A CASE STUDY OF LITERACY ACQUISITION  IN AN ADULT WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES
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A CASE STUDY OF LITERACY ACQUISITION IN AN ADULT WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES YAI/National Institute for People with Disabilities Annual International Conference New York, NY May 2005. Monica Gordon Pershey, Ed.D., CCC-SLP Associate Professor, Department of Speech and Hearing

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Monica gordon pershey ed d ccc slp associate professor department of speech and hearing

A CASE STUDY OF LITERACY ACQUISITION IN AN ADULT WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIESYAI/National Institute for People with Disabilities Annual International ConferenceNew York, NYMay 2005

Monica Gordon Pershey, Ed.D., CCC-SLP

Associate Professor, Department of Speech and Hearing

Cleveland State University

Cleveland, OH

[email protected], [email protected]

Thomas W. Gilbert, M.A., M.Ed.

Clinician, QMRP, Northeast Care Center

North Royalton, OH

[email protected]


Case history christine

Case History – Christine

Born:1956 to uneducated Greek immigrants

Education:No formal schooling, family teaches self-care

Medical: Congenital heart defect, developmentally disabled, functional good health

Cognitive: IQ is 41 or 43

Language:Preschool range of functioning; communicates in English, also uses limited American Sign Language and Greek

Speech:Dysarthria, apraxia, moderate intelligibility in known contexts

Residence:Family home

Occupation: County sheltered workshop – light assembly; helps in family’s mini-mart

Gordon Pershey & Gilbert (2005) NRC


Baseline literacy attributes pre treatment

Baseline Literacy Attributes – Pre-Treatment

Slosson Reading Test: Christine read “is” “up”; Wrote “Christine” and the letters of the alphabet to dictation

Christine is interested in print – she is aware of print as communication

Christine is interested in the functions of print in multiple social environments (family, work, peer groups, community)

Christine has expectations that literacy will engender social contact (correspondence, reading about the social world)

Christine prepares correspondence (messages, greeting cards) by asking family to tell her the letters she needs to write to spell the words she wants to put on paper

Christine asks a habilitation supervisor if she could be taught to read and write – Tom is assigned to intervene

Gordon Pershey & Gilbert (2005) NRC


Monica gordon pershey ed d ccc slp associate professor department of speech and hearing

Discovering the Literacy Process: Hypothesizing How to Intervene with Adults with Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities

Hypothesizing functional capabilities needed for literacy:

Interactions beyond parallel play: Need joint purpose between learner and clinician, the synergy of a working relationship

Visual skills to see print: Acuity, tracking, processing and memory

Language skills: Sentence repetition, engage in conversation, discourse skills (memory, topicality, story line); ability to determine parts of wholes (e.g., the door of the car, subcategories such as foods that are eaten for lunch in winter)

Patience and persistence – Plan for years of instruction, not weeks or months

Gordon Pershey & Gilbert (2005) NRC


Monica gordon pershey ed d ccc slp associate professor department of speech and hearing

Discovering the Literacy Process: Hypothesizing How to Intervene with Adults with Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities

Similarities with Emergent Literacy:

Moving Whole to Part to Whole:

Whole: Logographic recognition - Highly reliant on context

Part: Alphabetic recognition - See initial letters in words

Whole:Orthographic reading – Deliberately or automatically scan letters, syllables,

word parts, and whole words with flexibility

and code awareness

Reading is always a parallel examination of stimulus and memory (Smith, 1988)

Gordon Pershey & Gilbert (2005) NRC


Monica gordon pershey ed d ccc slp associate professor department of speech and hearing

Discovering the Literacy Process: Hypothesizing How to Intervene with Adults with Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities

Relevant Literature:

Erickson, Koppenhaver, & Yoder, 1994; Kliewer & Landis, 1999 – Skills mastery delays access to authentic literacy materials; Advocate contextually-relevant instruction

Katims, 2000; van Kraayenoord, 1994 - Access experiential background and metacognitive skills, such as ability to predict text events and to self-regulate to choose among learning strategies

Ashby-Davis, 1981; Gillette, 1991- Echo reading; Impress methods

Gordon Pershey & Gilbert (2005) NRC


How to intervene demonstration guided practice independent practice

How to Intervene: Demonstration, Guided Practice, Independent Practice

Demonstration:

Models of purposeful reading of extended text to

facilitate four roles (Freebody, 1992)

1 - Text Participant: “This text matters to me!” (Funny, personal, useful)

2 - Text User: “This text was created so that I can _____.”

3 - Text Analyst: “This text reminds me of something I already know!”

4 - Code Breaker: “I can find some elements of the written code.” (Logos, whole words, letters, symbols)

Gordon Pershey & Gilbert (2005) NRC


How to intervene demonstration guided practice independent practice1

How to Intervene: Demonstration, Guided Practice, Independent Practice

Guided Practice:

Auditory Impress Reading:

Tom reads word by word, line by line, Christine echoes

Emphasis on flow, sharing, cooperation

A melody of voices

Procedural Input – “This is what readers do”

Auditory Input - Builds “Big Storage” of lengthier text

Iconic Input – “This is what print does” – Connect visual wholes to spoken language

Discourse Input – “Talking like a book,” Phrasing of sentences and passages; Sharing meaning allows for emphasis on code to be introduced later

Gordon Pershey & Gilbert (2005) NRC


How to intervene demonstration guided practice independent practice2

How to Intervene: Demonstration, Guided Practice, Independent Practice

Guided Practice:

Working with Whole Words

Understanding words as parts of the whole text – read for flow and also read word by word

Use controlled readers, HIGHLY predictable text (Laubach), simple story line reinforces making meaning from text

Visual recognition: Are words seen as logos?

Tom and Christine talk about words in text, locate individual words

Christine builds a bank of reliable sight words

Gordon Pershey & Gilbert (2005) NRC


How to intervene demonstration guided practice independent practice3

How to Intervene: Demonstration, Guided Practice, Independent Practice

Moving Towards Independence:

Clinician’s voice drops out momentarily: Is Christine reading any of these words? Christine reads and Tom echoes

Read in unison, not echoing

Listen for Christine’s vocal inflections as she leads

Christine signs words occasionally as she reads, reinforcing her comprehension

Christine selects texts she wants to read – e.g., newsletters for special populations, trip announcements, flyers at work, greeting cards

Maintain interdependence – Not pushing towards independence – Avoid breeding frustration

Gordon Pershey & Gilbert (2005) NRC


How to intervene demonstration guided practice independent practice4

How to Intervene: Demonstration, Guided Practice, Independent Practice

Moving Towards Independence:

Echo reading is supplemented with planned and incidental instruction:

Build a sight word bank

Word skills worksheets – matching, selecting among choices to show word recognition

Explore letter-sound correspondences

Analogies for onsets – if “bed” begins with /b/, get ready to say a /b/ word when you see “b” – think of a /b/ word that would make sense here

Analogies for rimes – what word could this be if we see it ends in “--oon”

Gordon Pershey & Gilbert (2005) NRC


How to intervene demonstration guided practice independent practice5

How to Intervene: Demonstration, Guided Practice, Independent Practice

Moving Towards Independence:

Christine finds satisfaction in communicating through written language

Eager to create her own texts – Language Experience Approach (Stauffer, 1970) – Christine dictates text for Tom to scribe (“Bessie’s Store”)

Christine writes many notes, letters, and greeting cards - Christine asks family members to tell her the letters so she can spell the words she wants to write

Continual experimentation with writing leads to independent creation of letters, messages, notes, and greetings using invented spelling

Gordon Pershey & Gilbert (2005) NRC


Improvements in christine s quality of life

Improvements in Christine’s Quality of Life

Increased social participation:

Library usage – borrowing books, story hour

Attends weekend school for adults with developmental disabilities

Recognizing coins and bills, counting money

Better time telling skills

Motivation to try to speak more clearly – more aware of target sounds and how they compare to her productions

Personal reading: Prayers, letters, greeting cards

Self-confidence: Volleyball, soccer, summer camp, group trips, dinner and movie dates

Gordon Pershey & Gilbert (2005) NRC


Documented accomplishments

Documented Accomplishments

Christine and Tom have partner read several books, including abridged versions of The Wizard of Oz and

The Secret Garden

Christine demonstrates text comprehension by providing single-word, sign, and gestural responses to questions about characters, plot, setting, etc.

Christine routinely writes notes to family, friends, workshop supervisors, and Tom

Full Scale IQ was tested as 55 after five years of reading and writing interventions, an increase of 14 points from pretreatment.

Gordon Pershey & Gilbert (2005) NRC


Conclusions

Conclusions

Christine’s literacy capabilities flourished under socially stimulating conditions. Non-threatening, socially relevant interactions with Tom facilitated her development.

Literacy was communicatively relevant to Christine. She viewed literacy as enhancing her ability to communicate with others.

Cognitively, Christine exhibited self-direction in her learning and metacognition as she approached literacy tasks.

Thus, Christine experienced many of the social, intellectual, and behavioral conditions reported in the literature to be contributing factors in literacy acquisition in adults with mental retardation and developmental disabilities (Barudin & Hourcade, 1990; Katims, 2000; Kliewer & Landis, 1999 van Kraayenoord, 1994).

Gordon Pershey & Gilbert (2005) NRC


Implications

Implications

This case study has generated evidence that literacy instruction for adults with mental retardation and developmental disabilities can utilize an eclectic, whole to part to whole approach.

There is a need for further research into literacy acquisition in adults with mental retardation and developmental disabilities to explore how literacy acquisition is both a

linguistically mediated social process and a socially mediated linguistic process.

Gordon Pershey & Gilbert (2005) NRC


Tom s discovery of the literacy process

Tom’s Discovery of the Literacy Process

Client’s Interest in Print

Client’s Interest in his/her Multiple Social Environments

Desire to Grow Socially, Behaviorally

Desire for Contact: Literacy Serves a Need for Communication; Expectation of Subsequent Social Participation

With Insight Comes Joy: Changes in Their Self-Concept, Rights, Power

Gordon Pershey & Gilbert (2005) NRC


Functional prerequisites

Functional Prerequisites

Beyond Parallel Play: Need Joint Purpose and Synergy Between Teacher and Learner

Visual Acuity to See Print

Language Skills:

Repeat Sentences

Engage in Conversation and Discourse

(Memory, Topicality, Story Line)

Parts of Wholes

(The Door of the Car; Foods that are Common at Lunch)

Patience and Persistence on the Part of the Teacher and Learner: Plan for Years of Instruction, Not Weeks

Gordon Pershey & Gilbert (2005) NRC


The developmental reading process what do typically developing readers do

The Developmental Reading Process: What Do Typically Developing Readers Do?

Moving Whole to Part to Whole

Logographic Recognition

(This is Probably Sight Word Reading)

COKE PEPSI MASTER CARD VISA

Highly Reliant on Context

Alphabetic Recognition: See Initial Letters of Words then Surmise what the Word Might Be

Orthographic Reading: Deliberately or Automatically Scan

the Letters, Syllables, and Word Parts throughout an Entire Word (hotel)

Gordon Pershey & Gilbert (2005) NRC


Monica gordon pershey ed d ccc slp associate professor department of speech and hearing

Aoccdrnig to rscheearch at Txes M&A

Uinervtisy, it deosn't mttaer in waht oredr the

ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoetnt tihng

is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be in the rghit

pclae. The rset can be a total mses and you

can sitll raed it wouthit a porbelm. Tihs is

bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey

lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe.

Gordon Pershey & Gilbert (2005) NRC


Monica gordon pershey ed d ccc slp associate professor department of speech and hearing

redblue

greenbrown

tanyellow

purpleorange

pinkblack

brownred

yellowpurple

bluegreen

tanorange

Gordon Pershey & Gilbert (2005) NRC


The developmental reading process what do typically developing readers do1

The Developmental Reading Process: What Do Typically Developing Readers Do?

Pattern Detection Prepares the Reader for Rule Application

The Heuristic Precedes the Logorhythm

Experimentation with Writing Occurs Concurrently with

these Phases

A Spelling Conscience Develops in the Orthographic Phase

Reading is Always a Parallel Examination of

Stimulus and Memory

Ideally Occurs with Automaticity

Gordon Pershey & Gilbert (2005) NRC


How to do the teaching

How to do the Teaching

DEMONSTRATION

GUIDED PRACTICE

INDEPENDENT PRACTICE

Gordon Pershey & Gilbert (2005) NRC


How to do the teaching1

How to do the Teaching

Facilitate Four Roles (Freebody, 1992)

Text Participant

This Text Matters to Me!

(Interesting, Funny, Personal, Useful)

Text User

This Text Was Created So that I Could _____

(Read a Story, Receive an Invitation, Take Medicine)

Text Analyst

This Text Reminds Me of Other Texts (Frequent User)

Code Breaker

I Can Find Certain Aspects of the Written Code (Punctuation, Letters, Words)

Gordon Pershey & Gilbert (2005) NRC


How to do the teaching2

How to do the Teaching

Step 1: Language Listening and Use

Auditory Input Builds “Big Storage” for Lengthier Text

Iconic Input: This is What Print Does

Procedural Input: This is What Readers Do

Gordon Pershey & Gilbert (2005) NRC


How to do the teaching3

How to do the Teaching

Step 2: Connect Visual Wholes to Spoken Language

Logographic Phase: Seeing Word Wholes

Understanding Word Wholes as Part of the Language Whole

For Some Clients this Constitutes Whole Word Recognition

For Other Clients, this is Matching “Some Language”

to “Some Logos”

Gordon Pershey & Gilbert (2005) NRC


How to do the teaching4

How to do the Teaching

Step 3: Talking Like a Book

A Melody of Voices: Repetition, Impress

Predictable Phrasing at the Sentence and Passage Levels

Facility with Meaning Allows for Later Emphasis on the Code

The Teacher is Very Involved: The Process is about Communication with the Learner, Teacher Models Patience and Concentration, Sharing the Meaning of Text

The Teacher’s Voice Drops Out:

“Are They Reading Anything Yet?”

Gordon Pershey & Gilbert (2005) NRC


How to do the teaching5

How to do the Teaching

Step 4: Reliable Sight Words: Maintain Focus on Instruction “Interdependence” - Don’t Push for Independence

Learned by Repetition and Connection to Meaning

Might be Function or Content Words

Laubach or Other Repetitive Texts Featuring Story Lines

A Word Keeps Coming Up in the Story and is Reliably Recognized

The Learner Still Struggles with the Bulk of Text

Independence May Tax a Learner’s Frustration Tolerance

Gordon Pershey & Gilbert (2005) NRC


How to do the teaching6

How to do the Teaching

Step 5: Pattern Detection -- Begin to Teach Letter Recognition for Letters that Occur at Beginnings of Words

Pair Letters to Sounds

Analogy: If “Bed” Begins with the /b/ Sound,

When You See a “b” Get Ready to Say a Word that Begins with /b/ -- Then Think of a /b/ Word that Would Make Sense Here

Stress How Sounds Recur in Different Words - Start a Personal Dictionary of Sight Words by First Letter/Initial Sound

Move to Word Families or Spelling Correspondences

-oon: moon, balloon, noon, soon, afternoon

-ch: lunch, such, batch, pinch

Gordon Pershey & Gilbert (2005) NRC


How to do the teaching7

How to do the Teaching

Step 6: Finding One’s Own Mistakes

Can the Learner Monitor for Miscues? Self-Correct?

Monitoring What We See, What We Say, What We Hear Ourselves Say, What the Text Means, How Meaning Changes as We Go Along

Miscues Reveal Three Types of Errors:

Reading the Wrong Symbol (A Visual Error)

Attaching the Wrong Meaning

(Wrong Guess of What the Word is in Context)

Errors Involving Sentence Structure

(Not Accounted for by Dialect)

Gordon Pershey & Gilbert (2005) NRC


How to do the teaching8

How to do the Teaching

Step 7: Word Awareness and Word Study

Finding Similarities and Differences Among Words:

Rhymes, Singular/Plural, Compound, Different by 1 Letter

Taking Words Apart in Any Way

Sounding Out Words

Gordon Pershey & Gilbert (2005) NRC


Faq s

FAQ’s

When, and how often, do I correct the learner?

Keep corrections to substantial concerns related to text meaning

About 80% accuracy is sufficient

Ignore dialect errors

Take the learner’s temperament into account

Does the learner want to be corrected or not?

What will help vs. what will aggravate the learner?

Gordon Pershey & Gilbert (2005) NRC


Faq s1

FAQ’s

Is this Whole Language?

No.

But the “wisdom” of whole language has been taken into account: Readers crack the code by going from whole to part to whole. Connected text is more meaningful than flash cards. Letters are only important to people who have seen the flow of words on a page and want to crack that code. Learning to read entails a series of insights.

Gordon Pershey & Gilbert (2005) NRC


Faq s2

FAQ’s

What about Phonics Instruction?

Phonics teaches the rules of English orthography. Learners are ready for phonics when they have good pattern detection skills and can apply consistent rules.

Shouldn’t I teach survival words first?

A learner who is capable of reliable identification of sight words may benefit from supplemental instruction in survival words presented in isolation. Survival words might also be detected in text passages. Logographic readers may recognize some survival words that have strong visual associations, such as a stop sign.

Gordon Pershey & Gilbert (2005) NRC


Faq s3

FAQ’s

What can I do about learners with autism?

A literacy learner needs to have some interest in his/her social environments and a desire to grow socially. This teaching approach requires a high degree of interpersonal contact, in part provided to nurture the learner’s desire for contact. Learners with autism who see literacy as an avenue to communication may engage in this approach. Literacy is important to clients who have the expectation of subsequent increased social participation when they become readers.

Gordon Pershey & Gilbert (2005) NRC


Faq s4

FAQ’s

What can I do with my lowest functioning clients?

Begin by reading aloud to them, directing visual attention to the print as you read.

Gordon Pershey & Gilbert (2005) NRC


References

References

Adams, M.J. (1994). Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print.Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Ashby-Davis, C. (1981). A review of three techniques for use with remedial readers. The Reading Teacher, 34(5), 534-538.

Barudin, S.I. & Hourcade, J.J. (1990, Sept.). Relative effectiveness of three methods of reading instruction in developing specific recall and transfer skills in learners with moderate and severe mental retardation. Education and Training in Mental Retardation, 286-291.

Bennett, J., Jaccoma, R., & Weinstein, L. (Eds.). (1997). So far: Words from learners. Markham,Ontario: Fitzhenry Whiteside.

Carpenter, C. D., Bloom, L. A., & Boat, M. B. (1999). Guidelines for special educators: Achieving socially valid outcomes, Intervention in School and Clinic, 34(30, 143-149.

Erickson, K.A., Koppenhaver, D.A. & Yoder, D.E. (1994). Literacy and adults with developmental disabilities. Philadelphia, PA: National Center on Adult Literacy.

Farrell, M., & Elkins, J. (1991). Literacy and the adolescent with Down syndrome. In C. Denholm (Ed.), Adolescents with Down syndrome: International perspectives on research and programme development. Victoria, BC: University of Victoria.

Gordon Pershey & Gilbert (2005) NRC


References1

References

Feuerstein, R., Rand, Y., & Hoffman, M. B. (1979). The dynamic assessment of retarded performance: The learning potential assessment device, theory, instruments, and techniques. Baltimore: University Park Press.

Fowler, A.E., Doherty, B.J., & Boynton, L. (1995). The basis of reading skill in young adults with Down syndrome. In L. Nadel & D. Rosenthal (Eds.), Down syndrome: Living and learning in the community (pp. 182-196). New York: Wiley-liss.

Freebody, P. (1992). A socio-cultural approach: resourcing four roles as a literacy learner. In A. Watson & A. Badenhop (Eds.), Prevention of Reading Failure (pp.48-60). NSW: Scholastic Australia Pty. Ltd.

Gillette, T.L. (1991). Improving oral reading in mentally handicapped adults through increased opportunity and practice. Masters Thesis, Nova University.

Giordano, G. (1996). Literacy programs for adults with developmental disabilities. San Diego: Singular Publishing.

Gipe, J.P., Duffy, C.A. & Richards, J.C. (1993). Helping a nonspeaking adult male with cerebral palsy achieve literacy. Journal of Reading, 36(5), 380-389.

Gordon Pershey & Gilbert (2005) NRC


References2

References

Hoffman, M. B. (1979). The dynamic assessment of retarded performance: The learning potential assessment device, theory, instruments, and techniques. Baltimore: University Park Press.

Katims, D. S. (2000). Literacy instruction for people with mental retardation: Historical highlights and contemporary analysis. