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Research Based Practices for Field Services. Minnesota State University December 5, 2001. Introduction. For Minnesota’s correctional services to achieve consistent, result-based outcomes across the state, benchmarks need to be set and achieved for field service practices

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Research based practices for field services

Research Based Practices for Field Services

Minnesota State University

December 5, 2001


Introduction
Introduction

  • For Minnesota’s correctional services to achieve consistent, result-based outcomes across the state, benchmarks need to be set and achieved for field service practices

  • To begin setting benchmarks, eight “Best Practices” have been developed


Eight best practices
Eight Best Practices

1. Automated and Validated Risk Tool

2. Cognitive/Behavioral Programming

3. Case Plans

4. Restorative Justice

5. Primary Services

6. Supervision Workload Standards

7. Transition/Aftercare Services

8. Outcome Measures



Automated validated risk tools1
Automated & Validated Risk Tools

  • Description:

    • The newest generation of risk/need tool is validated based on actuarial methods

    • Identifies key factors that predict recidivism

    • Lends itself to supervision levels and intervention strategies

  • Recommended Practice:

    • Every felon, personal gross misdemeanant and misdemeanant should have a risk tool applied. This tool should be consistent state-wide and offenders should be re-assessed every six-months. Other risk and need tools should be used as deemed appropriate.


Automated validated risk tools2
Automated & Validated Risk Tools

  • You know it when you see….

    • The use of a common risk/need tool(s) that identifies dynamic criminogenic needs

    • Specialized tools for unique populations such as female, domestic violence, and sex offenders

    • Tools are culturally specific

    • The tool is used to determine supervision level and techniques


Yls cmi sub scales
YLS/CMI Sub-Scales

  • Prior and Current Offenses and Dispositions

  • Family/Parenting

  • Education/Employment

  • Peer Relations

  • Substance Abuse

  • Leisure/Recreation

  • Personal/Behavior

  • Attitudes/Orientation


Lsi r sub scales
LSI-R Sub-Scales

  • Criminal History

  • Education/Employment

  • Financial

  • Family/Marital

  • Accommodations

  • Leisure/Recreation

  • Companions


Lsi r sub scales1
LSI-R Sub-Scales

  • Alcohol/Drug Problems

  • Emotional/Personal

  • Attitudes/Orientation






Cognitive behavioral programming1
Cognitive/Behavioral Programming

  • Description:

    • Offenders often possess cognitive patterns that predispose them to committing crime (i.e., rigid thinking, poor problem solving skills, lack of empathy, etc.)

    • Cognitive/behavioral programming provides cognitive restructuring, thinking skills, and life skills

    • It helps offender re-examine values, understand consequences to holding certain beliefs, and give him/her a skill set to handle conflict and attain personal goals

  • Recommended Practice:

    • All appropriate adult and juvenile high-risk offenders will be referred to a cognitive/behavioral class


Cognitive behavioral programming2
Cognitive/Behavioral Programming

  • You know it when you see…

    • The offering of three forms of programming (cog restructuring, cog skill building, and life skills)

    • Groups that are more intense and last longer for higher risk offenders

    • Responsivity/matching

    • Forethought to gender and cultural specific needs

    • Quality control mechanisms put in place including, but not limited to, peer review, taped sessions, use of an outside consultant, support groups, etc.



Case plans1
Case Plans

  • Description:

    • Case plans ensure that case managers channel a sundry of information and diverse mission objections into a purposeful interaction

    • Case plans target the purpose of supervision and hold the offender and staff accountable

    • Case plans should be written, time and goal-driven, realistic and dynamic in nature

  • Recommended Practice:

    • Each high-risk offender will have a completed case plan, incorporating the core supervision objectives and conducted through motivational interviewing techniques


Case plans2
Case Plans

  • You will know it when you see…

    • Structured plans developed for every higher risk offender

    • Plans that take into account both risk reduction and restoration objectives

    • Plans that are clear, written, concise, realistic, measurable, and specific

    • An emphasis on building developmental assets and strength-based approaches

    • Plans that allow for parent, victim, and community involvement and signature when appropriate

    • The use of motivational interviewing techniques in the development of the plan


INCREASING MOTIVATION TO CHANGE:

PERMANENT EXIT

(EVENTUALLY)

Maintenance

(Skills to maintain

support

with relapse)

Action

(Doing something

i.e. treatment)

Pre-Contemplation

Clueless)

Determination

ENTER

HERE

Status

Quo

Change

Contemplation

(“yes but...”)

TEMPORARY

EXIT

BY: Prochaska & Diclemente


The risk principle
The Risk Principle

  • Duration, level and intensity of service should be dependent on the level of risk posed by the client

  • The positive effects of treatment are greater among high risk offenders than lower risk offenders

  • In fact, recidivism rates increase among low risk offenders with increased services


The need principle
The Need principle

  • Focus the target of intervention on “criminogenic needs”or those factors that predict future criminal conduct


The reponsivity principle
The Reponsivity Principle

  • General: Behavioral, Cognitive Behavioral, structured social learning

  • Specific Considerations:

    • Level of Psychological Development

      (cognitive/interpersonal)

    • Anxiety, Psychopathy & Motivation

    • Gender, Age, Ethnicity/Race


Setting up a case plan
Setting Up a Case Plan

The Big Four

  • Anti-Social Behaviors (History)

  • Anti-Social Beliefs

  • Anti-Social Peers

  • Anti-Social Personality Patterns


SAQI

  • S - Strongly Related to Criminal Behavior

  • A - Alterable

  • Q - Quick (How quickly can the issue be addressed?)

