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Course Part 3. Various Topics. Course Organization . Part 3 Scheduling Project Management Product and Service Design Process Selection and Layout Design of Work Systems Facility location. Chapter 15 - Scheduling.

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course part 3

Course Part 3

Various Topics

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley

course organization
Course Organization
  • Part 3
    • Scheduling
    • Project Management
    • Product and Service Design
    • Process Selection and Layout
    • Design of Work Systems
    • Facility location

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley

chapter 15 scheduling

Chapter 15 - Scheduling

Terminology, lead time, priority rules, theory of constraints (discussed in Capacity), volume considerations

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley

volume considerations
Volume considerations
  • High volume (repetitive, cont. flow)
    • Flow-shop scheduling (rate based)
  • Intermediate volume (job/repetitive)
    • Mixed model scheduling
  • Low volume (job)
    • Operation scheduling (forward/backward/

midpoint)

    • Synchronized scheduling

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley

low volume scheduling

Low Volume Scheduling

Job Shops

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley

elements of lead time
Elements of Lead Time
  • Queue – job waiting to be worked on (jobs with higher priority are ahead)
  • Setup – Making the machine or workplace ready to work on a job
  • Run – performing the required action to complete an operation on a job
  • Wait – awaiting a move to the next operation / work center or the stockroom
  • Move (transit) – time moving to next operation / work center or stockroom

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley

lead time elements
Lead time elements

Queue Setup Run Wait Move

|----------------|--------|------------|------|-----|

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley

scheduling terminology
Scheduling Terminology
  • Operation – a discrete step or task, one of a number required to make an item
  • Workstation – a specific machine oremployee work space
  • Workcenter – a machine grouping or work grouping used for scheduling and costing
  • Routing – a sequenced list of operations, with associated work centers
  • Job – an order to produce a specific quantity of an item with a specific start and/or due date

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley

sequence of operations
Sequence of operations

Q S R W M

|-----|----|------|---|---| Q S R W M

Seq 010 |-----|----|-------|---|---|

Seq 020

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley

loading and scheduling
Loading and Scheduling
  • Loading – assigning jobs to work centers
  • Infinite vs. finite loading and scheduling
    • Infinite – ignored capacity constraints
    • Finite – considers capacity constraints
  • Forward vs. backward scheduling (+midpt)
    • Forward – start with start date, determine due date
    • Backward – start with due date, determine start date
    • Midpoint – from current date, determine revised due date

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley

sequencing and dispatching
Sequencing and Dispatching
  • Sequencing – determining the sequence of processing jobs at a work center
  • Priorityrules – rules used in sequencing (see later overhead)
  • Dispatchlist – authorized sequence list
  • Input-OutputAnalysis – monitoring the flow of work into and out of work centers to assure a steady flow and to identify problem areas

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley

sequencing priority rules
Sequencing & Priority Rules
  • FCFS – first come, first served
  • SPT – shortest processing time
  • EDD – earliestdue date
  • CR – critical ratio
    • (time remaining / processing time)
    • Time remaining = (due date – “now” date)
  • S/O – slack per remaining operation
  • ESD – earliest start date
  • Other – favorite customer, “hot” job, etc.

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley

charts
Charts
  • Gantt – visual (bar chart) representation of schedule and actual performance
    • Load – Gantt chart showing load and idle time for a machine or work center by time period
    • Schedule – Gantt chart showing the progress of jobs by time period

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley

performance measures
PerformanceMeasures
  • Job Flow Time
    • Time at a workstation, work center, or plant
    • Includes Q,S,R,W,M
  • Average Flow Time (group of jobs)
    • Sum of flow times for n jobs / n
  • Job Lateness
    • Expected due date – original due date
  • Makespan (group of jobs)
    • From start of first job to end of last job
  • Average number of jobs (group of jobs)
    • Total flow time / Makespan

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley

other related activities 1
Other Related Activities - 1
  • Dispatching
  • Expediting
    • Queue compression
    • Lot splitting
    • Job overlapping
    • “Stop what you’re doing and work on this!” BAD!!
  • Synchronized scheduling
    • Timing of production meshed with use rate
    • Example: bakery oven

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley

other related activities 2
Other Related Activities - 2
  • Input-OutputAnalysis
    • Monitoring the flow of work into and out of work centers to assure a steady flow and to identify problem areas
    • Reports the following:
      • Input for the period
      • Output for the period
      • Queue change

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley

high volume scheduling

High Volume Scheduling

Repetitive and Continuous Flow

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley

rate based scheduling
Rate Based Scheduling
  • Schedule by quantity per
    • Month,
    • Week,
    • Day,
    • Shift
  • Limited number of items
  • Seek to achieve flow

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley

intermediate volume scheduling

Intermediate Volume Scheduling

Bridge Between Job Shop and Repetitive Operations

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley

mixed model scheduling
Mixed Model Scheduling
  • Interspersing different models
    • Alternative to producing longer runs of each model
  • Look for:
    • Lowest ratio and
    • Most repetitive mix
  • Bicycle example

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley

service operations
Service Operations
  • Appointment book (e.g., dentist)
  • Reservations (e.g., airlines)
  • Scheduling multiple resources
  • Managing capacity

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley

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