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C: 28 March 2012. Grab your clicker! Take Out Your Unit 6 Packet Objective : You will be able to: define and use in context vocabulary relating to solutions and solubility model and describe the process of dissolution Do Now : Is salt water a homogeneous mixture or a heterogeneous mixture?

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C: 28 March 2012

  • Grab your clicker!

  • Take Out Your Unit 6 Packet

  • Objective: You will be able to:

    • define and use in context vocabulary relating to solutions and solubility

    • model and describe the process of dissolution

  • Do Now: Is salt water a homogeneous mixture or a heterogeneous mixture?

  • What classification of matter is air?


C: Agenda

  • Do now

  • Vocab notes and practice

  • Dissolution video

  • Dissolution activity

  • Pre-lab

    Homework: Unit 7 Packet p. 3: tomorrow

    Read p. 4-5: by tomorrow; be familiar with procedure!

    Did you turn in your Unit 6 Packet?!


Solutions and Solubility


Pre-quizWhich of the following is a solution?

  • Salt water

  • Sand and water

  • Oil and water

  • All of the above


Reactions in aqueous solutions

  • The reactions in your body (digestion, cellular respiration, etc., etc.) all happen in water!

  • Most reactions on earth happen in water


Essential Questions

  • How does the solution process occur?

    • How does something dissolve?

  • What influences the solution process?

    • What makes something dissolve, or not dissolve or dissolve fast or slow?


Solutions Vocabulary

  • solution: a homogeneous mixture of a solute dissolved in a solvent

  • solvent: the part of a solution doing the dissolving (often the liquid), in excess

  • solute: a substance being dissolved in a solvent, does not settle to bottom


SOLUTE

SOLUTION

SOLUTION

SOLVENT


In a solution of calcium chloride and water, which is the solute?

  • Calcium chloride

  • Water

  • Salt

  • None of the above


In a solution of isopropyl alcohol and potassium nitrate, which is the solvent?

  • Potassium nitrate

  • Isopropyl alcohol

  • Water

  • None of the above


Which of the following is a solution?

  • Salt water

  • Sand and water

  • Oil and water

  • All of the above


In seltzer water, what is the solute?

  • Water

  • Salt

  • Oxygen gas

  • Carbon dioxide gas


  • Soluble: a substance that is able to be dissolved

  • Insoluble: a substance that is not able to be dissolved


Which of the following is soluble in water?

  • Oil

  • Rocks

  • Sugar

  • Wax


Which of the following is insoluble in water?

  • Water

  • Salt

  • Sugar

  • Plastic


How does the process of dissolving work?

  • Water is a “polar” molecule: It has a negative end and a positive end.

  • Most soluble compounds are ionic: they are made of positive ions and negative ions.

  • Let’s see what happens between these particles!

  • http://www.mhhe.com/physsci/chemistry/essentialchemistry/flash/molvie1.swf

  • http://www.kentchemistry.com/moviesfiles/Units/Kinetics/DissolutionofNaClinWater.htm


Let’s do this!

  • page 2: Dissolution Activity


Factors Affecting Rate of Dissolution

  • Pre-Lab and Procedure Read-Through

  • Be ready to rock tomorrow!!


Homework

  • Unit 7 Packet p. 3: due tomorrow

  • Read p. 4-5: by tomorrow; be familiar with procedure!

  • Did you turn in your Unit 6 Packet?!


  • Saturated: a solution with the maximum amount of dissolved solute

  • Unsaturated: a solution with less than the maximum amount of dissolved solute

  • Supersaturated: a solution with more than the maximum amount of dissolved solute

    • Requires an increase then decrease of temperature


A cup of water has just a pinch of salt stirred into it.

  • Saturated solution

  • Unsaturated solution

  • Supersaturated solution

  • None of the above


A candy maker adds excess sugar to a pot of water, boils the water until all the sugar dissolves, then allows the solution to cool. The sugar stays dissolved.

  • Saturated solution

  • Unsaturated solution

  • Supersaturated solution

  • None of the above


I stir sugar into my coffee just until no more will dissolve.

  • Saturated solution

  • Unsaturated solution

  • Supersaturated solution

  • None of the above


Demo – record your observations!

  • Solid sodium acetate (CH3COONa) is added to water in a test tube until there is more than will dissolve.

    • Making a “slurry”

  • The test tube is heated over a flame until the water boils and all the sodium acetate dissolves.

  • The test tube is allowed to cool in an ice bath.

  • One crystal of sodium acetate is added to the cooled test tube to precipitate the excess solute.


A: 28 March 2012

  • Take Out Unit 7 Packet page 3

  • Objective: You will be able to:

    • explore factors that affect the rate of dissolution.

  • Do now: Draw water molecules around each of these ions. Be sure each water molecule is oriented the correct direction!

+


A: Agenda

  • Do now

  • Demo: Dissolving a Salt Crystal Lattice

  • Factors Affecting Rate of Dissolution Lab

    Homework: Finish pages 3-7: Thurs.


Demo: Dissolution


C: 29 March 2012

  • Take Out Unit 7 Packet page 3

  • Objective: You will be able to:

    • describe factors that affect the rate of dissolution and how they affect the rate of dissolution.

  • Do now: Draw water molecules around each of these ions. Be sure each water molecule is oriented the correct direction!

