Quality assurance in higher education which model and why
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EUROPOS SĄJUNGA Europos socialinis fondas. MYKOLO ROMERIO UNIVERSITETAS. QUALITY ASSURANCE IN HIGHER EDUCATION WHICH MODEL AND WHY ?. D.M.REKKAS Associate Professor School of Pharmacy, University of Athens HELLAS [email protected] CONTENTS. What is Quality-Quality Assurance

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Quality assurance in higher education which model and why

EUROPOS SĄJUNGA

Europos socialinis fondas

MYKOLO ROMERIO

UNIVERSITETAS

QUALITY ASSURANCE IN HIGHER EDUCATIONWHICH MODEL AND WHY ?

D.M.REKKAS

Associate Professor

School of Pharmacy, University of Athens

HELLAS

[email protected]


Contents

CONTENTS

  • What is Quality-Quality Assurance

  • What is missing?

  • The systems perspective –Quality by Design

  • The stakeholders

  • The Bologna Process and the EU vision

  • The ENQA-European Association for QA in HE

  • The role of the Universities-EUA-Key findings

  • The Quality Assurance Standards for HE

  • Do we need a model for QA?

  • Which Model and Why?

  • Conclusions


Definitions

DEFINITIONS

  • Quality is the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy givenneeds(ASQ)

  • Quality Assurance: all those planned or systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a product or service will satisfy given needs(ASQ)

Value to the Customers

Making sure that Quality is what it should be


Are we missing something

ARE WE MISSING SOMETHING?

  • How Quality can be implemented in the first place – Quality by Design-Built in Quality

  • How we can assure Quality if we do not know what and how to implement it?

  • Quality is a depended variable

  • It is there only if it is built in the provided service

  • Then we can assure with adequate evidence that it is constantly satisfies given needs…


Quality is a depended variable

QUALITY IS A DEPENDED VARIABLE


The educational process as a system quality by design

THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS AS A SYSTEM-QUALITY BY DESIGN

What is a System ?

  • A network of interdependent components that work together to accomplish the aim of the system. The system should have an aim.If there is no aim,there is no system. (Deming)

  • Coming together of parts, interconnections and aim …The real power lies in the way the parts come together and are interconnected to fulfill some purpose. (Plsek)

  • Set of elements stand in interrelations. (Bertanlanffy)

  • The whole is more than the sum of its parts.

  • The properties of the system are the properties of the interrelations…


The 3 steps for quality and the pdsa cycle

THE 3 STEPS FOR QUALITYAND THE PDSA CYCLE

DO

PLAN

Design

Implementation

ACT

STUDY

Assurance

SYSTEMS APPROACH


The first mistake

THE FIRST MISTAKE

  • Discussion-Standards about QA

  • BUT no thinking about Design and Implementation of Quality in HE

  • Fast forward to the 3rd step

  • Without the prerequisite two steps

  • Danger of falling into the gap!

  • Why?

  • Policy makers may lack knowledge of Quality theory

    and its tools


The stakeholders satisfy the needs of whom

THE STAKEHOLDERS(SATISFY THE NEEDS OF WHOM?)

  • The students

  • Their parents

  • Employers

  • Governments -Regulatory bodies

  • Taxpayers

  • Other schools

  • Professional communities etc


What do they expect their needs

WHAT DO THEY EXPECT?(THEIR NEEDS)

  • The Governments want to keep the cost low

  • The students want short duration/ low cost studies and to find well paid jobs quickly

  • The Employers want “made to order” scientists at the lowest possible cost but very productive

  • The society needs high quality services and low cost studies

  • The policy makers want fast, low cost and efficient educational processes to fill the gap with the competition around the globe


In short

IN SHORT

  • All these needs have to be met through the educational processes

students

employers

society

staff


The second mistake

THE SECOND MISTAKE

  • No answers-Discussion

  • No consensus

  • Resistance to changes


Defining the right questions to get the right answers

DEFINING THE RIGHT QUESTIONSTO GET THE RIGHT ANSWERS

  • Can we satisfy all these needs simultaneously?

  • Is the educational process capable of meeting these needs?

  • By whom and how this transformation will be carried out?

  • Can the University staff lead the way?

  • Do we have the knowledge, the commitment and the resources required?

  • Competition or Partnership?

  • The state is considering all stakeholders and their needs of equal importance?


Defining the right questions to get the right answers1

DEFINING THE RIGHT QUESTIONSTO GET THE RIGHT ANSWERS

  • Guidelines and standards or policies for the implementation of Quality?

