Computer History and Development. Arman Dhillon. First Generation Computers. - There were only three different types of computers, which were created for WWII. - It weighed over 30 tons, and took at least twenty hours for a skilled person to calculate.
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Computer History and Development
First Generation Computers
- There were only three different types of computers, which were created for WWII.
- It weighed over 30 tons, and took at least twenty hours for a skilled person to calculate.
- The first computer was named Colossus, which was created by England to decode encrypted German messages.
- The second computer was named ENIAC, which was created by the United States to calculate ballistic trajectories.
- The third computer was named UNIVAC, which was built by Remington Rand.
- The UNIVAC was the first commercially available computing device.
Second Generation Computers
- The second generation computers were made much faster and lighter.
- The second generation computers made advances in printing, disk and tape storage, memory, and stored programs.
- Machine language was created, which is a purely binary system of 1’s and 0’s.
- An assembly language was created after which used human readable codes.
Third Generation Computers
- The integrated circuit which was created by Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce paved the way for third generation computers.
- The integrated circuit produced less heat then transistors, which allowed more components to fit into a tiny single chip.
- Microchips have revolutionized computers of today to shrink from the size of a room to the size of a computer today.
Fourth Generation Computers
- Computers started to come in different sizes, cost, and reliability.
- The first affordable PC was made in 1974, and was named MITS Altair 8800.
- Other computers were also released such as Apple I, Apple II, and the Commodore PET.
- The IBM PC made personal computers an accepted tool of business.
Computer Hardware And Software
- Input Devices allowed people to enter information so your computer could do the work it needs to do.
Output devices allowed you to see if your computer were doing the right things.
-The very first computers used banks of light for output.
- Computers of today use input devices to translate voice commands into text or into operational commands.
- Todays computer monitor is the most common output device.
Processors and Memory
- The most important part of a computer is the central processing unit, or CPU for short.
- A CPU preforms a lot of functions like addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.
- Random-access memory, or RAM for short is the storage unit for any data that comes and goes from the CPU.
- If a computer is turned off all the data stored onto the RAM is deleted.
- Information stored on the RAM is always being updated and changed.
Hard Drives and Removable Storage
- CD-ROMS, and Floppy disks are a variety of devices.
- A primary storage device is a hard drive, which can be called a Hard disk or Hard drive.
- There are removable hard drives today such as USB’s, mp3 players, iPods, etc.
- Hard drives file storage continue to increase as the size of them decrease.
- Networks allow you to receive internet wirelessly.
- Only the smallest business’s do not work with networked computer systems.
- NIC allows data to travel between networks and nodes.
- Operating systems preform two important tasks, which are manage hardware and software, and provide consistent interface for applications.
-UNIX is a very powerful multiuser operating system made in 1960’s, which supports multitasking, and provides modular tools.
GUI’s also known as graphical user interface was first conceived in the 1950’s, but did not become interesting until the 1970’s.
- DOS, also called Disk Operating System, was first introduced in 1981, and was a bit intimidating to some users.