

    • Flow-shop scheduling (rate based)

  • Intermediate volume (job/repetitive)

    • Mixed model scheduling

  • Low volume (job)

    • Operation scheduling (forward/backward/

      midpoint)

    • Synchronized scheduling

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley


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Low Volume Scheduling

Job Shops

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley


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Elements of Lead Time

  • Queue – job waiting to be worked on (jobs with higher priority are ahead)

  • Setup – Making the machine or workplace ready to work on a job

  • Run – performing the required action to complete an operation on a job

  • Wait – awaiting a move to the next operation / work center or the stockroom

  • Move (transit) – time moving to next operation / work center or stockroom

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley


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Lead time elements

Queue SetupRun Wait Move

|----------------|--------|------------|------|-----|

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley


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Scheduling Terminology

  • Operation – a discrete step or task, one of a number required to make an item

  • Workstation – a specific machine oremployee work space

  • Workcenter – a machine grouping or work grouping used for scheduling and costing

  • Routing – a sequenced list of operations, with associated work centers

  • Job – an order to produce a specific quantity of an item with a specific start and/or due date

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley


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Sequence of operations

Q S R W M

|-----|----|------|---|---| Q S R W M

Seq 010 |-----|----|-------|---|---|

Seq 020

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley


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Loading and Scheduling

  • Loading – assigning jobs to work centers

  • Infinite vs. finite loading and scheduling

    • Infinite – ignored capacity constraints

    • Finite – considers capacity constraints

  • Forward vs. backward scheduling (+midpt)

    • Forward – start with start date, determine due date

    • Backward – start with due date, determine start date

    • Midpoint – from current date, determine revised due date

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley


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Sequencing and Dispatching

  • Sequencing – determining the sequence of processing jobs at a work center

  • Priorityrules – rules used in sequencing (see later overhead)

  • Dispatchlist – authorized sequence list

  • Input-OutputAnalysis – monitoring the flow of work into and out of work centers to assure a steady flow and to identify problem areas

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley


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Sequencing & Priority Rules

  • FCFS – first come, first served

  • SPT – shortest processing time

  • EDD – earliestdue date

  • CR – critical ratio

    • (time remaining / processing time)

    • Time remaining = (due date – “now” date)

  • S/O – slack per remaining operation

  • ESD – earliest start date

  • Other – favorite customer, “hot” job, etc.

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley


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Charts

  • Gantt – visual (bar chart) representation of schedule and actual performance

    • Load – Gantt chart showing load and idle time for a machine or work center by time period

    • Schedule – Gantt chart showing the progress of jobs by time period

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley


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PerformanceMeasures

  • Job Flow Time

    • Time at a workstation, work center, or plant

    • Includes Q,S,R,W,M

  • Average Flow Time (group of jobs)

    • Sum of flow times for n jobs / n

  • Job Lateness

    • Expected due date – original due date

  • Makespan (group of jobs)

    • From start of first job to end of last job

  • Average number of jobs (group of jobs)

    • Total flow time / Makespan

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley


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Other Related Activities - 1

  • Dispatching

  • Expediting

    • Queue compression

    • Lot splitting

    • Job overlapping

    • “Stop what you’re doing and work on this!” BAD!!

  • Synchronized scheduling

    • Timing of production meshed with use rate

    • Example: bakery oven

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley


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Other Related Activities - 2

  • Input-OutputAnalysis

    • Monitoring the flow of work into and out of work centers to assure a steady flow and to identify problem areas

    • Reports the following:

      • Input for the period

      • Output for the period

      • Queue change

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley


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High Volume Scheduling

Repetitive and Continuous Flow

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley


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Rate Based Scheduling

  • Schedule by quantity per

    • Month,

    • Week,

    • Day,

    • Shift

  • Limited number of items

  • Seek to achieve flow

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley


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Intermediate Volume Scheduling

Bridge Between Job Shop and Repetitive Operations

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley


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Mixed Model Scheduling

  • Interspersing different models

    • Alternative to producing longer runs of each model

  • Look for:

    • Lowest ratio and

    • Most repetitive mix

  • Bicycle example

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley


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Service Operations

  • Appointment book (e.g., dentist)

  • Reservations (e.g., airlines)

  • Scheduling multiple resources

  • Managing capacity

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley


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