  • Which needs ?

  • All needs of equal weight?

  • Which are the in depended and depended variables?

  • If Quality is the depended variable how will be achieved ?

  • Can we manage the educational process effectively to achieve quality? Do we own/ understand the process?

  • Curricula frozen or changing to address the changing needs?


Defining the right questions to get the right answers2

DEFINING THE RIGHT QUESTIONSTO GET THE RIGHT ANSWERS

  • Students with innovative culture or practical skills?

  • Preparation of students with social responsibility (society needs first) or ready to be employed?

  • Staff responsive to the societal needs through the educational and research process or staff making papers with high impact factor?

  • Each staff member/University alone to survive the competition or team work and partnership?

  • Discussion with all the stakeholders on common understanding or just following orders?

  • Quality Standards or Quality Culture?

  • Both ? OK, but which comes first?


The eu policy in he

THE EU POLICY IN HE

  • The Bologna Process

  • The ENQA-European Association for QA in HE

  • 3 cycles, ECTS, Diploma supplement

  • Mobility

  • Employability

  • Student centered learning

  • Life long learning

  • Awareness on QA in HE

  • Publication of the standards & guidelines for QA in HE (2005) as aresponse to the Berlin communique (2003)


Key findings so far

KEY FINDINGS SO FAR

  • National understanding of the reforms/Support not enough.

  • While 82% of the respondents have 3 cycles

  • “in many cases,reform in structures seems to be taking place in advance of the reforms of substance and content” … and without link to the institutional strategy…

  • “Many institutions stated that national requirements obliged them to introduce the first cycle”

  • In some cases the two systems run in parallel

  • Stakeholders unaware of the reforms in curricula

  • Societal dialogue needs to be strengthen


Their cause

THEIR CAUSE…

  • …” However relatively few institutions seem to take a holistic approach to Quality improvement”…

    Source : Trends V: Universities shaping the European Higher Education Area, EUA report to the ministers of education conference 05/07 London


The wish

THE WISH

  • “Awareness that concern for Quality must be at the heart of the system”


Understanding the relationship

UNDERSTANDING THE RELATIONSHIP

  • THE TWO MISTAKES

  • THE KEY FINDINGS

  • THEIR MAJOR CAUSE

  • THE END OF THE TUNNEL

    (if the wish comes true…)


Learning from mistakes to err is human

LEARNING FROM MISTAKES“to err is human”

  • Quality First-Holistic Approach-Systems Theory

  • Link the Bologna targets with the stakeholders needs through discussion

  • Reach consensus about their needs and their relative importance

  • Check if there is a clear relationship between the Bologna reforms and the addressed needs

  • Implement the reforms

  • Study the results – Capture the knowledge

  • Act on the differences (Feedback Loop- PDSA cycle)

  • Stabilize gain and constantly improve the system

  • Apply QA audits


Quality assessment

QUALITY ASSESSMENT

  • Lets suppose that TQM has been successfully implemented (1ST Step)

  • We need to assess the Quality of our organization

    against some kind of Standards(2ND Step)

    Any already existing?

    As it is or modified?

    By whom and How?


Quality standards and awards

QUALITY STANDARDS AND AWARDS

  • ISO series

  • EOQ-EFQM (Europe)

  • MALCOLM BALDRIGE (USA)

  • DEMING PRIZE (Japan)

  • PUBLICATIONS

  • STATE POLICIES/INITIATIVES

  • EXAMPLES FROM HE INSTITUTIONS


Pros and cons

PROS AND CONS

  • Standards provide the basis for designing, implementing,evaluating (assessing) , specifying and certifying a QA system. Common language for QA disciplines. Increase awareness for Quality.

  • They are not product/process specific

  • “Least common denominator” approach

  • More emphasis on conformance than efficiency

  • Emphasis on corrective actions than long term improvement

  • Possession of the certificate might matter more than quality improvement

  • They are not standards for Total Quality

    (R.W.Peach,The ISO 9000 Handbook)


Filling the gap

FILLING THE GAP

The QUALITY AWARDS

More emphasis on the Quality pillars:

(“de facto requirements”)

  • Leadership and full Management commitment

  • Innovation

  • Customer focus and satisfaction

  • Full participation and development of employees

  • Public responsibility

  • Quality by design,Prevention etc


Efqm model

EFQM MODEL

efqm.org


Mbnqa

MBNQA

nist.org


Something still missing

SOMETHING STILL MISSING?

HOW TO MAKE THE TRANSFORMATION/CHANGE

  • What about the DEMING prize

  • Who is E.W.Deming (deming.org)

  • An American engineer in Japan((deming.org)

  • Perhaps the most highly respected author for his work in Quality Theory and Practice

  • 14 points to the management

  • The system of profound knowledge leading to the learning organization


Deming prize

DEMING PRIZE

  • The Deming Prize examination does not require applicants to conform to a model provided by the Deming Prize Committee. Rather, the applicants are expected to understand their current situationestablish their own themes and objectives, and improve and transform themselves company-wide

  • The Deming Prize Committee views the examination process as an opportunity for "mutual-development," rather than "examination

  • Every factor such as the applicants' attitude toward executing Total Quality Management (TQM), their implementation status, and the resulting effects is taken into overall consideration. In other words, the Deming Prize Committee does not specify what issues the applicants must address, rather the applicants themselves are responsible for identifying and addressing such issues, thus, this process allows quality methodologies to be further developed.


The 14 points

THE 14 POINTS

  • Create constancy of purpose toward improvement of product and service, with the aim to become competitive and to stay in business, and to provide jobs.

  • Adopt the new philosophy. We are in a new economic age. Western management must awaken to the challenge, must learn their responsibilities, and take on leadership for change.

  • Cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality. Eliminate the need for inspection on a mass basis by building quality into the product in the first place.

  • End the practice of awarding business on the basis of price tag. Instead, minimize total cost. Move toward a single supplier for any one item, on a long-term relationship of loyalty and trust.

  • Improve constantly and forever the system of production and service, to improve quality and productivity, and thus constantly decrease costs.

  • Institute training on the job.


The 14 points1

THE 14 POINTS

  • Institute leadership. The aim of supervision should be to help people and machines and gadgets to do a better job. Supervision of management is in need of overhaul, as well as supervision of production workers.

  • Drive out fear, so that everyone may work effectively for the company

  • Break down barriers between departments. People in research, design, sales, and production must work as a team, to foresee problems of production and in use that may be encountered with the product or service.

  • Eliminate slogans, exhortations, and targets for the work force asking for zero defects and new levels of productivity. Such exhortations only create adversarial relationships, as the bulk of the causes of low quality and low productivity belong to the system and thus lie beyond the power of the work force.


The 14 points2

THE 14 POINTS

  • Eliminate work standards (quotas) on the factory floor. Substitute leadership.

  • Eliminate management by objective. Eliminate management by numbers, numerical goals. Substitute leadership.

  • Remove barriers that rob the hourly worker of his right to pride of workmanship. The responsibility of supervisors must be changed from sheer numbers to quality.

  • Remove barriers that rob people in management and in engineering of their right to pride of workmanship.

  • Institute a vigorous program of education and self-improvement.

  • Put everybody in the company to work to accomplish the transformation. The transformation is everybody's job.


Profound knowledge

PROFOUND KNOWLEDGE

  • The layout of profound knowledge appears in four parts, all related to each other:

    Appreciation for a system

    Knowledge about variation

    Theory of knowledge

    Psychology

FROM HIS BOOK “OUT OF THE CRISIS” ( E.W.DEMIMG,1982)


The proposal

THE PROPOSAL

  • Through Deming's human approach, with the standards/awards and other publications on Quality taking also into account , we should create a Quality culture first based on managing the required change where all people concerned are in the center of our attention and second using the tools from quality literature we should align our strategy towards serving the society needs.

  • The model for QA in HE lies within the above and will be easy to agree upon a general approach for Quality assessment without sacrificing the pursuit knowledge and the search for truth which constitute HE intrinsic Qualities

    (“Towards a general model for quality assessment in HE”, Higher Education,1995)


The proposal1

THE PROPOSAL

  • Insisting and/on relying on audit mechanisms

    Overemphasis in inspection

    “Policing-in” Quality Failure

  • Today is well documented that Quality should be built-in through the design and redesign of core processes that underlie the quality of products or services (Quality is a depended variable) Success

    (“Through Deming's Eyes…cross national analysis of QA policies in HE”,Quality in HE,1995)


Instead of conclusions

INSTEAD OF CONCLUSIONS

  • “What we need to do is learn to work in the system, by which I mean that everybody, every team, every platform, every division, every component is there not for individual competitive profit or recognition, but for contribution to the system as a whole on a win-win basis.”

  • “It is not enough to do your best.You must know what to do and then do your best.”

    W.E.Deming


Thank you for your attention

THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION

NATIONAL AND KAPODISTRIAN UNIVERSITY OF ATHENS


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