Perspectives on mexican immigration to the united states
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Arizona State University Media Fellowship. PERSPECTIVES ON MEXICAN IMMIGRATION TO THE UNITED STATES. Carlos Flores Vizcarra Consul General of Mexico Phoenix, Arizona. February 2008. Introduction Facts Anti-immigrant environment in Arizona The Human Dimension of Immigration

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PERSPECTIVES ON MEXICAN IMMIGRATION TO THE UNITED STATES

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Perspectives on mexican immigration to the united states

Arizona State University Media Fellowship

PERSPECTIVES ON MEXICAN IMMIGRATION TO THE UNITED STATES

Carlos Flores Vizcarra

Consul General of Mexico

Phoenix, Arizona

February 2008


Perspectives on mexican immigration to the united states

Introduction

Facts

Anti-immigrant environment in Arizona

The Human Dimension of Immigration

Migratory Policy in Mexico

Our future as partners

Contents


Perspectives on mexican immigration to the united states

Mexico is a sending, transit and receiving country of migrants and their families. 

Mexican immigration to the United States is a very complex phenomenon that touches many aspects: social, economic, cultural, and historical that interact in an intricate and difficult environment.

Introduction


Perspectives on mexican immigration to the united states

The Mexico- U.S. Binational Study on Migration concluded that four major factors determine and sustain the pattern of immigration of Mexicans to the United States:

A growing labor demand in the US. determined by;

The aging of U.S. population,

The transition to highly skilled or technical jobs

Shortages resulting from constant economic growth. (4-5% in the past decade)


Perspectives on mexican immigration to the united states

The economic asymmetries between the U.S. and Mexico .

The magnet role of intricate social and family networks.

The lack of realistic “immigration policies” to solve the dynamics of “real immigration”, partly driven byNAFTA.


Perspectives on mexican immigration to the united states

One in every four foreign-born workers in the U.S. is from Mexico. Of the 18 million foreign-born workers in the labor force, including both employed and unemployed workers, 4.9 million (27%) were born in Mexico. (U.S. Census Bureau, 2000)

By 2010, some 24.7 million jobs will be created for people with low levels of education. These jobs will represent nearly 43% of all projected openings. Given the rising educational levels among native-born workers, immigrant workers are needed to fill the gaps in the labor force.(U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2002)

Facts


Perspectives on mexican immigration to the united states

Mexican workers have a profound presence in the US labor market, particularly in both the services sector (Mexicans are 65% of Hispanics working in this area) and the agricultural sector (Mexicans are 92% of Hispanic working in this area).(Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2005)

Immigration has little effect on native wages. This is due, in part, to the fact that immigrant workers cannot substitute natives and do not directly compete with most U.S. workers. (Economic Report of the President, 2005)


Perspectives on mexican immigration to the united states

Over the next 50 years, new legal immigrants entering the United States will provide a net benefit of US$407 billion in present value to America’s Social Security system (National Foundation for American Policy, 2005).

The average net present value of immigrants’ estimated future tax payments during their stay in the U.S. exceed the cost of the services they are expected to use in the same period by US$80,000 (Economic Report of the President, 2005)


Perspectives on mexican immigration to the united states

The fertility rate in the US will fall below “replacement” level by 2015-2020. The number of workers age 55 and over will increase 49.3%, compared to 5.1 % increase of those among 25-54. This will create a gap between economic active population and those in retirement age (World Population Prospects, United Nations, 2005).

The majority of Mexican workers in the US are in their economically active years (average age of 34). While 87% of Mexican immigrants are between the ages of 15 and 64, only 65% of US native population is part of this age group. (U.S. Current Population Survey (CPS), 2003)


Mexican demography

Mexican Demography

2050

2020

2005

From 18 to

110 million

1940

Source: INEGI


U s demography

U.S. Demography

2050

2020

1940

1900

Source: US Census Bureau


Perspectives on mexican immigration to the united states

In Arizona, the total tax revenue attributable to immigrant workers was an estimated $2.4 billion. Balanced against estimated fiscal costs of $1.4 billion, the net 2004 fiscal impact of immigrants in Arizona was positive by about $940 million. (Immigrants in Arizona. Judith Gans. Udall Center for Studies in Public Policy, The University of Arizona. 2007)

The 2004 total economic output attributable to immigrant workers was about $44 billion. This output included $20 billion in labor and other income and resulted in approximately 400,000 full-time-equivalent jobs. (Immigrants in Arizona. Judith Gans. Udall Center for Studies in Public Policy, The University of Arizona. 2007)


Perspectives on mexican immigration to the united states

To this date, Arizona is the hot bed of harshest responses to undocumented immigration.

The root causes of this situation are explained by several facts:

Post 9/11 state of mind. Concerns about Homeland Security

The tensions that derived from the figures: it is considered that 53% of the total of undocumented entries in the US takes place in Arizona.

Anti-immigrant environment in Arizona


Perspectives on mexican immigration to the united states

The proclivity of some public officials to capitalize on the angst that undocumented immigration generates:

violence between traffickers

excessive number of drop houses

elevated number of hospitalized migrants

environmental issues in crossing paths

Anti-immigrant groups have sprouted; vigilantism, “minute men”, civil homeland defense, ranch rescue, and others.


Perspectives on mexican immigration to the united states

Arizona has become a testing place for anti-inmigrant state, county and municipal legislation ordinances.


Perspectives on mexican immigration to the united states

Immigration has become a humanitarian issue.

Border Patrol operatives such as:

Gatekeeper:San Diego-Tijuana (1994-1998)

Hold the line:El Paso-Cd. Juárez (1993-1996)

Río Grande:Mc Allen-Reynosa (1997-1999)

Safeguard:Arizona (1999-)

influenced the direction of immigration flows to the Sonora-Arizona border. The desertic treacherous terrains have accounted for over 2,ooo deaths.

The human dimension of immigration


Perspectives on mexican immigration to the united states

2000 – 2006 Federal Administration:

The migration policy focused first on a migratory agreement

Sept. 11, 2001 changed the priorities for the U.S government, directing the migratory policy to the “back of list”.

The next step for the Mexican Government was to promote a “temporary worker program”, but it was ceased by the U.S. Congress for security concerns.

The view of Mexican Government


Perspectives on mexican immigration to the united states

2006-2012 Federal Administration:

Innovate border controls making them practical, secure and efficient.

Promote economic competitiveness through a policy of economic openness to investments, principally to develop infrastructure.

With investment, increase the creation of new jobs to prevent exodus of Mexican workers.


Perspectives on mexican immigration to the united states

What needs to be done?

  • Is the U.S.-Mex bilateral relationship a strategic one? Definitions and commitments are needed.

  • USA FORTRESS? Physical wall, virtual wall, thousand of BP agents, National Guard, Surveillance aircrafts, motion sensors..., or do we opt for a robust REGIONAL SECURITY PERIMETER.


Perspectives on mexican immigration to the united states

What needs to be done?

  • Demand and supply: the hot button issues. Do we jointly fight drug trafficking or do we simply distribute the blames?

  • Promote economic competitiveness in the region.

  • Recognize that long-term development requires: investment, renew infrastructure, human capital and enhanced productivity.


Perspectives on mexican immigration to the united states1

Arizona State University Media Fellowship

PERSPECTIVES ON MEXICAN IMMIGRATION TO THE UNITED STATES

Carlos Flores Vizcarra

Consul General of Mexico

Phoenix, Arizona

February 2008


Perspectives on mexican immigration to the united states

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