Introduction to the al qur an
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( The Main Sources Of Islam ). Introduction to The al-Qur’an. Madah Ta’lim Agus Syihabudin. Belief.

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Introduction to The al-Qur’an

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Introduction to the al qur an

( The Main Sources Of Islam )

Introduction to

The al-Qur’an

MadahTa’lim

AgusSyihabudin


Belief

Belief

True piety is this: to believe in God, and the Last Day, the angels, the Book, and the Prophets, to give of one’s substance, however cherished, to kinsmen, and orphans, the needy, the traveler, beggars, and to ransom the slave, to perform the prayer, to pay the alms.

(Surat al-Baqara, 177)


Linguistic meaning

Linguistic Meaning

Quran root word is QARA’A meaning read or recite. Hence, Quran means “the reading” or the “recitation”

And (it is) a Quran which We have divided (into parts), in order that you might recite it to men at intervals 17:106


Islamic meaning

Islamic Meaning

The Quran is the Arabic Speech of Allah, which He revealed to Prophet Muhammad in wording and meaning, and has been preserved in the mushafs, and has reached us by mutawaatir transmission, and is a challenge to mankind to produce something similar to it.


Names of the quran

Names of the Quran

Quran(recitation) mentioned 73 times 17:88

Kitab(book) mentioned 77 times (2:1-2)

Furqan(Criterion) 4 times

Dhikr(Reminder) mentioned 55 times

Tanzeel(Revelation) over 140 times


The beginning of revelation

The Beginning of Revelation

Proclaim! (or Read!)

In the name of thy Lord and Cherisher, Who created

Created man, out of a (mere) clot of congealed blood:

Proclaim! And thy Lord is Most Bountiful -

He who taught (the use of) the pen

Taught man that which he knew not.

(Surat al-‘Alaq, 1-5)


The unmediated word of god

The unmediated word of God

114 chapters

6207 verses

77,934 words

323,671 letters

  • revealed over 22 years (22 y, 2 m and 22 d)

  • Not arranged in the order in which it was revealed

  • Traditionally thought to have been collected under ‘Uthman (d. 656), third caliph

  • Today’s text based on the 1925 Egyptian edition


Compilation of the quran

Compilation of the Quran

  • 1st compilation by Abu Bakr in 12 AH after the Battle of Yamaamah

  • 2nd compilation by Uthman 24-25 AH


The oldest quranic manuscripts

The Oldest Quranic Manuscripts


Content of the al qur an

Content of the al-Qur’an

Main themes:

  • Creed or matters of Belief (Aqeedah)

  • Stories and History

  • Laws

  • Legal material of the Quran is contained in about 500 Ayats


Meccan madinan phases

Meccan-Madinan Phases

  • Larger part of the Quran was revealed in Mecca

  • - mostly deal with beliefs, disputation with unbelievers and their invitation to Islam

  • Madinansurahs deal with legal rules regarding family, society, politics, economics, etc.


Inimitability of the quran

Inimitability Of the Quran

The Quran is considered the Greatest miracles

And if you are in doubt concerning that which We have sent down to Our slave, then produce a chapter of the like thereof and call your witnesses (supporters and helpers) besides Allah, if you are truthful.

Five verses: 2:23-24,10:38,11:13,17:88

52:33-34


7 bukti kemukjizatan al qur an

7 BUKTI KEMUKJIZATAN AL QUR’AN

1. Bahasa Arab yang indahdanmenakjubkan

2. Menceritakansejarahdanmenggambarakanprediksikehidupansecaraakurat

3. Isyarat IPTEK yang sejalandenganpenemuanmutakhir

4. Membawaajarankehidupan yang benar, adildanmenjaminkedamaianhidup

5. DiturunkankepadaseorangNabi yang Ummi

6. Prosespenurunandalamskalawaktu lama yang menjaminmudahterdeteksinyakepalsuanjikaiabikinanmanusia

7. Mendapatkangaransipemeliharaan Allah SWT


Quran science

QURAN & SCIENCE

  • HUMAN EMBRYO, FLIES, ORIGIN OF THE UNIVERSE, EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE, ON IRON, SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SKIN, ON BOTANY, THE CONSTITUENTS AND PRODUCE OF MILK, ABOUT THE CLOUDS, THE RIVERS, THE FUNCTION OF THE FOREPART OF THE HEAD

  • See http://www.islam-guide.com/ & http://www.quranandscience.com/miracles.html


Perbedaan qur an dan qanun

PERBEDAAN QUR’AN DAN QANUN

Suatuhukummewarisikarakteristikpembuatnya

- Karaktermanusiaitulemah (tidaksempurna)

- KlaimkekelananQanunbertentangandengan

fitrahsipembuatnya

2. Suatuhukumdibuatberdasarkankebutuhan

- Kebutuhanmanusiabersifatdinamis (berubah)

