How to Bond. -Atoms bond when their valence electrons interact - Atoms join to form bonds so that each atom has a stable electron configuration. -When this happens, each atom has an electronic structure similar to that of a noble gas.
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-Atoms bond when their valence electrons interact
-Atoms join to form bonds so that each atom has a stable electron configuration.
-When this happens, each atom has an electronic structure similar to that of a noble gas.
-Two basic kinds of chemical bonding: ionic bonding and covalent bonding
What are ions?!
Ionic bonds form when ions are created. Atoms of metals form positively charged ions. Atoms of nonmetals form negatively charged ions.
Ionic bonds are formed by the transfer of electrons.
One of the atoms gains the electrons that the other one loses. The result is a positive ion and a negative ion.
Each positive Na ion attracts a lot of negative Cl ions and vise versa. Two atoms like to form an ionic bond when one atom has more attraction for electrons than the other. Cl has much more attraction for electrons than Na. So, neutral Cl atoms react with neutral Na atoms to form sodium chloride.
Think of this…
One little boy atom really wants to impress a little girl atom.
He gives her a gift (an electron). Since he gave up this gift (electron) he is really happy about it, he is a positive ion.
She gets the gift (electron), but realizes it’s a really bad gift. She is negative ion.
Ionic compounds are in the form of networks, notmolecules- there is no molecule of NaCl. Every Na atom sits next to 6 Cl atoms.
So what is there?!
Salt’s chemical formula, NaCl, tells us that there is one Na+ ion for every Cl− ion, or a 1:1 ratio of ions. Thus, the compound has a total charge of zero. One Na+ ion and one Cl− ion make up a formula unit of NaCl.
Different compounds can have different ratios
When dissolved in water, ionic compounds conduct electricity.
Electric current is moving charges. Solid ionic compounds do not conduct electric current because the charged ions are locked into place. But if you dissolve it in water or melt it, it can conduct electric current. This is because the ions are then free to move.
Atoms joined by covalent bonds share electrons.
Compounds that are made of molecules, have covalent bonds.
Covalent bonds usually form between nonmetal atoms.
Covalent compounds can be solids, liquids, or gases.
They have low melting points, molecules are free to move when the compound is dissolved or melted- do not conduct electricity, because they are not charged.
Think of this…
Two little atoms go to a party, both bring cupcakes.
The decide to share their cupcakes.
Since the cupcakes are equally good, neither atom is positive or negative… they are neutral.
Each line between 2 atoms represents a pair of shared electrons.
1 line would represent 1 pair, 2 lines= 2 pairs… and so on.
Each addition of a line makes the bonds stronger, but also shorter.
When atoms of the same element bond, electrons are equally attracted to the positive nucleus of each atom. Bonds where electrons are shared equally are called nonpolar covalent bonds.
When two atoms of different elements share electrons, the electrons are not shared equally. The shared electrons are attracted to the nucleus of one atom more than to the nucleus of the other. An unequal sharing of electrons forms a polarcovalent bond.
Usually, electrons are more attracted to atoms of elements that are located farther to the right and closer to the top of the periodic table.
Metals can conduct electricity when they are solid.
What are other properties of metals?!
Why… because their atoms and electrons can move freely throughout a metal’s closely packed structure.
The atoms in metals such as copper form metallic bonds. The attraction between an atom’s nucleus and a neighboring atom’s electrons packs the atoms together. This packing causes the outermost energy levels of the atoms to overlap, so electrons are free to move from atom to atom.