C 28 march 2012
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 251

C: 28 March 2012 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 27 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

C: 28 March 2012. Grab your clicker! Take Out Your Unit 6 Packet Objective : You will be able to: define and use in context vocabulary relating to solutions and solubility model and describe the process of dissolution Do Now : Is salt water a homogeneous mixture or a heterogeneous mixture?

Download Presentation

C: 28 March 2012

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


C 28 march 2012

C: 28 March 2012

  • Grab your clicker!

  • Take Out Your Unit 6 Packet

  • Objective: You will be able to:

    • define and use in context vocabulary relating to solutions and solubility

    • model and describe the process of dissolution

  • Do Now: Is salt water a homogeneous mixture or a heterogeneous mixture?

  • What classification of matter is air?


C agenda

C: Agenda

  • Do now

  • Vocab notes and practice

  • Dissolution video

  • Dissolution activity

  • Pre-lab

    Homework: Unit 7 Packet p. 3: tomorrow

    Read p. 4-5: by tomorrow; be familiar with procedure!

    Did you turn in your Unit 6 Packet?!


Solutions and solubility

Solutions and Solubility


Pre quiz which of the following is a solution

Pre-quizWhich of the following is a solution?

  • Salt water

  • Sand and water

  • Oil and water

  • All of the above


Reactions in aqueous solutions

Reactions in aqueous solutions

  • The reactions in your body (digestion, cellular respiration, etc., etc.) all happen in water!

  • Most reactions on earth happen in water


Essential questions

Essential Questions

  • How does the solution process occur?

    • How does something dissolve?

  • What influences the solution process?

    • What makes something dissolve, or not dissolve or dissolve fast or slow?


Solutions vocabulary

Solutions Vocabulary

  • solution: a homogeneous mixture of a solute dissolved in a solvent

  • solvent: the part of a solution doing the dissolving (often the liquid), in excess

  • solute: a substance being dissolved in a solvent, does not settle to bottom


C 28 march 2012

SOLUTE

SOLUTION

SOLUTION

SOLVENT


In a solution of calcium chloride and water which is the solute

In a solution of calcium chloride and water, which is the solute?

  • Calcium chloride

  • Water

  • Salt

  • None of the above


In a solution of isopropyl alcohol and potassium nitrate which is the solvent

In a solution of isopropyl alcohol and potassium nitrate, which is the solvent?

  • Potassium nitrate

  • Isopropyl alcohol

  • Water

  • None of the above


Which of the following is a solution

Which of the following is a solution?

  • Salt water

  • Sand and water

  • Oil and water

  • All of the above


In seltzer water what is the solute

In seltzer water, what is the solute?

  • Water

  • Salt

  • Oxygen gas

  • Carbon dioxide gas


C 28 march 2012

  • Soluble: a substance that is able to be dissolved

  • Insoluble: a substance that is not able to be dissolved


Which of the following is soluble in water

Which of the following is soluble in water?

  • Oil

  • Rocks

  • Sugar

  • Wax


Which of the following is insoluble in water

Which of the following is insoluble in water?

  • Water

  • Salt

  • Sugar

  • Plastic


How does the process of dissolving work

How does the process of dissolving work?

  • Water is a “polar” molecule: It has a negative end and a positive end.

  • Most soluble compounds are ionic: they are made of positive ions and negative ions.

  • Let’s see what happens between these particles!

  • http://www.mhhe.com/physsci/chemistry/essentialchemistry/flash/molvie1.swf

  • http://www.kentchemistry.com/moviesfiles/Units/Kinetics/DissolutionofNaClinWater.htm


Let s do this

Let’s do this!

  • page 2: Dissolution Activity


Factors affecting rate of dissolution

Factors Affecting Rate of Dissolution

  • Pre-Lab and Procedure Read-Through

  • Be ready to rock tomorrow!!


Homework

Homework

  • Unit 7 Packet p. 3: due tomorrow

  • Read p. 4-5: by tomorrow; be familiar with procedure!

  • Did you turn in your Unit 6 Packet?!


C 28 march 2012

  • Saturated: a solution with the maximum amount of dissolved solute

  • Unsaturated: a solution with less than the maximum amount of dissolved solute

  • Supersaturated: a solution with more than the maximum amount of dissolved solute

    • Requires an increase then decrease of temperature


A cup of water has just a pinch of salt stirred into it

A cup of water has just a pinch of salt stirred into it.

  • Saturated solution

  • Unsaturated solution

  • Supersaturated solution

  • None of the above


C 28 march 2012

A candy maker adds excess sugar to a pot of water, boils the water until all the sugar dissolves, then allows the solution to cool. The sugar stays dissolved.

  • Saturated solution

  • Unsaturated solution

  • Supersaturated solution

  • None of the above


I stir sugar into my coffee just until no more will dissolve

I stir sugar into my coffee just until no more will dissolve.

  • Saturated solution

  • Unsaturated solution

  • Supersaturated solution

  • None of the above


Demo record your observations

Demo – record your observations!

  • Solid sodium acetate (CH3COONa) is added to water in a test tube until there is more than will dissolve.

    • Making a “slurry”

  • The test tube is heated over a flame until the water boils and all the sodium acetate dissolves.

  • The test tube is allowed to cool in an ice bath.

  • One crystal of sodium acetate is added to the cooled test tube to precipitate the excess solute.


A 28 march 2012

A: 28 March 2012

  • Take Out Unit 7 Packet page 3

  • Objective: You will be able to:

    • explore factors that affect the rate of dissolution.

  • Do now: Draw water molecules around each of these ions. Be sure each water molecule is oriented the correct direction!

+


A agenda

A: Agenda

  • Do now

  • Demo: Dissolving a Salt Crystal Lattice

  • Factors Affecting Rate of Dissolution Lab

    Homework: Finish pages 3-7: Thurs.


Demo dissolution

Demo: Dissolution


C 29 march 2012

C: 29 March 2012

  • Take Out Unit 7 Packet page 3

  • Objective: You will be able to:

    • describe factors that affect the rate of dissolution and how they affect the rate of dissolution.

  • Do now: Draw water molecules around each of these ions. Be sure each water molecule is oriented the correct direction!

+


C agenda1

C: Agenda

  • Do now

  • Factors Affecting Rate of Dissolution Lab

  • Reading: O2 in Streams

  • Response to article

    Homework: Pages 6-12: due Friday


Factors affecting the rate of dissolution lab

Factors Affecting the Rate of Dissolution Lab

  • Rate of dissolution: How fast a solute dissolves in a solvent


5 min

5 min.

  • With your partner, complete the background questions on p. 4

  • Then, re-read the materials and procedure


Procedure read through

Procedure read-through


Step 3 crushing cuso 4

Step 3: Crushing CuSO4

  • Using a mortar and pestle

  • Crush, don’t pound!


Step 4 flicking a test tube to mix

Step 4 “Flicking” a test tube to mix

  • We’re actually going to “invert to mix.”

  • Watch the demo.

  • If your solutions take more than 30 minutes to dissolve, you can just write “30 min. +” for the time, and describe your observations.


Step 7

Step 7

  • Take the temperature of the hot, room temperature and cold water before you mix.


Step 8

Step 8

  • Fill each test tube half way with water (hot, room temp. and cold)


Step 9

Step 9

  • Cover test tube with plastic and invert to mix.


Complete each step carefully

Complete each step carefully!

  • Write thoughtful observations

  • Answer all the questions neatly and completely

    • The biggest cause of low lab averages is sloppy work on the analysis questions!


When you finish the lab

When you finish the lab

  • Clean up. Return all materials to the front table or wash and hang to dry.

  • Clean up splashes and paper towels!

  • Begin to read and text-mark the article on p. 8-9


Lab behaviors

Lab Behaviors

  • On task

  • At your station

  • Efficient but careful

  • Precise:

    • Read and follow the procedure exactly.

    • Collect careful data and observations.

  • Clean: Leave your area cleaner than you found it!


Homework1

Homework

  • Pages 6-12: due Friday

  • Answer each question thoughtfully and carefully


I put one spoonful of sugar in my coffee it is a solution

I put one spoonful of sugar in my coffee. It is a ______ solution.

  • Saturated

  • Unsaturated

  • Supersaturated

  • Soluble


I put sugar in my coffee until no more will dissolve it is a solution

I put sugar in my coffee until no more will dissolve. It is a ____ solution.

  • Saturated

  • Unsaturated

  • Supersaturated

  • Soluble


A solution with more than the maximum dissolved solute is a solution

A solution with more than the maximum dissolved solute is a ____ solution.

  • Saturated

  • Unsaturated

  • Supersaturated

  • Soluble


C 30 march 2012

C: 30 March 2012

  • Take Out: p. 6-7

  • Objective: You will be able to:

    • describe factors affecting the solubility of solutes in water.

  • Do now: What three factors affect the rate of dissolution of a solid in a liquid?

  • Choose one factor and describe how it affects the rate of dissolution.


Agenda

Agenda

  • Do now

  • Lab questions and review?

  • Exit ticket 7.1

  • O2 in Streams reading and response

    Homework: Pages 8-11: due Monday

    Page 12 due Thursday


Exit ticket

Exit Ticket

  • When you finish your exit ticket, flip it over.

  • Then, begin reading the article on page 8, silently.


C 28 march 2012

Problem: The power plant makes hot water to cool the equipment then they discharge it into the river

Hot water does not hold enough oxygen

Since there is less oxygen the fish will die

Increase in Algae

Solution: we can add a steam pipe under the Longfellow bridge

move the steam throug a pipe to the other side of the building where they will use it to heat up buildings o.o (brilliant)

5-10 years to build this-disturb wildlife-So much money O.o brainstorm--------------result accomplish goal


Read the article

Read the article

  • Complete the questions on pages 10-11.

  • Then, we’ll get back together to discuss #8.


Ways to communicate your opinion on an issue you re passionate about

Ways to communicate your opinion on an issue you’re passionate about


Communicate your position

Communicate Your Position!

  • Groups of one to three people.

  • Choose one of the options we brainstormed.

  • Sign up on the board.

  • Meet with your group to plan out what you’ll do to complete this assignment!

  • Due next Thursday!


C homework

C: Homework

  • Pages 8-11: due Monday

  • Page 12: Thursday.


A 30 march 2012

A: 30 March 2012

  • Take Out: p. 10-11

  • Objective: You will be able to:

    • describe factors affecting the solubility of solutes in water.

  • Do now: From the article, what factor affects the solubility of a gas, like O2, in water? In what way does this factor affect the solubility of a gas in water?


Agenda1

Agenda

  • Do now

  • Solubility Notes

  • Reading a Solubility Curve

  • O2 in Streams reading and response

  • Cave Video

  • Molarity Calculations

    Homework: Pages 12 and 15: due Tuesday


C 28 march 2012

  • Hot/warm water is discharge into local water ways in the Charles River and is killing fish/other living things in the river and is promoting algal blooms.

  • The hot water is caused by power plants using river water to cool their equipment

  • The solution is that the power plant is going to heat the water enough to create steam which is sent to heat big buildings in Boston.


Cave film

Cave Film

  • A description of cave formation.

  • Takes place at Blanchard Cave in AR


C 4 april 2012

C: 4 April 2012

  • Grab a calculator!

  • Take Out Homework: Unit 7 Packet p. 10-11

  • Objective: You will be able to:

    • describe solubility of gases in solution and factors affecting their solubility.

    • make molarity calculations

  • Do now: Calculate the molarity of a solution made by dissolving 3.0 moles of solute in enough water to make 9.0 liters of solution.


Agenda2

Agenda

  • Do now

  • Review 7.1 (rates of dissolution)

  • Check homework p. 10-11

  • Respond to O2 in streams article – work time

  • Reading solubility graphs

  • Molarity problems: unlock the code!

    Homework: Finish pages 15-16: Thurs.

    Response to article project due Mon.

    7.1 and 7.2 Quiz: Monday


C 28 march 2012

7.1

  • Track your 7.1 exit ticket

  • Answers?


Brainstorm p 11

Brainstorm p. 11

  • 8. What ways could you communicate to others your position about something you’re passionate about?!


Communicate your position1

Communicate Your Position!

  • Groups of one to three people.

  • Choose one of the options we brainstormed.

  • Sign up on the board.

  • Meet with your group to plan out what you’ll do to complete this assignment!

  • Due Monday!


Your response must

Your response must…

  • Briefly summarize the article or indicate what the article is about

  • State your position on the change proposed by the power plant (to turn hot water discharge to steam to heat buildings across the Charles River)

  • Describe and support three reasons for your position.


Your response

Your response

  • This will obviously look VERY different for

    • letters to the editor

    • Tweets

    • a Tumblr page

    • A billboard

    • A tshirt

  • Be creative! Do a high quality job!


This period

This period…

  • Stay with your group and get most of the work done.

  • Check in with me at least once about your progress!

  • Return your computer by 2:20 pm

  • Track your Unit 6 Quiz and compile your unit 6 materials!


Solubility

Solubility


C 28 march 2012

  • solubility: the amount of a substance that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent.


Solid in a liquid solvent

Solid in a liquid solvent

  • What factors affect solubility of a solid solute in a liquid solvent?

    • (Not how fast it dissolves, but how much of it can be dissolved.)


Temperature

Temperature

  • solubility increases as temperature increases

    • Ex: Dissolving sugar in tea


Pressure

Pressure

  • no effect


Reading a solubility curve

Reading a Solubility Curve

Solid solute in a liquid solvent (H2O)


Solubility of gases in liquids

Solubility of Gases in Liquids

  • Temperature: solubility decreases as temperature increases

    • Ex: Dissolved oxygen in lakes and rivers

  • Pressure: solubility increases as pressure increases

    • Ex: Bottling soda


Solubility curve

Solubility Curve

Gas solutes in liquid solvent (H2O)


Reading a solubility graph

Reading a Solubility Graph

  • p. 15


Concentrations of solutions

Concentrations of Solutions

How do we quantify and measure how much solute is in a solution?


C 28 march 2012

  • dilute: a volume of solution with a small amount of dissolved solute

  • concentrated: a volume of solution with a large amount of dissolved solute


C 28 march 2012

  • concentration= amount of solute dissolved in a given quantity of solution.


C 28 march 2012

Ex. 1

A chemist mixes 0.25 moles of sodium chloride into water to make 1.0 L of solution. Calculate the molarity.


C 28 march 2012

Ex 2.

  • A saline (salt water) solution contains 0.90 g NaCl in exactly 100 mL of solution. What is the molarity of the solution?


C 28 march 2012

Ex. 3

a) How many moles of solute are present in 1.5 liters of 0.24 M solution of sodium chloride?

b) How many grams is this?


Practice problems

Practice Problems

  • Calculate the molarity of 0.35 moles of sodium chloride dissolved in enough water to make 1.0 L of solution.

  • Calculate the molarity of 0.25 grams of NaCl in 100. mL of water.

  • a. How many moles of NaCl were used to make 500 mL of a 2.0 M solution?

    b. How many grams is that?


Unlock the code

Unlock the Code

  • Page 16

  • Use 2 significant figures

  • Code is the FIRST NONZERO DIGIT of each answer


Homework2

Homework

  • Finish pages 15-16: Thurs.

  • Response to article project due Mon.

  • 7.1 and 7.2 Quiz: Monday


A 3 april 2012

A: 3 April 2012

  • Take Out Homework: p. 15

  • Objective: You will be able to:

    • describe solubility of gases in solution and factors affecting their solubility.

  • Do now: Write two sentences to describe the change in solubility of solids and gases in water as temperature increases.


Agenda3

Agenda

  • Do now

  • Review 7.1 (rates of dissolution)

  • Check homework p. 15

  • Respond to O2 in streams article

    Homework: Response to article due Thurs.

    Bring an empty glass jar by Thurs!

    7.1 and 7.2 Quiz: Thurs.


Your response must1

Your response must…

  • Briefly summarize the article or indicate what the article is about

  • State your position on the change proposed by the power plant (to turn hot water discharge to steam to heat buildings across the Charles River)

  • Describe and support three reasons for your position.


Your response1

Your response

  • This will obviously look VERY different for

    • letters to the editor

    • Tweets

    • a Tumblr page

    • A billboard

    • A tshirt

  • Be creative! Do a high quality job!


This period1

This period…

  • Stay with your group and get most of the work done.

  • Check in with me at least once about your progress!

  • Track your Unit 6 Quiz and compile your unit 6 materials!


Homework3

Homework

  • Response to article due Thurs.

  • Bring an empty glass jar by Thurs!

  • 7.1 and 7.2 Quiz: Thurs.


C 5 april 2012

C: 5 April 2012

  • Grab a calculator!

  • Take Out Homework: p. 15-16

  • Objective: You will be able to:

    • perform calculations involving the molarity of solutions.

  • Do now: Calculate the molarity of 2.0 moles of silver nitrate dissolved in enough water to make 4000. milliliters of solution. Use correct units! Show work.


Agenda4

Agenda

  • Do now

  • Homework answers

  • Making dilutions notes and examples

  • Dilutions practice problems: unlock the code!

  • 7.2 “Exit” ticket

  • Kook-aid lab day 1 Calculations

    Homework: Read p. 20-23 for Monday

    Quiz Monday on 7.1 and 7.2

    Response to article project: due Monday


Making a solution

Making a Solution

  • How do we make 100 mL of a 0.02 M copper (II) chloride solution?


Making a dilution

Making a Dilution

  • What if you have a solution of one concentration but need a solution of another concentration?

  • Dilute (verb): to make less concentrated by adding more solvent (water)

  • Stock solution: a concentrated solution kept in the lab “stock room”

  • M1V1=M2V2


C 28 march 2012

Demo

Ex 1) Starting with our 0.02 M solution of CuCl2, how, how many milliliters of that do we need to make 100 mL of 0.01 M solution?


Example 2

Example 2

  • How many milliliters of a 6.0 M stock solution would you need to make 100. mL of a 1.0 M solution?


Example 3

Example 3

  • How many milliliters of an 18 M stock solution would you need to make 100 mL of a 6 M solution?


Practice problems1

Practice Problems

  • How many grams of sugar (C12H22O11) do you need to make 400 mL of a 0.50 M solution?

  • How many milliliters of a 6.0 M stock solution would you need to make 500. mL of a 1.0 M solution?

  • How many milliliters of a 4.0 M stock solution would you need to make 500. mL of a 0.02 M solution?


Unlock the code1

Unlock the Code!

  • With your partner, complete page 17

  • Then, try the electronic lock to see if you’re correct!

  • If not, correct your work and try again!

  • Code = FIRST NONZERO DIGIT

  • Round to two sig. figs!

  • When you finish, have me initial p. 17, and then read p. 20-22.


C 28 march 2012

Quiz

  • When you finish, read page 20-22 silently.

  • Solve the problems on p. 20-21


A 5 april 2012

A: 5 April 2012

  • Grab a calculator!

  • Take Out Homework: project

  • Objective: You will be able to:

    • perform calculations involving the molarity of solutions and dilutions.

  • Do now: If you take 20 mL of a 6.0 M solution of HCl and dilute it to 100 mL, what is the new molarity?


Agenda5

Agenda

  • Do now

  • Review 7.2 exit ticket

  • 7.1 and 7.2 Quiz

  • Kool-aid lab day 1 calculations and demo

    Homework: Complete calculations on pages 20-21.

    Read the procedure on page 21 and 22.


C 9 april 2012

C: 9 April 2012

  • Grab a calculator!

  • Take Out Homework: project (unless you have emailed it!)

  • Objective: You will be able to:

    • perform calculations involving the molarity of solutions and dilutions.

  • Do now: If you take 20 mL of a 6.0 M solution of HCl and dilute it to 100 mL, what is the new molarity?


Agenda6

Agenda

  • Do now

  • Review 7.2 exit ticket

  • 7.1 and 7.2 Quiz

  • Kool-aid lab day 1 calculations and demo

    Homework: Complete calculations on pages 20-21.

    Read the procedure on page 21 and 22.


Quiz 7 1 and 7 2

Quiz 7.1 and 7.2

  • When you finish your quiz, hand it in.

  • Track your Unit 6 Final Quiz on your Unit 6 Packet when you get them back.

  • Silently read p. 20-22

  • Complete all calculations on p. 20-21.

  • due Wednesday


Crime scene investigation

Crime Scene Investigation

  • Your mission: to determine the time of death of the Kool-Aid man from a sample of Kool-Aid collected from him at the crime scene.


This period2

This period:

  • Read page 20 and do problem 1

  • Complete page 21, including hypothesis #1 and 2

  • Read pages 22-23

  • due Wednesday: be ready to rock when you come to class!


Homework4

Homework

Read p. 20-23 for Wednesday, complete all the problems

Be familiar with the procedure!


C 11 april 2012

C: 11 April 2012

  • Take Out Homework: p. 20-21

  • Objective: You will be able to:

    • create a standard curve of transmittance of solutions of varying concentrations

  • Do now: Transmittance is how much light will pass through a sample of solution. Write a hypothesis on p. 21 relating concentration to transmittance.


Agenda7

Agenda

  • Do now

  • Kool-Aid Lab intro and pipetting demo

  • Kool-Aid Lab work time!

    Homework: none!


Table p 22

Table p. 22


Procedure

Procedure

  • Steps 1-3: Make your 0.20 M stock solution of Kool-Aid

  • Steps 6-9: Make your series of diluted solutions.

  • Steps 10-14: Find and record the percent transmittance of each solution in the spectrophotometer.

  • Step 15: Graph and draw a line of best fit!

  • Step 16-19: Find the concentration of the solution collected from the crime scene and determine time of death.


Using a pipette

Using a pipette!


Your goal

Your goal

  • By the end of the period:

    • Have a 0.20 M stock solution prepared.

    • Have pipetted your dilutions into test tubes.

    • Found and recorded their transmittance in the spectrophotometer.

  • Homework: none!


C 12 april 2012

C: 12 April 2012

  • Objective: You will be able to:

    • create a standard curve of transmittance of solutions of varying concentrations

    • determine the time of death of the Kool-Aid man!

  • Do now: Record qualitative observations of your series of solutions from yesterday on page 23.


Agenda8

Agenda

  • Do now

  • Finish Kool-Aid Lab

  • Graph data

  • Determine concentration of unknown

  • Answer analysis and conclusion

  • Lab report info

    Homework:

    Lab report due Weds. April 25


By the end of the period

By the end of the period…

  • See the list on the board.

  • This is due before you leave class today – your graph and calculations are a 10 point lab grade!

  • No homework!


What you know

What you know…

  • Kool-Aid Man’s original concentration was 0.20 M at noon.

  • Children drank about half his volume in Kool-Aid each hour.

  • Each hour, he added enough water to fill himself back up.

  • What time did he die?


Clean up

Clean up

  • Wash and return all your equipment to the kidney table

  • Return your unknown

  • Work on the Analysis and Conclusion

    Homework: Line equation,

    Analysis and Conclusion Questions: due tomorrow

    Lab report due April 25


Lab report rubric

Lab Report Rubric


C 13 april 2012

C: 13 April 2012

  • Grab a calculator

  • Objective: You will be able to:

    • communicate your experiment and conclusions from the Kool-Aid Lab!

  • Do now: Pick up a rubric.


Agenda9

Agenda

  • Do now

  • Lab report requirements

  • Determine goal(s)

  • Lab report work time!

    Homework: Lab report due Weds. April 25 – printed and stapled, please!


Lab report rubric1

Lab Report Rubric


Your goal today

Your goal today

  • Determine which parts of your lab report you will accomplish today.

  • You should choose challenging parts on which you might need my help!

  • For example, making the graph in Excel, summarizing the procedure, making a table, making a conclusion, etc.


In the computer lab

In the computer lab…

  • Use your time wisely!

  • Your screen must face the center of the room!

  • Ask questions!

  • Save your work carefully in a place where you can access it from home!

  • Homework: Lab report due Weds. April 25


C 23 april 2012

C: 23 April 2012

  • Objective: You will be able to:

    • describe four possible sources of pollutants in Boston Harbor

    • predict the products of a double replacement reaction

  • Do now:

    a. What type of reaction?

    b. Predict the products:

    NaBr(aq) + AgF(aq) → ____ + ____


Agenda10

Agenda

  • Do now

  • Lab report questions?

  • Boston Harbor problem

  • Read articles and Jigsaw

  • Double replacement reactions: p. 6-8

    Homework: Lab report due Weds. April 25 – printed and stapled, please!

    Finish pages 6-8: due Wednesday


Introduction to project

Introduction to Project

  • Right now, as we speak, Boston Harbor is in trouble.

  • There is a pollutant in the water of the harbor that is killing large numbers of fish and causing state fisheries officials to worry for the health of the ecosystem for decades to come.

  • Already, over 1,000 fish have washed up dead on Boston’s beaches in the last month, with more expected to turn up in the coming weeks. Scientists are not sure what chemical is causing these deaths, only that they are not caused by the cold or other environmental factors.


Pollution articles

Pollution Articles

  • Read the article assigned to you.

  • Answer the questions at the end of the article.

  • Be prepared to describe what you learn to your lab group members!

  • If you finish early, choose any other article to read.


Jigsaw

Jigsaw

  • In your lab group, take turns describing to the other members of your group what you learned from your article.

  • Specifically, everyone needs to fill out the table on the front of the packet.


C 28 march 2012

  • If the ecosystem and economy of Boston Harbor is to survive this environmental catastrophe, it is up to YOU to figure out what chemical is poisoning the water, what the source of the chemical is, and what we can do to stop more of it from being released.


C 28 march 2012

How?

  • There are some skills you’ll need to acquire first!

    • How to predict the products of a double replacement reaction.

    • How to determine if the products are soluble or insoluble in water.

    • How to write a “net ionic equation”


With your partner

With your partner

  • Complete pages 6-8.

  • If you finish early, you can go on to pages 9-10.


C 25 april 2012

C: 25 April 2012

  • Take Out: Lab Report

  • Objective: You will be able to:

    • predict the products of a double replacement reaction

    • predict the solubility of a product

    • write net ionic equations

  • Do now: Write the correct formulas for:

    a. sodium sulfate

    b. calcium iodide

    c. lead (II) hydroxide


Agenda11

Agenda

  • Do now

  • Double replacement reactions answers

  • Predicting products, predicting solubility and writing net ionic equations p. 6-13

    Homework: Finish through page 13: due tomorrow!


Purpose

Purpose


What we have to know to be successful

What we have to know to be successful

  • How to predict the products of a double replacement reaction.

  • How to determine if the products are soluble in water (aq) or insoluble in water (s).

  • How to write a “net ionic equation” to show what’s really happening in a reaction!


This period3

This period

  • Work on pages 6-13 with your partner

  • Page 9 mini-experiment: wear goggles

  • Pages 10, 11 and 12 computer simulations: go to the correctly labeled laptop

    • Only up to four people at a time per laptop station!

  • Stay on task and work hard! Ask questions!

  • Have me sign my initials at the bottom of each page.

  • 10 pt. classwork grade based on work ethic!


Homework5

Homework

  • Finish through page 13: due tomorrow!


C 27 april 2012

C: 27 April 2012

  • Take Out: Save Our Seas p. 14

  • Objective: You will be able to:

    • write a procedure to determine the identity of the unknown Boston Harbor pollutant!

  • Do now:

  • What can you react with calcium iodide to produce a precipitate? (Hint: Look at your solubility table on page 10.)


Agenda12

Agenda

  • Do now

  • Plan procedure: p. 15-18

  • Create a data table

    Homework: Finish through page 18 (procedure and data table) of the Save our Seas lab: due Monday


This period4

This period

With your lab group:

  • Complete page 15-16

  • Use your first drafts of procedures written by your group members to determine one awesome procedure for this lab.

  • Have me read and comment on your draft.

  • Then, write a final draft in your packet!

  • Finally, design a data table on p. 18


Materials

Materials

  • You can do as many reactions as you need to.

  • You can do reactions on a piece of plastic film or in spot plates.

  • You have dropper bottles of 14 different compounds (p. 16)!


Groups

Groups


Possible pollutants

Possible Pollutants


Homework6

Homework

  • Finish through page 18 (data table) of the Save our Seas lab: due Monday


Exit ticket1

Exit Ticket

  • Solutions of sodium bromide and lead (II) nitrate react.

  • Write the equation and predict the products.

  • Predict the solubility (s) or (aq) of the products.

  • Balance the equation.

  • Write the ionic and net ionic equations.


A 26 april 2012

A: 26 April 2012

  • Take Out: “Save Our Seas” p. 14-15

  • Objective: You will be able to:

    • design a procedure to determine the identity of the Boston Harbor pollutant!

  • Do now: What can you react with calcium iodide to produce a precipitate? (Hint: Look at your solubility table on page 10.)


Agenda13

Agenda

  • Do now

  • Track exit ticket

  • Write a procedure to determine the identity of the unknown!

    Homework: none!


Track exit ticket

Track exit ticket

  • 7.3 on your Unit 7 Packet


With your lab group

With your lab group…

  • Brainstorm how to determine the identity of the unknown pollutant.

  • Then, draft a procedure on notebook paper

    • specific!

    • chronological!

    • describes what data to collect!

  • Finally, design a data table to collect your data and observations in tomorrow.

  • Due at the end of the period (one copy per group)


Groups1

Groups


C 30 april 2012

C: 30 April 2012

  • Objective: You will be able to:

    • carry out your procedure to determine the identity of the unknown Boston Harbor pollutant!

