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Pages 65-68. How Dna and Rna Collaborate to Make Proteins. By- Jahin Akhand. Functions Of Proteins. In Addition to its role in cellular reproduction and replication, it also serves as workers in many jobs of a cell. Antibodies (Recognizes/attacks invaders) Hormones (Messenger)

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How Dna and Rna Collaborate to Make Proteins

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Pages 65-68

How Dna and Rna Collaborate to Make Proteins

By- Jahin Akhand

Functions Of Proteins

  • In Addition to its role in cellular reproduction and replication, it also serves as workers in many jobs of a cell.

    • Antibodies (Recognizes/attacks invaders)

    • Hormones (Messenger)

    • Signal Reception (Cell to Cell Communication)

    • Cell Movement (Cell shape changes)

    • Transporter

    • Cell Structure

    • Enzyme (Ex. DNA/RNA Polymerase)

Transcription and Post-Transcriptional Modification

  • Gene expression- The process by which the information is encoded in a gene is converted first into messenger RNA then into a protein.

    • In order for the genes to be expressed so proteins can be created on the ribosomes, a molecule must copy the code stored in DNA and take the message to the ribosomes (Like a instruction manual) and this process is called Transcription.


  • More Detailed Version: The process starts in the Nucleus where a double-stranded nucleotide reveals it’s single stranded DNA sequence to be transcribed. Using DNA-RNA complementary base pairing rule and RNA polymerase as a builder, the A in a DNA strand places a U on the new and growing RNA strand and a T in a DNA strand places an A on the RNA strand. C in DNA places a G on RNA and G on DNA places C in RNA.

DNA Strand

New mRNA

After Transcription and Translation

  • Once the entire DNA sequence has been transcribed, RNA polymerase encounters the terminal sequence of the gene and dissociates.

  • Once the newly created mature mRNA reaches a ribosome, a translator translates DNA/RNA language to protein language. The process is called Translation and this carried out by Transfer RNA (tRNA). There are also 3 important stages in the translatingphase.

  • 1. Initiation- Begins when mRNA , the first tRNA carrying the first amino acid , and the small/large subunits of a ribosome come together to form a complex. Then a large ribosomal subunit binds to the smaller subunit and forms a docking site for the first tRNA.

Translation (Cont.)

  • 2. Elongation- On the large ribosomal subunit, another docking site is available for binding the next tRNA with a anticodon which matches the next codon on the mRNA molecule. The process continues and a growing peptide chain starts to form.

  • 3. Termination- The elongation step continues until stop codon is encountered which causes the translation to be terminated. The completed chain then dissociates after the whole complex dissembles.

  • Proteins made this was may not be ready to perform their job right away.

RNA: A Nucleotide

  • Messenger RNA, tRNA , and rRNA are three important players in protein synthesis

  • These are not discarded by the cell

    - Ribozyme and RNAse- in their studies of genetic code and transcription , Thomas Cech and Sidney Altman noticed that RNA not only serves as a genetic code, it also had catalytic activity (means it can also speed up a reaction)

    - Used as an energy source during protein synthesis , ATP, from protein synthesis.

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