Hypothalamus. Pineal gland. Pituitary gland. Thyroid gland. Parathyroid glands. Adrenal glands. Pancreas. Ovary (female). Testis (male). Endocrine Glands. Chemical Classification of Hormones. Amine hormones are derived from tyrosine or tryptophan
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Mechanisms of Hormone Action
Stores & releases 2 hormones produced in hypothalamus:
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH/vasopressin) which promotes H20 conservation by kidneys
Oxytocin which stimulates contractions of uterus during parturition & contractions of mammary gland alveoli for milk-ejection reflex
cells of the
Target glands produce hormones that feedback to regulate the anterior pituitary and the hypothalamus
to set point
Blood Ca2+ level
(about 10 mg/100 mL)
to set point
uptake in kidneys
PancreasIslets of Langerhans
Autocrine & Paracrine Regulation
Neurosecretory cells in the brain produce
brain hormone (BH), which is stored in
the corpora cardiaca (singular, corpus
cardiacum) until release.
Juvenile hormone (JH), secreted by the corpora allata,
determines the result of the molt. At relatively high concen-
trations of JH, ecdysone-stimulated molting produces
another larval stage. JH suppresses metamorphosis.
But when levels of JH fall below a certain concentration, a
pupa forms at the next ecdysone-induced molt. The adult
insect emerges from the pupa.
BH signals its main target
organ, the prothoracic
gland, to produce the
from the prothoracic
gland is episodic, with
each release stimulating