+


C: Agenda

  • Do now

  • Factors Affecting Rate of Dissolution Lab

  • Reading: O2 in Streams

  • Response to article

    Homework: Pages 6-12: due Friday


Factors Affecting the Rate of Dissolution Lab

  • Rate of dissolution: How fast a solute dissolves in a solvent


5 min.

  • With your partner, complete the background questions on p. 4

  • Then, re-read the materials and procedure


Procedure read-through


Step 3: Crushing CuSO4

  • Using a mortar and pestle

  • Crush, don’t pound!


Step 4 “Flicking” a test tube to mix

  • We’re actually going to “invert to mix.”

  • Watch the demo.

  • If your solutions take more than 30 minutes to dissolve, you can just write “30 min. +” for the time, and describe your observations.


Step 7

  • Take the temperature of the hot, room temperature and cold water before you mix.


Step 8

  • Fill each test tube half way with water (hot, room temp. and cold)


Step 9

  • Cover test tube with plastic and invert to mix.


Complete each step carefully!

  • Write thoughtful observations

  • Answer all the questions neatly and completely

    • The biggest cause of low lab averages is sloppy work on the analysis questions!


When you finish the lab

  • Clean up. Return all materials to the front table or wash and hang to dry.

  • Clean up splashes and paper towels!

  • Begin to read and text-mark the article on p. 8-9


Lab Behaviors

  • On task

  • At your station

  • Efficient but careful

  • Precise:

    • Read and follow the procedure exactly.

    • Collect careful data and observations.

  • Clean: Leave your area cleaner than you found it!


Homework

  • Pages 6-12: due Friday

  • Answer each question thoughtfully and carefully


I put one spoonful of sugar in my coffee. It is a ______ solution.

  • Saturated

  • Unsaturated

  • Supersaturated

  • Soluble


I put sugar in my coffee until no more will dissolve. It is a ____ solution.

  • Saturated

  • Unsaturated

  • Supersaturated

  • Soluble


A solution with more than the maximum dissolved solute is a ____ solution.

  • Saturated

  • Unsaturated

  • Supersaturated

  • Soluble


C: 30 March 2012

  • Take Out: p. 6-7

  • Objective: You will be able to:

    • describe factors affecting the solubility of solutes in water.

  • Do now: What three factors affect the rate of dissolution of a solid in a liquid?

  • Choose one factor and describe how it affects the rate of dissolution.


Agenda

  • Do now

  • Lab questions and review?

  • Exit ticket 7.1

  • O2 in Streams reading and response

    Homework: Pages 8-11: due Monday

    Page 12 due Thursday


Exit Ticket

  • When you finish your exit ticket, flip it over.

  • Then, begin reading the article on page 8, silently.


Problem: The power plant makes hot water to cool the equipment then they discharge it into the river

Hot water does not hold enough oxygen

Since there is less oxygen the fish will die

Increase in Algae

Solution: we can add a steam pipe under the Longfellow bridge

move the steam throug a pipe to the other side of the building where they will use it to heat up buildings o.o (brilliant)

5-10 years to build this-disturb wildlife-So much money O.o brainstorm--------------result accomplish goal


Read the article

  • Complete the questions on pages 10-11.

  • Then, we’ll get back together to discuss #8.


Ways to communicate your opinion on an issue you’re passionate about


Communicate Your Position!

  • Groups of one to three people.

  • Choose one of the options we brainstormed.

  • Sign up on the board.

  • Meet with your group to plan out what you’ll do to complete this assignment!

  • Due next Thursday!


C: Homework

  • Pages 8-11: due Monday

  • Page 12: Thursday.


A: 30 March 2012

  • Take Out: p. 10-11

  • Objective: You will be able to:

    • describe factors affecting the solubility of solutes in water.

  • Do now: From the article, what factor affects the solubility of a gas, like O2, in water? In what way does this factor affect the solubility of a gas in water?


Agenda

  • Do now

  • Solubility Notes

  • Reading a Solubility Curve

  • O2 in Streams reading and response

  • Cave Video

  • Molarity Calculations

    Homework: Pages 12 and 15: due Tuesday


  • Hot/warm water is discharge into local water ways in the Charles River and is killing fish/other living things in the river and is promoting algal blooms.

  • The hot water is caused by power plants using river water to cool their equipment

  • The solution is that the power plant is going to heat the water enough to create steam which is sent to heat big buildings in Boston.


Cave Film

  • A description of cave formation.

  • Takes place at Blanchard Cave in AR


C: 4 April 2012

  • Grab a calculator!

  • Take Out Homework: Unit 7 Packet p. 10-11

  • Objective: You will be able to:

    • describe solubility of gases in solution and factors affecting their solubility.

    • make molarity calculations

  • Do now: Calculate the molarity of a solution made by dissolving 3.0 moles of solute in enough water to make 9.0 liters of solution.


Agenda

  • Do now

  • Review 7.1 (rates of dissolution)

  • Check homework p. 10-11

  • Respond to O2 in streams article – work time

  • Reading solubility graphs

  • Molarity problems: unlock the code!

    Homework: Finish pages 15-16: Thurs.

    Response to article project due Mon.

    7.1 and 7.2 Quiz: Monday


7.1

  • Track your 7.1 exit ticket

  • Answers?


Brainstorm p. 11

  • 8. What ways could you communicate to others your position about something you’re passionate about?!


Communicate Your Position!

  • Groups of one to three people.

  • Choose one of the options we brainstormed.

  • Sign up on the board.

  • Meet with your group to plan out what you’ll do to complete this assignment!