- Qanunharusberubahseiringdengandinamika

3. Suatuhukumdibuatuntukmengaturhidupsupayatertib

- Kalauhidupsudahtertib, tidakperluhukum


Asas pembentukan hukum

ASAS PEMBENTUKAN HUKUM

1. TAQLIL AL TAKALIF (QS. 7:157)

2. ‘ADAM AL HARJ

- Menggugurkansuatukewajiban

- Mengurangkan

- Mendahulukan

- Membelakangkan

- Mengganti

- Mengubah Cara

‘- Rukhshah

3. AL TADARRUJ FI AL TASYRI;


A gradual revelation

A Gradual Revelation

Wisdom behind gradual revelation

1. To strengthen resolve 25:32

2. To simplify memorization and understanding

3.) To prove the truthfulness of the Prophet 25:33

4.) To prove the miraculous nature of the Quran 4:82

5.) To reveal the laws of Islam


Preservation of the quran

PreservationoftheQuran

إِنَّا نَحۡنُ نَزَّلۡنَا ٱلذِّكۡرَ وَإِنَّا لَهُ ۥ لَحَـٰفِظُونَ

“Verily, We have revealed the Reminder, and verily We shall preserve it.” (15:9)


Compilation of quran

Compilation of Quran

Why wasn’t it compiled during the life of the Prophet?

The Quran was written down in totality but the Prophet didn’t order that it be compiled between two covers

  • No pressing need

  • Quran continued to be revealed…last verse nine days before death

  • Quran not in chronological order


Memorization of quran

Memorizationof Quran

And We have indeed made the Quran easy to understand and remember, then is there any one who will remember (or receive admonition)? (54:17)

“It will be said to the companion of the Quran: Recite and rise in status, recite as you used to recite in the world, for your status will be at the last verse that you recite.” (Abu Dawood)


Memorization of quran1

MemorizationofQuran

The Prophet said: “Learn the Quran, preserve it, and recite it in a beautiful, musical manner, because it is swifter in escaping (from your memory) than the camels are from their hobbles. [Musnad Ahmad]


Introduction to the al qur an

Sciences of the Quran

Asbab al-Nuzul

(Occasion of Revelation)

  • Asbab al-Nuzul or events which are related to revelation of the Ayats

  • Hukm (law) is not limited to the events or circumstances.

  • Asbab al-Nuzul helps to understand the Quran and its law.


Benefit of knowing occasion of revelation

Sciences of the quran

Benefit of Knowing Occasion of Revelation

  • To understand the circumstances in which a verse was revealed

  • To apply verses in a proper manner

  • To know the person who caused the revelation


Introduction to the al qur an

Sciences of the quran

Abrogation (al Naskh)

And when We change a Verse in place of another, and Allah knows best what He sends down, they (the disbelievers) say: "You are but a forger/ liar)." 16:101

Example: Ruling on Alcohol

2:219 (harmful), don’t pray drunk (4:43), prohibited (5:90)


Abrogation al naskh

Sciences of the quran

Abrogation (al-Naskh)

Benefits of this knowledge

  • Understand and implement Quran properly

  • Knowledge of gradual revelation of shariah

  • Defense of Quran and Sunnah


Sciences of the quran

Sciences of the quran

Recitation

Tajweed: Science of the recitation of the Quran

  • Ten different recitation of the Quran

    Young boy

    Indonesian

    American

    Kuwaiti

    Saudi

    Egyptian


Introduction to the al qur an

Sciences of the quran

Exegeses (al-Tafsir)

“The process of understanding Qur’anic texts.”

  • Tafsirbilma’tsur – based on reports deriving from the Qur’an, the Prophet, the Companions

  • Tafsirbirra’yi – based on ijtihad(reasoning)

    Hermeneutics discourse of contemporary exegetes: The Qur’an is not to be treated as a ‘dead’ text, but as a living text with spirit for transformation.


Virtue of the quran

Virtue of the Quran

“The best of you is he who learns the Quran and teaches it to others” (Bukhari)

“I have certainly left among you two matters, that if you adhere to them, you will never be misguided: the book of Allah and the Sunnah of His prophet” (Malik)


Virtue of quran

Virtue of Quran

And if there had been a Quran with which mountains could be moved (from their places), or the earth could be cloven asunder, or the dead could be made to speak (it would not have been other than this Quran). But the decision of all things is certainly with Allah. Have not then those who believed yet known that had Allah willed, He could have guided all mankind? 13:31


The neglect of the quran

The neglect of the Quran

  • Furqan: 30

  • Avoiding listening to its recitation, beliving in it or paying attention to it

  • Avoiding acting by and respecting what the Quran states as halal and Haram

  • Avoiding accepting the Quran as an arbiter

  • Avoiding pondering over it

  • Avoiding using it as a cure for the diseases of the heart


Reaction to the quran

Reaction to the Quran

Embraced Islam

Listening to it secretly themselves

Claimed it was magic (Story of Waleed p.269)


Introduction to the al qur an

Normative Basis of Shariah:MaqashidShariah (Overall Goal) – Imam Shatiby

Basic human rights in Islam – Al KulliyatulKhoms

  • Right for protection of one’s faith

  • Right for protection of one’s life

  • Right for freedom of thoughts

  • Right for protection of one’s property

  • Right for protection of progeny

    ‘God loves to see that His concessions are taken advantage of, just as He hates to see the commission of a sin.’ (Hadith)

    ‘Fulfill your duties to the extent of your ability.’ (Hadith)


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