  • Do now: Solutions of calcium iodide and lead (II) nitrate react.

  • Write the molecular equation and balance it.

  • Then write the net ionic equation.


Agenda14

Agenda

  • Do now

  • Track 7.1 and 7.2 Quiz

  • Write procedure final draft

  • Carry out your procedure and collect data!

    Homework: Save our Seas: p. 19-21 due Thursday

    Quiz on 7.3: Predicting products/net ionic equations: Thursday


Track 7 1 and 7 2

Track 7.1 and 7.2

  • Chance to re-do these objectives on Thursdays quiz!


Before you begin

Before you begin…

  • As a group, finish your rough draft and check in with me OR edit your rough draft and write the final draft on p. 17.

    • What data will you collect? Where will you record it?

  • Design a beautiful data table to record your data in on p. 18.


Once you start

Once you start…

  • Goggles stay over your eyes!

  • Only take one to three dropper bottles at a time from the front table, and return them to where they belong when you finish with them.

  • Use 3 drops of each reactant every time – that’s completely enough!


Homework7

Homework

  • Edit procedure: Thurs.

  • Save our Seas: p. 19-21 due Thurs.


A 1 may 2012

A: 1 May 2012

  • Take Out: “Save Our Seas” p. 20

  • Objective: You will be able to:

    • draw conclusions about the pollutant in Boston Harbor

    • show what you know about predicting products of equations

  • Do now: Solutions of calcium iodide and lead (II) nitrate react.

  • Write the molecular equation and balance it.

  • Then write the net ionic equation.


Agenda15

Agenda

  • Do now

  • Track 7.1 and 7.2 Quiz and Review

  • 7.3 Quiz

  • Draw conclusions and turn in “Save Our Seas” packet

    Homework: None!


Track quiz 7 1 and 7 2

Track Quiz 7.1 and 7.2

  • And get your stamp!

  • Then, we’ll review the answers together!


Homework8

Homework

  • None!


C 3 may 2012

C: 3 May 2012

  • Grab a calculator and your clicker!

  • Take Out: Save our Seas packet

  • Objective: You will be able to:

    • Calculate the pH of a solution of a strong acid.

  • Do now: How many grams of potassium chloride (molar mass = 74.55 g/mol) are required to make 200. mL of a 0.60 M solution?


Agenda16

Agenda

  • Do now / quiz review

  • 7.3 Quiz

  • Acids and Bases Notes

  • Demo!

  • Calculating pH from molarity

  • Practice Problems

  • Acid rain article and response

  • Homework: Unit 7 packet p. 27-29: due Monday

    • do the bonus on a separate sheet of paper!


7 3 quiz

7.3 Quiz

  • Re-do 7.1 and 7.2 if you haven’t earned a 3 or 4 yet!

  • When you finish, make sure your “Save our Seas” packet is complete, and turn it in!

  • Then, complete pages 28-29 in the Unit 7 Packet

  • If you leave your Unit 7 packet out, I’ll stamp it!


Introduction to acids and bases

Introduction to Acids and Bases


Properties of acids

Properties of Acids

Sour

Turn universal indicator red

React with metal to produce H2

React with bases to produce salt and water

Electrolyte


Properties of bases

Properties of bases

Bitter

Turn universal indicator blue

Slippery

React with acids to produce salt and water

Electrolyte


Key question

Key Question

  • How do we quantify how acidic or basic a solution is?


C 28 march 2012

pH

  • pH is a measurement of how acidic or basic a solution is

  • 0-14 scale

    • 0 is most acidic

    • 14 is most basic

    • 7 is neutral (water)


An orange is most likely

An orange is most likely

  • Acidic

  • Basic

  • Neutral


The ph of an orange is most likely

The pH of an orange is most likely

  • 10

  • 7

  • 3


Soap is

Soap is

  • an acid.

  • a base.

  • neutral.


Soap most likely has a ph of

Soap most likely has a pH of

  • 10

  • 7

  • 3


Pure water is

Pure water is

  • Acidic

  • Basic

  • Neutral


Pure water has a ph of

Pure water has a pH of

  • 10

  • 7

  • 3


Bleach is a cleaning product that feels slippery it is

Bleach is a cleaning product that feels slippery. It is

  • An acid

  • A base

  • Neutral


Bleach is extremely basic it has a ph of

Bleach is extremely basic. It has a pH of

  • 14

  • 10

  • 7

  • 2


Your stomach acid is extremely acidic it has a ph of

Your stomach acid is extremely acidic. It has a pH of

  • 14

  • 7

  • 3

  • 1


Ph and acids

pH and acids

  • The numbers on the pH scale come from the hydrogen ion concentration [H+]

    • pH = “Power of Hydrogen”

  • Acid: a compound that dissolves in water to produce a hydrogen ion (H+)

  • The higher the hydrogen ion concentration, the LOWER the pH!


Hydrogen ion concentration

Hydrogen ion concentration

  • [H+] increases by 10 for each step you go down on the pH scale


Let s test ph

Let’s test pH

  • To test pH we can use pH paper or a pH probe


Linear scale

Linear Scale

  • Linear scale – y value changes at a constant rate with changes in the x value (straight line on a graph)

  • Example: The salary for a government employee changes by a set amount each year


Linear scale1

Linear Scale


Logarithmic scale

Logarithmic scale

  • Logarithmic scale – y value increases by being multiplied by 10 (curved line)

  • The pH scale is a logarithmic scale

  • Example: A solution with a pH of 6 is 10 times more acidic than a pH of 7 – it has 10 times more hydrogen ions in it


Logarithmic function graph

Logarithmic function graph


Earthquake

Earthquake!

  • Richter scale – 1-10 based on magnitude of the earthquake

  • So two magnitude 5’s should add up to a 10, right? (according to a CA politician…)

  • Only if it is linear (which it isn’t!)

  • A category 6 is TEN times stronger than a category 5, so you need TEN 5’s to make the same energy as a 6

  • So a 9 is 100,000 times stronger than a 5!!


Powers of ten

Powers of Ten

  • http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/java/scienceopticsu/powersof10/


A solution with a ph of 3 is times more acidic than a solution with a ph of 4

A solution with a pH of 3 is ___ times more acidic than a solution with a pH of 4.

  • 1

  • 2

  • 10

  • 100


A solution with a ph of 3 is times more acidic than a solution with a ph of 5

A solution with a pH of 3 is ___ times more acidic than a solution with a pH of 5.

  • 2

  • 10

  • 20

  • 100


A 3 may 2012

A: 3 May 2012

  • Take Out: Unit 7 Packet p. 27

  • Objective: You will be able to:

    • differentiate between a strong and weak acid

  • Do now: Calculate the concentration of [OH-] ions in a solution with a pH of 11.


Agenda17

Agenda

  • Do now

  • Homework Answers

  • Strong vs. Weak Acids

  • Acid rain article and response

    Homework: Unit 7 Packet p. 30 (background questions) and Read lab procedure on p. 31: Tuesday


Where does ph come from

Where does pH come from?

  • A strong acid is added to water:

  • http://www.mhhe.com/physsci/chemistry/essentialchemistry/flash/acid13.swf

  • HCl(aq) → H+(aq) + Cl-(aq)

  • Dissociation!


Ph problems

pH Problems!

  • 1.2x10-3 grams of HCl is dissolved in 2 L of water. Calculate the pH.

  • 1.12x10-9 grams of KOH is dissolved in 100 mL of water. Calculate the pH.

  • 2.32x10-5 grams of Mg(OH)2 is dissolved in 100 mL of water. Calculate the pH.


Strong vs weak acids

Strong vs. Weak Acids

HCl H+ + Cl-

Hydrochloric acid is an example of a strong acid.

It will dissociate completely, maximizing the amount of H+ for a given concentration of acid. No HCl will be present.

HC2H3O2  H+ + C2H3O2-Acetic acid is an example of a weak acid.

It will not dissociate completely, leaving most of the solution to contain HC2H3O2


List of strong acids and bases

List of strong acids and bases


Acid rain article

Acid Rain Article

  • Independently, read the article on p. 28

  • Then, complete the questions on p. 29

  • If you finish early, do the BONUS on a separate sheet of paper and hand it in!

  • Then, begin your homework:

    • Unit 7 Packet p. 30 (background questions) and read lab procedure on p. 31: Tuesday


A homework

A: Homework

  • Unit 7 Packet p. 30 (background questions) and Read lab procedure on p. 31: Tuesday


Calculating ph

Calculating pH

  • pH = −log[H+]

  • Negative log of the concentration of hydrogen ions.

  • The more hydrogen ions, the lower the pH!


Examples and problems

Examples and Problems

  • In a neutral solution, the concentration of hydrogen ions is 1x10-7 M. Calculate the pH.

  • Calculate the pH of a 0.001 M H+ solution.

  • What is the pH of a solution with a hydrogen ion concentration of 1.0x10-10?

  • Calculate the pH of a solution where [H+] = 5.0x10-6


What about bases

What about bases?

  • Strong bases produce OH- ions in a solution.

  • NaOH(aq) → Na+(aq) + OH-(aq)

  • pOH = –log[OH-]

  • pH + pOH = 14


Examples and problems1

Examples and Problems

  • What is the pH of a solution if [OH-] = 4.0x10-11 M?

  • Calculate the pH of a solution if [OH-] = 4.3x10-5 M.

  • [OH-] = 2.0x10-5 M


Extension

Extension

  • What is the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution with pH = 8?

  • What is the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution with pH = 2.35?

  • What is the concentration of hydroxide ions in a solution with pH = 10?

  • What is the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution with pH = 9.50?


Assignment

Assignment

  • With your partner:

    • Unit 7 Packet p. 27: Calculating pH

  • Independently:

    • Unit 7 Packet p. 28-29: Acid rain article and reading questions

    • due at the end of the period!


C homework1

C: Homework

  • Unit 7 packet p. 27-29: due Monday

    • do the bonus on a separate sheet of paper!

  • Complete that table by showing persistence and grit!


8 may 2012

8 May 2012

  • Grab a calculator!

  • Objective: You will be able to:

    • calculate the freezing point of a solution given solute concentration.

  • Do now: a. Calculate the pH of a 0.40 M solution of HCl.

    b. Calculate the pH of a solution of 0.0020 M NaOH.


Agenda18

Agenda

  • Do now

  • pH practice

  • 7.4 Exit Ticket

  • Colligative Properties!

  • Hand back work and organize

    Homework: Finish Colligative Properties worksheet: due tomorrow


7 4 exit ticket

7.4 Exit Ticket

  • When you finish, begin the Colligative Properties handout silently.


Colligative properties

Colligative Properties

  • http://antoine.frostburg.edu/chem/senese/101/solutions/faq/why-salt-melts-ice.shtml

  • Does adding solute to water change the boiling or freezing point of water?


With your partner1

With your partner

  • Work through the Colligative Properties worksheet.

  • Complete it for homework: due tomorrow…because….


C 28 march 2012

TOMORROW

IS

ICE CREAM

DAY!!!


Bring optional

Bring (Optional)

  • If you’d like mix-ins or toppings, please bring them!

  • You probably also want to bring a pair of gloves.


Homework9

Homework

  • Finish Colligative Properties handout (all pages!): due tomorrow

  • Bring mix-ins and gloves (optional)


21 march 2011

21 March 2011

  • Take Out: Lab Handout

  • Objective: SWBAT prepare for lab by writing an objective and summarizing the procedure.

  • Do now: Write an equation for the reaction between solutions of HBr and KOH.


Agenda19

Agenda

  • Do now

  • Homework check

  • Strong vs. weak acids

  • Pre-lab: writing an objective and summarizing the procedure

  • Begin lab (?)

    Homework: Finish “Titration Pre-Lab” Handout


With your lab group1

With your lab group…

  • Complete the “Titration Pre-Lab” handout to be ready for lab tomorrow.

  • Be sure you have finished the front page of the lab handout by tomorrow.


11 may 2012

11 May 2012

  • Grab your goggles!

  • Objective: You will be able to:

    • react a strong acid with a strong base to observe changes in pH.

  • Do now: Write the molecular and net ionic equation for the reaction between solutions of HBr and KOH.


Agenda20

Agenda

  • Do now

  • Mr. Purser: Pre-lab review and practice

  • Pre-lab discussion and questions

  • Complete lab

  • Work on Conclusions questions

    Homework: Finish Unit 7 Packet p. 30-36: due Tues.

    Review sheet p. 1-2: Mastery and Prioritization: due Tues.

    Lab corrections due by next Friday.


Acids and bases lab

Acids and Bases Lab

  • We will be reacting a strong acid (HCl) with a strong base (NaOH).

  • What happens when you put a strong acid or a strong base in water?

  • What happens when you react HCl with NaOH? Write an equation.


Pre lab

Pre-lab

  • Collect materials from the front of the room, and begin to carry out the procedure.

  • Return the bromothymol blue indicator as soon as you have added your one drop.


Collecting data

Collecting Data

  • Stir after every drop!

  • After the first few, and then every few, drops you will be using pH paper to record pH.

  • Use a toothpick to drop a tiny bit of your solution onto the pH paper.

    • Don’t stick the pH paper into your solution!

  • Record pH color and pH often, as well as the color of the solution itself


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • Carefully and thoughtfully answer the conclusions questions with your group.

  • p. 30-36

  • These are due Tuesday.


Safety

Safety

  • We are working with a strong acid with a concentration of 0.1 M and a strong base with concentration 0.1 M.

  • Wear goggles.

  • Work carefully and precisely, following directions exactly.

  • Wipe up spills with a dry paper towel and then clean with a wet sponge.

  • Stay seated whenever possible to avoid spills.


Clean up1

Clean up

  • Wash out your spot plate with your goggles on.

  • Return equipment to the front table.

  • Throw away pH paper (don’t leave it in the sink!)


Homework10

Homework

  • Finish Unit 7 Packet p. 30-36: due Tues.

    • p. 32 #4: Use the number of drops of HCl when the solution was neutralized (NOT the number of drops after you added 5 additional drops!)

  • Review sheet p. 1-2: Mastery and Prioritization: due Tues.


C 10 may 2012

C: 10 May 2012

  • Take Out: Unit 7 Packet p. 40-41

  • Objective: SWBAT demonstrate freezing point depression by making (and eating) ice cream!

  • Do now: Use your Colligative Properties handout to determine:

    a) Increasing the number of particles of solute will ______ the freezing point of a solution.

    b) Name one compound that will cause a greater decrease in freezing point than NaCl. Explain why you chose that compound.


Agenda21

Agenda

  • Do now

  • Colligative Properties answers

  • Track and go over exit ticket

  • Pre-lab and directions

  • Make ice cream!

  • Eat ice cream

  • Clean up and post lab

    Homework: Lab Analysis/Conclusions: due tomorrow

    7.4 and 7.5 Quiz tomorrow


Colligative properties answers

Colligative Properties Answers


Track exit ticket1

Track Exit Ticket!

  • Let’s go over the answers


First

First

  • Check your answers to p. 42 of the Unit 7 packet with your partner.


Colligative properties1

Colligative Properties

  • Properties of a solution (like melting point and freezing point) that depend on the number of particles and concentration of the solute.


Ice cream lab directions

Ice cream lab directions

  • Station 1: Ice cream mixture

    • In a small ziploc bag:

      • 1 c. milk

      • ¼ c. sugar

      • ¼ t. vanilla

      • mix-ins you brought

    • Push out all the air and seal the bag

    • Fold the top over and seal with masking tape


C 28 march 2012

  • Station 2: Salt and Ice

    • In a large ziplog bag:

      • ¾ full with ice

      • 200 mL water

    • Take the temperature and record it

    • Add 145 g salt


C 28 march 2012

  • Part III: At your table:

    • Place the small bag inside the large bag of ice, push out the air and seal the bag.

    • Place the first big bag in a second big bag, push out the air and seal it.

    • Shake and knead vigorously!

    • When the ice cream has solidified, take the temperature of the ice water again


Eat your ice cream

Eat your ice cream!

  • Put your ice cream into cups, add toppings and enjoy!

  • Clean up (When you have cleaned, raise your hand, and I will come sign your sheet)

    • Small bag, cups and spoons go in the trash

    • Large bags get emptied out and placed into the front sink to be reused

  • Work on Data and Analysis, and Conclusions


How does it work

How does it work?

The ice cream mixture has lots of dissolved solutes, so it won’t melt unless it is well below 0oC.

Ice has to absorb heat energy in order to melt.

Where does that heat energy come from?

Adding salt lowers the melting point of the ice, so it must absorb even more heat energy (from the ice cream mixture) to melt.

This makes the ice/water/salt solution even colder than plain ice water.

This super cold solution brings the temperature of the ice cream mixture to below freezing, to freeze the ice cream.

Heat Energy


Exit ticket 7 5

Exit Ticket 7.5

  • When you finish, turn it in.

  • Then, work on the ice cream lab analysis and conclusion questions on p. 44 of the Unit 7 Packet


Homework11

Homework

  • Ice Cream Lab:

    • Data and Analysis

    • Conclusions


C 11 may 2012

C: 11 May 2012

  • Take Out: Unit 7 Packet p. 44

  • Objective: SWBAT

    • review Unit 7 objectives

  • Do now: Calculate the pH of a 0.002 M solution of KOH.


Agenda22

Agenda

  • Do now

  • Go over ice cream post-lab

  • Review all Unit 7 objectives

    Homework: Unit 7 quiz Monday - all objectives

    Review packet p. 1-2: Mastery and Prioritize


Review stations

Review Stations

  • Write your work and answers on a lined sheet of paper

  • Work efficiently and with only the people in your group.

  • Please wait to move until the timer goes off!


Homework12

Homework

Unit 7 quiz Monday - all objectives

Review packet p. 1-2: Mastery and Prioritize


  • Login