  • Due Monday!


Your response must…

  • Briefly summarize the article or indicate what the article is about

  • State your position on the change proposed by the power plant (to turn hot water discharge to steam to heat buildings across the Charles River)

  • Describe and support three reasons for your position.


Your response

  • This will obviously look VERY different for

    • letters to the editor

    • Tweets

    • a Tumblr page

    • A billboard

    • A tshirt

  • Be creative! Do a high quality job!


This period…

  • Stay with your group and get most of the work done.

  • Check in with me at least once about your progress!

  • Return your computer by 2:20 pm

  • Track your Unit 6 Quiz and compile your unit 6 materials!


Solubility


  • solubility: the amount of a substance that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent.


Solid in a liquid solvent

  • What factors affect solubility of a solid solute in a liquid solvent?

    • (Not how fast it dissolves, but how much of it can be dissolved.)


Temperature

  • solubility increases as temperature increases

    • Ex: Dissolving sugar in tea


Pressure

  • no effect


Reading a Solubility Curve

Solid solute in a liquid solvent (H2O)


Solubility of Gases in Liquids

  • Temperature: solubility decreases as temperature increases

    • Ex: Dissolved oxygen in lakes and rivers

  • Pressure: solubility increases as pressure increases

    • Ex: Bottling soda


Solubility Curve

Gas solutes in liquid solvent (H2O)


Reading a Solubility Graph

  • p. 15


Concentrations of Solutions

How do we quantify and measure how much solute is in a solution?


  • dilute: a volume of solution with a small amount of dissolved solute

  • concentrated: a volume of solution with a large amount of dissolved solute


  • concentration= amount of solute dissolved in a given quantity of solution.


Ex. 1

A chemist mixes 0.25 moles of sodium chloride into water to make 1.0 L of solution. Calculate the molarity.


Ex 2.

  • A saline (salt water) solution contains 0.90 g NaCl in exactly 100 mL of solution. What is the molarity of the solution?


Ex. 3

a) How many moles of solute are present in 1.5 liters of 0.24 M solution of sodium chloride?

b) How many grams is this?


Practice Problems

  • Calculate the molarity of 0.35 moles of sodium chloride dissolved in enough water to make 1.0 L of solution.

  • Calculate the molarity of 0.25 grams of NaCl in 100. mL of water.

  • a. How many moles of NaCl were used to make 500 mL of a 2.0 M solution?

    b. How many grams is that?


Unlock the Code

  • Page 16

  • Use 2 significant figures

  • Code is the FIRST NONZERO DIGIT of each answer


Homework

  • Finish pages 15-16: Thurs.

  • Response to article project due Mon.

  • 7.1 and 7.2 Quiz: Monday


A: 3 April 2012

  • Take Out Homework: p. 15

  • Objective: You will be able to:

    • describe solubility of gases in solution and factors affecting their solubility.

  • Do now: Write two sentences to describe the change in solubility of solids and gases in water as temperature increases.


Agenda

  • Do now

  • Review 7.1 (rates of dissolution)

  • Check homework p. 15

  • Respond to O2 in streams article

    Homework: Response to article due Thurs.

    Bring an empty glass jar by Thurs!

    7.1 and 7.2 Quiz: Thurs.


Your response must…

  • Briefly summarize the article or indicate what the article is about

  • State your position on the change proposed by the power plant (to turn hot water discharge to steam to heat buildings across the Charles River)

  • Describe and support three reasons for your position.


Your response

  • This will obviously look VERY different for

    • letters to the editor

    • Tweets

    • a Tumblr page

    • A billboard

    • A tshirt

  • Be creative! Do a high quality job!


This period…

  • Stay with your group and get most of the work done.

  • Check in with me at least once about your progress!

  • Track your Unit 6 Quiz and compile your unit 6 materials!


Homework

  • Response to article due Thurs.

  • Bring an empty glass jar by Thurs!

  • 7.1 and 7.2 Quiz: Thurs.


C: 5 April 2012

  • Grab a calculator!

  • Take Out Homework: p. 15-16

  • Objective: You will be able to:

    • perform calculations involving the molarity of solutions.

  • Do now: Calculate the molarity of 2.0 moles of silver nitrate dissolved in enough water to make 4000. milliliters of solution. Use correct units! Show work.


Agenda

  • Do now

  • Homework answers

  • Making dilutions notes and examples

  • Dilutions practice problems: unlock the code!

  • 7.2 “Exit” ticket

  • Kook-aid lab day 1 Calculations

    Homework: Read p. 20-23 for Monday

    Quiz Monday on 7.1 and 7.2

    Response to article project: due Monday


Making a Solution

  • How do we make 100 mL of a 0.02 M copper (II) chloride solution?


Making a Dilution

  • What if you have a solution of one concentration but need a solution of another concentration?

  • Dilute (verb): to make less concentrated by adding more solvent (water)

  • Stock solution: a concentrated solution kept in the lab “stock room”

  • M1V1=M2V2


Demo

Ex 1) Starting with our 0.02 M solution of CuCl2, how, how many milliliters of that do we need to make 100 mL of 0.01 M solution?


Example 2

  • How many milliliters of a 6.0 M stock solution would you need to make 100. mL of a 1.0 M solution?


Example 3

  • How many milliliters of an 18 M stock solution would you need to make 100 mL of a 6 M solution?


Practice Problems

  • How many grams of sugar (C12H22O11) do you need to make 400 mL of a 0.50 M solution?

  • How many milliliters of a 6.0 M stock solution would you need to make 500. mL of a 1.0 M solution?

  • How many milliliters of a 4.0 M stock solution would you need to make 500. mL of a 0.02 M solution?


Unlock the Code!

  • With your partner, complete page 17

  • Then, try the electronic lock to see if you’re correct!

  • If not, correct your work and try again!

  • Code = FIRST NONZERO DIGIT

  • Round to two sig. figs!

  • When you finish, have me initial p. 17, and then read p. 20-22.


Quiz

  • When you finish, read page 20-22 silently.

  • Solve the problems on p. 20-21


A: 5 April 2012

  • Grab a calculator!

  • Take Out Homework: project

  • Objective: You will be able to:

    • perform calculations involving the molarity of solutions and dilutions.

  • Do now: If you take 20 mL of a 6.0 M solution of HCl and dilute it to 100 mL, what is the new molarity?


Agenda

  • Do now

  • Review 7.2 exit ticket

  • 7.1 and 7.2 Quiz

  • Kool-aid lab day 1 calculations and demo

    Homework: Complete calculations on pages 20-21.

    Read the procedure on page 21 and 22.


C: 9 April 2012

  • Grab a calculator!

  • Take Out Homework: project (unless you have emailed it!)

  • Objective: You will be able to:

    • perform calculations involving the molarity of solutions and dilutions.

  • Do now: If you take 20 mL of a 6.0 M solution of HCl and dilute it to 100 mL, what is the new molarity?


Agenda

  • Do now

  • Review 7.2 exit ticket

  • 7.1 and 7.2 Quiz

  • Kool-aid lab day 1 calculations and demo

    Homework: Complete calculations on pages 20-21.

    Read the procedure on page 21 and 22.


Quiz 7.1 and 7.2

  • When you finish your quiz, hand it in.

  • Track your Unit 6 Final Quiz on your Unit 6 Packet when you get them back.

  • Silently read p. 20-22

  • Complete all calculations on p. 20-21.

  • due Wednesday


Crime Scene Investigation

  • Your mission: to determine the time of death of the Kool-Aid man from a sample of Kool-Aid collected from him at the crime scene.


This period:

  • Read page 20 and do problem 1

  • Complete page 21, including hypothesis #1 and 2

  • Read pages 22-23

  • due Wednesday: be ready to rock when you come to class!


Homework

Read p. 20-23 for Wednesday, complete all the problems

Be familiar with the procedure!


C: 11 April 2012

  • Take Out Homework: p. 20-21

  • Objective: You will be able to:

    • create a standard curve of transmittance of solutions of varying concentrations

  • Do now: Transmittance is how much light will pass through a sample of solution. Write a hypothesis on p. 21 relating concentration to transmittance.


Agenda

  • Do now

  • Kool-Aid Lab intro and pipetting demo

  • Kool-Aid Lab work time!

    Homework: none!


Table p. 22


Procedure

  • Steps 1-3: Make your 0.20 M stock solution of Kool-Aid

  • Steps 6-9: Make your series of diluted solutions.

  • Steps 10-14: Find and record the percent transmittance of each solution in the spectrophotometer.

  • Step 15: Graph and draw a line of best fit!

  • Step 16-19: Find the concentration of the solution collected from the crime scene and determine time of death.


Using a pipette!


Your goal

  • By the end of the period:

    • Have a 0.20 M stock solution prepared.

    • Have pipetted your dilutions into test tubes.

    • Found and recorded their transmittance in the spectrophotometer.

  • Homework: none!


C: 12 April 2012

  • Objective: You will be able to:

    • create a standard curve of transmittance of solutions of varying concentrations

    • determine the time of death of the Kool-Aid man!

  • Do now: Record qualitative observations of your series of solutions from yesterday on page 23.


Agenda

  • Do now

  • Finish Kool-Aid Lab

  • Graph data

  • Determine concentration of unknown

  • Answer analysis and conclusion

  • Lab report info

    Homework:

    Lab report due Weds. April 25


By the end of the period…

  • See the list on the board.

  • This is due before you leave class today – your graph and calculations are a 10 point lab grade!

  • No homework!


What you know…

  • Kool-Aid Man’s original concentration was 0.20 M at noon.

  • Children drank about half his volume in Kool-Aid each hour.

  • Each hour, he added enough water to fill himself back up.

  • What time did he die?


Clean up

  • Wash and return all your equipment to the kidney table

  • Return your unknown

  • Work on the Analysis and Conclusion

    Homework: Line equation,

    Analysis and Conclusion Questions: due tomorrow

    Lab report due April 25


Lab Report Rubric


C: 13 April 2012

  • Grab a calculator

  • Objective: You will be able to:

    • communicate your experiment and conclusions from the Kool-Aid Lab!

  • Do now: Pick up a rubric.


Agenda

  • Do now

  • Lab report requirements

  • Determine goal(s)

  • Lab report work time!

    Homework: Lab report due Weds. April 25 – printed and stapled, please!


Lab Report Rubric


Your goal today

  • Determine which parts of your lab report you will accomplish today.

  • You should choose challenging parts on which you might need my help!

  • For example, making the graph in Excel, summarizing the procedure, making a table, making a conclusion, etc.


In the computer lab…

  • Use your time wisely!

  • Your screen must face the center of the room!

  • Ask questions!

  • Save your work carefully in a place where you can access it from home!

  • Homework: Lab report due Weds. April 25


C: 23 April 2012

  • Objective: You will be able to:

    • describe four possible sources of pollutants in Boston Harbor

    • predict the products of a double replacement reaction

  • Do now:

    a. What type of reaction?

    b. Predict the products:

    NaBr(aq) + AgF(aq) → ____ + ____


Agenda

  • Do now

  • Lab report questions?

  • Boston Harbor problem

  • Read articles and Jigsaw

  • Double replacement reactions: p. 6-8

    Homework: Lab report due Weds. April 25 – printed and stapled, please!

    Finish pages 6-8: due Wednesday


Introduction to Project

  • Right now, as we speak, Boston Harbor is in trouble.

  • There is a pollutant in the water of the harbor that is killing large numbers of fish and causing state fisheries officials to worry for the health of the ecosystem for decades to come.

  • Already, over 1,000 fish have washed up dead on Boston’s beaches in the last month, with more expected to turn up in the coming weeks. Scientists are not sure what chemical is causing these deaths, only that they are not caused by the cold or other environmental factors.


Pollution Articles

  • Read the article assigned to you.

  • Answer the questions at the end of the article.

  • Be prepared to describe what you learn to your lab group members!

  • If you finish early, choose any other article to read.


Jigsaw

  • In your lab group, take turns describing to the other members of your group what you learned from your article.

  • Specifically, everyone needs to fill out the table on the front of the packet.


  • If the ecosystem and economy of Boston Harbor is to survive this environmental catastrophe, it is up to YOU to figure out what chemical is poisoning the water, what the source of the chemical is, and what we can do to stop more of it from being released.


How?

  • There are some skills you’ll need to acquire first!

    • How to predict the products of a double replacement reaction.

    • How to determine if the products are soluble or insoluble in water.

    • How to write a “net ionic equation”


With your partner

  • Complete pages 6-8.

  • If you finish early, you can go on to pages 9-10.


C: 25 April 2012

  • Take Out: Lab Report

  • Objective: You will be able to:

    • predict the products of a double replacement reaction

    • predict the solubility of a product

    • write net ionic equations

  • Do now: Write the correct formulas for:

    a. sodium sulfate

    b. calcium iodide

    c. lead (II) hydroxide


Agenda

  • Do now

  • Double replacement reactions answers

  • Predicting products, predicting solubility and writing net ionic equations p. 6-13

    Homework: Finish through page 13: due tomorrow!


Purpose


What we have to know to be successful

  • How to predict the products of a double replacement reaction.

  • How to determine if the products are soluble in water (aq) or insoluble in water (s).

  • How to write a “net ionic equation” to show what’s really happening in a reaction!


This period

  • Work on pages 6-13 with your partner

  • Page 9 mini-experiment: wear goggles

  • Pages 10, 11 and 12 computer simulations: go to the correctly labeled laptop

    • Only up to four people at a time per laptop station!

  • Stay on task and work hard! Ask questions!

  • Have me sign my initials at the bottom of each page.

  • 10 pt. classwork grade based on work ethic!


Homework

  • Finish through page 13: due tomorrow!


C: 27 April 2012

  • Take Out: Save Our Seas p. 14

  • Objective: You will be able to:

    • write a procedure to determine the identity of the unknown Boston Harbor pollutant!

  • Do now:

  • What can you react with calcium iodide to produce a precipitate? (Hint: Look at your solubility table on page 10.)


Agenda

  • Do now

  • Plan procedure: p. 15-18

  • Create a data table

    Homework: Finish through page 18 (procedure and data table) of the Save our Seas lab: due Monday


This period

With your lab group:

  • Complete page 15-16

  • Use your first drafts of procedures written by your group members to determine one awesome procedure for this lab.

  • Have me read and comment on your draft.

  • Then, write a final draft in your packet!

  • Finally, design a data table on p. 18


Materials

  • You can do as many reactions as you need to.

  • You can do reactions on a piece of plastic film or in spot plates.

  • You have dropper bottles of 14 different compounds (p. 16)!


Groups


Possible Pollutants


Homework

  • Finish through page 18 (data table) of the Save our Seas lab: due Monday


Exit Ticket

  • Solutions of sodium bromide and lead (II) nitrate react.

  • Write the equation and predict the products.

  • Predict the solubility (s) or (aq) of the products.

  • Balance the equation.

  • Write the ionic and net ionic equations.


A: 26 April 2012

  • Take Out: “Save Our Seas” p. 14-15

  • Objective: You will be able to:

    • design a procedure to determine the identity of the Boston Harbor pollutant!

  • Do now: What can you react with calcium iodide to produce a precipitate? (Hint: Look at your solubility table on page 10.)


Agenda

  • Do now

  • Track exit ticket

  • Write a procedure to determine the identity of the unknown!

    Homework: none!


Track exit ticket

  • 7.3 on your Unit 7 Packet


With your lab group…

  • Brainstorm how to determine the identity of the unknown pollutant.

  • Then, draft a procedure on notebook paper

    • specific!

    • chronological!

    • describes what data to collect!

  • Finally, design a data table to collect your data and observations in tomorrow.

  • Due at the end of the period (one copy per group)


Groups


C: 30 April 2012

  • Objective: You will be able to:

    • carry out your procedure to determine the identity of the unknown Boston Harbor pollutant!

  • Do now: Solutions of calcium iodide and lead (II) nitrate react.

  • Write the molecular equation and balance it.

  • Then write the net ionic equation.


Agenda

  • Do now

  • Track 7.1 and 7.2 Quiz

  • Write procedure final draft

  • Carry out your procedure and collect data!

    Homework: Save our Seas: p. 19-21 due Thursday

    Quiz on 7.3: Predicting products/net ionic equations: Thursday


Track 7.1 and 7.2

  • Chance to re-do these objectives on Thursdays quiz!


Before you begin…

  • As a group, finish your rough draft and check in with me OR edit your rough draft and write the final draft on p. 17.

    • What data will you collect? Where will you record it?

  • Design a beautiful data table to record your data in on p. 18.


Once you start…

  • Goggles stay over your eyes!

  • Only take one to three dropper bottles at a time from the front table, and return them to where they belong when you finish with them.

  • Use 3 drops of each reactant every time – that’s completely enough!


Homework

  • Edit procedure: Thurs.

  • Save our Seas: p. 19-21 due Thurs.


A: 1 May 2012

  • Take Out: “Save Our Seas” p. 20

  • Objective: You will be able to:

    • draw conclusions about the pollutant in Boston Harbor

    • show what you know about predicting products of equations

  • Do now: Solutions of calcium iodide and lead (II) nitrate react.

  • Write the molecular equation and balance it.

  • Then write the net ionic equation.


Agenda

  • Do now

  • Track 7.1 and 7.2 Quiz and Review

  • 7.3 Quiz

  • Draw conclusions and turn in “Save Our Seas” packet

    Homework: None!


Track Quiz 7.1 and 7.2

  • And get your stamp!

  • Then, we’ll review the answers together!


Homework

  • None!


C: 3 May 2012

  • Grab a calculator and your clicker!

  • Take Out: Save our Seas packet

  • Objective: You will be able to:

    • Calculate the pH of a solution of a strong acid.

  • Do now: How many grams of potassium chloride (molar mass = 74.55 g/mol) are required to make 200. mL of a 0.60 M solution?


Agenda

  • Do now / quiz review

  • 7.3 Quiz

  • Acids and Bases Notes

  • Demo!

  • Calculating pH from molarity

  • Practice Problems

  • Acid rain article and response

  • Homework: Unit 7 packet p. 27-29: due Monday

    • do the bonus on a separate sheet of paper!


7.3 Quiz

  • Re-do 7.1 and 7.2 if you haven’t earned a 3 or 4 yet!

  • When you finish, make sure your “Save our Seas” packet is complete, and turn it in!

  • Then, complete pages 28-29 in the Unit 7 Packet

  • If you leave your Unit 7 packet out, I’ll stamp it!


Introduction to Acids and Bases


Properties of Acids

Sour

Turn universal indicator red

React with metal to produce H2

React with bases to produce salt and water

Electrolyte


Properties of bases

Bitter

Turn universal indicator blue

Slippery

React with acids to produce salt and water

Electrolyte


Key Question

  • How do we quantify how acidic or basic a solution is?


pH

  • pH is a measurement of how acidic or basic a solution is

  • 0-14 scale

    • 0 is most acidic

    • 14 is most basic

    • 7 is neutral (water)


An orange is most likely

  • Acidic

  • Basic

  • Neutral


The pH of an orange is most likely

  • 10

  • 7

  • 3


Soap is

  • an acid.

  • a base.

  • neutral.


Soap most likely has a pH of

  • 10

  • 7

  • 3


Pure water is

  • Acidic

  • Basic

  • Neutral


Pure water has a pH of

  • 10

  • 7

  • 3


Bleach is a cleaning product that feels slippery. It is

  • An acid

  • A base

  • Neutral


Bleach is extremely basic. It has a pH of

  • 14

  • 10

  • 7

  • 2


Your stomach acid is extremely acidic. It has a pH of

  • 14

  • 7

  • 3

  • 1


pH and acids

  • The numbers on the pH scale come from the hydrogen ion concentration [H+]

    • pH = “Power of Hydrogen”

  • Acid: a compound that dissolves in water to produce a hydrogen ion (H+)

  • The higher the hydrogen ion concentration, the LOWER the pH!


Hydrogen ion concentration

  • [H+] increases by 10 for each step you go down on the pH scale


Let’s test pH

  • To test pH we can use pH paper or a pH probe


Linear Scale

  • Linear scale – y value changes at a constant rate with changes in the x value (straight line on a graph)

  • Example: The salary for a government employee changes by a set amount each year


Linear Scale


Logarithmic scale

  • Logarithmic scale – y value increases by being multiplied by 10 (curved line)

  • The pH scale is a logarithmic scale

  • Example: A solution with a pH of 6 is 10 times more acidic than a pH of 7 – it has 10 times more hydrogen ions in it


Logarithmic function graph


Earthquake!

  • Richter scale – 1-10 based on magnitude of the earthquake

  • So two magnitude 5’s should add up to a 10, right? (according to a CA politician…)

  • Only if it is linear (which it isn’t!)

  • A category 6 is TEN times stronger than a category 5, so you need TEN 5’s to make the same energy as a 6

  • So a 9 is 100,000 times stronger than a 5!!


Powers of Ten

  • http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/java/scienceopticsu/powersof10/


A solution with a pH of 3 is ___ times more acidic than a solution with a pH of 4.

  • 1

  • 2

  • 10

  • 100


A solution with a pH of 3 is ___ times more acidic than a solution with a pH of 5.

  • 2

  • 10

  • 20

  • 100


A: 3 May 2012

  • Take Out: Unit 7 Packet p. 27

  • Objective: You will be able to:

    • differentiate between a strong and weak acid

  • Do now: Calculate the concentration of [OH-] ions in a solution with a pH of 11.


Agenda

  • Do now

  • Homework Answers

  • Strong vs. Weak Acids

  • Acid rain article and response

    Homework: Unit 7 Packet p. 30 (background questions) and Read lab procedure on p. 31: Tuesday


Where does pH come from?

  • A strong acid is added to water:

  • http://www.mhhe.com/physsci/chemistry/essentialchemistry/flash/acid13.swf

  • HCl(aq) → H+(aq) + Cl-(aq)

  • Dissociation!


pH Problems!

  • 1.2x10-3 grams of HCl is dissolved in 2 L of water. Calculate the pH.

  • 1.12x10-9 grams of KOH is dissolved in 100 mL of water. Calculate the pH.

  • 2.32x10-5 grams of Mg(OH)2 is dissolved in 100 mL of water. Calculate the pH.


Strong vs. Weak Acids

HCl H+ + Cl-

Hydrochloric acid is an example of a strong acid.

It will dissociate completely, maximizing the amount of H+ for a given concentration of acid. No HCl will be present.

HC2H3O2  H+ + C2H3O2-Acetic acid is an example of a weak acid.

It will not dissociate completely, leaving most of the solution to contain HC2H3O2


List of strong acids and bases


Acid Rain Article

  • Independently, read the article on p. 28

  • Then, complete the questions on p. 29

  • If you finish early, do the BONUS on a separate sheet of paper and hand it in!

  • Then, begin your homework:

    • Unit 7 Packet p. 30 (background questions) and read lab procedure on p. 31: Tuesday


A: Homework

  • Unit 7 Packet p. 30 (background questions) and Read lab procedure on p. 31: Tuesday


Calculating pH

  • pH = −log[H+]

  • Negative log of the concentration of hydrogen ions.

  • The more hydrogen ions, the lower the pH!


Examples and Problems

  • In a neutral solution, the concentration of hydrogen ions is 1x10-7 M. Calculate the pH.

  • Calculate the pH of a 0.001 M H+ solution.

  • What is the pH of a solution with a hydrogen ion concentration of 1.0x10-10?

  • Calculate the pH of a solution where [H+] = 5.0x10-6


What about bases?

  • Strong bases produce OH- ions in a solution.

  • NaOH(aq) → Na+(aq) + OH-(aq)

  • pOH = –log[OH-]

  • pH + pOH = 14


Examples and Problems

  • What is the pH of a solution if [OH-] = 4.0x10-11 M?

  • Calculate the pH of a solution if [OH-] = 4.3x10-5 M.

  • [OH-] = 2.0x10-5 M


Extension

  • What is the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution with pH = 8?

  • What is the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution with pH = 2.35?

  • What is the concentration of hydroxide ions in a solution with pH = 10?

  • What is the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution with pH = 9.50?


Assignment

  • With your partner:

    • Unit 7 Packet p. 27: Calculating pH

  • Independently:

    • Unit 7 Packet p. 28-29: Acid rain article and reading questions

    • due at the end of the period!


C: Homework

  • Unit 7 packet p. 27-29: due Monday

    • do the bonus on a separate sheet of paper!

  • Complete that table by showing persistence and grit!


8 May 2012

  • Grab a calculator!

  • Objective: You will be able to:

    • calculate the freezing point of a solution given solute concentration.

  • Do now: a. Calculate the pH of a 0.40 M solution of HCl.

    b. Calculate the pH of a solution of 0.0020 M NaOH.


Agenda

  • Do now

  • pH practice

  • 7.4 Exit Ticket

  • Colligative Properties!

  • Hand back work and organize

    Homework: Finish Colligative Properties worksheet: due tomorrow


7.4 Exit Ticket

  • When you finish, begin the Colligative Properties handout silently.


Colligative Properties

  • http://antoine.frostburg.edu/chem/senese/101/solutions/faq/why-salt-melts-ice.shtml

  • Does adding solute to water change the boiling or freezing point of water?


With your partner

  • Work through the Colligative Properties worksheet.

  • Complete it for homework: due tomorrow…because….


TOMORROW

IS

ICE CREAM

DAY!!!


Bring (Optional)

  • If you’d like mix-ins or toppings, please bring them!

  • You probably also want to bring a pair of gloves.


Homework

  • Finish Colligative Properties handout (all pages!): due tomorrow

  • Bring mix-ins and gloves (optional)


21 March 2011

  • Take Out: Lab Handout

  • Objective: SWBAT prepare for lab by writing an objective and summarizing the procedure.

  • Do now: Write an equation for the reaction between solutions of HBr and KOH.


Agenda

  • Do now

  • Homework check

  • Strong vs. weak acids

  • Pre-lab: writing an objective and summarizing the procedure

  • Begin lab (?)

    Homework: Finish “Titration Pre-Lab” Handout


With your lab group…

  • Complete the “Titration Pre-Lab” handout to be ready for lab tomorrow.

  • Be sure you have finished the front page of the lab handout by tomorrow.


11 May 2012

  • Grab your goggles!

  • Objective: You will be able to:

    • react a strong acid with a strong base to observe changes in pH.

  • Do now: Write the molecular and net ionic equation for the reaction between solutions of HBr and KOH.


Agenda

  • Do now

  • Mr. Purser: Pre-lab review and practice

  • Pre-lab discussion and questions

  • Complete lab

  • Work on Conclusions questions

    Homework: Finish Unit 7 Packet p. 30-36: due Tues.

    Review sheet p. 1-2: Mastery and Prioritization: due Tues.

    Lab corrections due by next Friday.


Acids and Bases Lab

  • We will be reacting a strong acid (HCl) with a strong base (NaOH).

  • What happens when you put a strong acid or a strong base in water?

  • What happens when you react HCl with NaOH? Write an equation.


Pre-lab

  • Collect materials from the front of the room, and begin to carry out the procedure.

  • Return the bromothymol blue indicator as soon as you have added your one drop.


Collecting Data

  • Stir after every drop!

  • After the first few, and then every few, drops you will be using pH paper to record pH.

  • Use a toothpick to drop a tiny bit of your solution onto the pH paper.

    • Don’t stick the pH paper into your solution!

  • Record pH color and pH often, as well as the color of the solution itself


Conclusions

  • Carefully and thoughtfully answer the conclusions questions with your group.

  • p. 30-36

  • These are due Tuesday.


Safety

  • We are working with a strong acid with a concentration of 0.1 M and a strong base with concentration 0.1 M.

  • Wear goggles.

  • Work carefully and precisely, following directions exactly.

  • Wipe up spills with a dry paper towel and then clean with a wet sponge.

  • Stay seated whenever possible to avoid spills.


Clean up

  • Wash out your spot plate with your goggles on.

  • Return equipment to the front table.

  • Throw away pH paper (don’t leave it in the sink!)


Homework

  • Finish Unit 7 Packet p. 30-36: due Tues.

    • p. 32 #4: Use the number of drops of HCl when the solution was neutralized (NOT the number of drops after you added 5 additional drops!)

  • Review sheet p. 1-2: Mastery and Prioritization: due Tues.


C: 10 May 2012

  • Take Out: Unit 7 Packet p. 40-41

  • Objective: SWBAT demonstrate freezing point depression by making (and eating) ice cream!

  • Do now: Use your Colligative Properties handout to determine:

    a) Increasing the number of particles of solute will ______ the freezing point of a solution.

    b) Name one compound that will cause a greater decrease in freezing point than NaCl. Explain why you chose that compound.


Agenda

  • Do now

  • Colligative Properties answers

  • Track and go over exit ticket

  • Pre-lab and directions

  • Make ice cream!

  • Eat ice cream

  • Clean up and post lab

    Homework: Lab Analysis/Conclusions: due tomorrow

    7.4 and 7.5 Quiz tomorrow


Colligative Properties Answers


Track Exit Ticket!

  • Let’s go over the answers


First

  • Check your answers to p. 42 of the Unit 7 packet with your partner.


Colligative Properties

  • Properties of a solution (like melting point and freezing point) that depend on the number of particles and concentration of the solute.


Ice cream lab directions

  • Station 1: Ice cream mixture

    • In a small ziploc bag:

      • 1 c. milk

      • ¼ c. sugar

      • ¼ t. vanilla

      • mix-ins you brought

    • Push out all the air and seal the bag

    • Fold the top over and seal with masking tape


  • Station 2: Salt and Ice

    • In a large ziplog bag:

      • ¾ full with ice

      • 200 mL water

    • Take the temperature and record it

    • Add 145 g salt


  • Part III: At your table:

    • Place the small bag inside the large bag of ice, push out the air and seal the bag.

    • Place the first big bag in a second big bag, push out the air and seal it.

    • Shake and knead vigorously!

    • When the ice cream has solidified, take the temperature of the ice water again


Eat your ice cream!

  • Put your ice cream into cups, add toppings and enjoy!

  • Clean up (When you have cleaned, raise your hand, and I will come sign your sheet)

    • Small bag, cups and spoons go in the trash

    • Large bags get emptied out and placed into the front sink to be reused

  • Work on Data and Analysis, and Conclusions


How does it work?

The ice cream mixture has lots of dissolved solutes, so it won’t melt unless it is well below 0oC.

Ice has to absorb heat energy in order to melt.

Where does that heat energy come from?

Adding salt lowers the melting point of the ice, so it must absorb even more heat energy (from the ice cream mixture) to melt.

This makes the ice/water/salt solution even colder than plain ice water.

This super cold solution brings the temperature of the ice cream mixture to below freezing, to freeze the ice cream.

Heat Energy


Exit Ticket 7.5

  • When you finish, turn it in.

  • Then, work on the ice cream lab analysis and conclusion questions on p. 44 of the Unit 7 Packet


Homework

  • Ice Cream Lab:

    • Data and Analysis

    • Conclusions


C: 11 May 2012

  • Take Out: Unit 7 Packet p. 44

  • Objective: SWBAT

    • review Unit 7 objectives

  • Do now: Calculate the pH of a 0.002 M solution of KOH.


Agenda

  • Do now

  • Go over ice cream post-lab

  • Review all Unit 7 objectives

    Homework: Unit 7 quiz Monday - all objectives

    Review packet p. 1-2: Mastery and Prioritize


Review Stations

  • Write your work and answers on a lined sheet of paper

  • Work efficiently and with only the people in your group.

  • Please wait to move until the timer goes off!


Homework

Unit 7 quiz Monday - all objectives

Review packet p. 1-2: Mastery and Prioritize


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