  • I - Inter-Related (Will fixing one problem fix others?)



Restorative justice1
Restorative Justice

  • Description

    • Restorative justice asks:

      • What was the harm?

      • What is needed to repair the harm?

      • Who is responsible for the repair?

    • Restorative justice focuses on three stakeholders (community, victim, and offender)

    • Offenders are held accountable by understanding the harm and “making things right” to the degree possible

  • Recommended Practice

    • Restorative justice techniques are available to all appropriate cases


Restorative justice2
Restorative Justice

  • You know it when you see…

    • An emphasis on repairing harm

    • A balanced approach to accountability (victims), competency development (offenders) and public safety (community)

    • Participation by all stakeholders

    • Victim-offender face-to-face dialogue

    • Victim impact and empathy classes

    • Community courts

    • Crime repay crews



Primary services1
Primary Services

  • Description:

    • Certain correctional services are considered the coreof an efficient and effective justice system

    • These primary services should be available no matter the location of the jurisdiction, the relative availability of regional funding or the type of correctional delivery system

  • Recommended Practice:

    • Each jurisdiction should have available those services listed as primary and core in the 1994 Probation Standards Task Force Report


Primary services2
Primary Services

  • You know it when you see…. (examples)

    • Pre-sentence and pre-adjudication investigations

    • Specialized assessment services

    • Chemical dependency and urinalysis services

    • Sex offender services

    • Work crews

    • Intensive supervision

    • Domestic abuse investigations and services

    • Volunteers

    • Mental health programming



Supervision workload standards1
Supervision Workload Standards

  • Description:

    • Current caseload and workload sizes vary across the state

    • Most jurisdictions measure workload differently, thereby making comparisons difficult to determine

    • Workload standards provide better opportunity to measure outcomes based on changing workload


Supervision workload standards2
Supervision Workload Standards

  • Recommended Practice:

    • Each jurisdiction should report workload size using similar reporting mechanisms. Until a specific workload method is developed, the following should be applied as maximum caseloads per agent:

      IntensiveSpecialHighMed. LowAdmin.

      Adults 15 40 60 100 300 1000

      Juveniles 10 NA 25 35 100 NA


Supervision workload standards3
Supervision Workload Standards

  • You know it when you see…

    • Caseloads and workloads at a level whereby probation staff can apply research-proven practices that meet public safety and other mission objectives

    • Intensive agents partnering with law enforcement officers and conducting ride-alongs

    • Probation staff participating in the community policing meetings with the public, block clubs, etc.

    • Juvenile probation staff located in the schools working with school personnel to apply offender interventions, academic improvement activities, and prevention



Transition aftercare services1
Transition/Aftercare Services

  • Description

    • Transition/aftercare services are key methods to ensure successful integration back into the community and serve as a way of preserving the financial investment already made in the offender

    • Effective transitional/aftercare services involve:

      • case management

      • the start of release planning at the point of entry into residential programming

      • assessment services

      • collaboration with multiple agencies

      • mentoring

      • highly structured environments

      • restorative programming


Transition aftercare services2
Transition/Aftercare Services

  • Recommended Practices:

    • Transitional planning starts at the time of intake. A written plan that incorporates effective practices is developed prior to release. Case management services follow for a minimum of 90 days


Transition aftercare services3
Transition/Aftercare Services

  • You know it when you see…

    • The intentional creation of seamless services from residential to field supervision

    • Case managers planning for transition from the point of initial placement

    • Comprehensive assessment services

    • Linkages with mentors and community support

    • Collaboration with multiple community-based agencies



Outcome measures1
Outcome Measures

  • Description:

    • Todetermine if existing practice is producing intended results, the agency mission must be clear and measurements developed

    • Data is needed for policymakers and funders to know how to effectively contribute toward intended results

    • Each jurisdiction needs to have a consistent and core set of measured outcomes in order for funding to be successfully applied

    • The 1998 Outcome Measurement Task Force identified a set of core objectives and measurements to be collected in each correctional jurisdiction


Outcome measures2
Outcome Measures

  • Minimum Standards:

    • Each correctional jurisdiction should report outcome data as identified by the 1998 Outcome Measurement Task Force


Outcome measures3
Outcome Measures

  • You will know it when you see…

    • Measurable results that tie directly to the agency’s goals

    • Highly visible and accountable measures reported

    • An information system that includes data fields on all three stakeholders (offender, victim, community)

    • The use of surveys to determine how external stakeholders view services

    • Funding and policy development tied to results

    • Consistent reporting on core outcomes for all 87 counties


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