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仪器分析技术讲座 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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仪器分析技术讲座. 报告人 :段正康 湘潭大学化工学院. 一 .仪器分析技术的分类. 1.波谱分析 2.色谱分析 3.物相分析 4.元素分析. 二.各类仪器分析技术的分类.原理与应用. 1. 波谱分析 ① 分类 : ﹡紫外可见分光光谱分析( UV) ﹡ 分子振动光谱(红外光谱)分析( IR) ﹡ 核磁共振波谱分析( NMR) ﹡ 质谱( MS) 分析

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仪器分析技术讲座

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.

  • 1.

  • 2.

  • 3.

  • 4.


.

1.

UV

IR

NMR

MS

RF

. .



=1/T =C/T =1/


1H2H13C17O19F31P

200750nm

C=C C=O


. OH NH2 XOC2H5

Akcl

k .

, ,


max

p


()

0.7um300um

2.525um

cmcm-1

,. ,,T-


1307

k

u1/u=1/m1+1/m2 m1, m2

k u

4000400cm-1


40001333cm-1

1333667cm-1

8

O-HN-H C-H

C-H

C-H


NaClKBrAgCl

,,

,,

.CS2,CCl4,CH2Cl2


595KBr, 2um29.4MP 1min


2n+2+N-(H+X)

r+db=

2

r+db4

n NHX,

NMR

I0


I0,,,2I+1,

,.

I(I0)H,2I+1, hH/2,(),hv

hv=hH/2NMR


Vs vR v, (), , .

,

1HTMS1H013C-NMRTMS13C0


1H-NMR

HCC12C613C61.1%1H1001H-NMR

1H

CH3FCH3Cl3.393.05

CH3CH3 CH2=CH2 C6H6 0.86 5.25 7.26


ONS

1H

CH31H

CH3-SH =2.000

CH3-CN =1.98

CH3-OH =3.99

CH33C-OH =1.95

1H


1H-NMR

,

1H-NMR()

1H1H()

1H

,1H

1H,(D2O1H)

,,(Sadtler Nuclear Magnetic Kesonance Spectra)


-.(Eu3)Pr3+-

13C-NMR

13C

C13C-NMRHCO

1H2010

13C200C

13C13C

13C-NMR

r3

HC 13C1H163


100

13C1.1 1H100

13C

13CFT-NMR

m/zm/z



27.99428

k=M/MMM


1050

CO2N227.994928.0061R=27.9949/(28.0061-27.9949)2500

R1000

R10000

R30000

1010g

M/z


M

M+1M2S,Cl,Br

M

m/z


BeynonCHON

A

CWHXNYOZ


H.N.P.

CHN

RF

em

ex


CHN

CHN


m/z

1H-NMR

1H-NMR



2.

1906


t0V0tRVRtRVRhWW12A

n


Cu

HA+B/u+Cu

A A=2dp dp

B/u B/u2rDg/u r Dg

kdfDl

.

u

H


11041105100

2dP dP

CdDm

dfDs, Cs


R

:


R195

R1.599.7

R

:

,

.


fi


Ao, Ai.fo fi

k

k


1

Ai/Ao

Ai

1

2

2

Gi

Gi


N2,H2 ,He ,Ar



0100

512SE-30 OV-17 QF-1 PEG-20M DEGS


s RN


TCD104ml/ml,

FID H2ppmH2

ECDcl

FPDp, s

ECD,FPDppb109


PTGC

PGC

10610100

30300m

N2/H2



106g/ml

UV

RF

CD


200nm-650nm

LLCLSC


k=

cs

=

cm

k

,

,


3.

:(PEM)

(SEM)

*

:,, ,.

:,.

,;

;

;

;

.


310-8cm

1210-8cm

0.1mm

*

610nm 610 10-11m


.X

X X

*

X X 1000

X X X X

X X X


XX

*

ASTMX

JCPDS powder diffraction files,2


.,,75,A,B,; ,,,; S(-)R(+), S(-), R(+).

. .

,X-

X-

*


TGDTADSCEGAICTA

*

.


: ,;

,,,;

;

.

,.

.


4.

*.:,E0 ,,,,,,,

E=hc/

,,,,.

,,.

(I)(c)

Iacb ab


*. 80

10-3 10-5%

10-3 10-5ug/ml

10-6 10-5g

ICP

AAS

*.

A=K'N0L


K LN03000K Nc

A=KcL

*.

,,..,,,.,,,.

,ppm-ppb

10-12 10-14g


*.

10-8s

Sncl2

*.


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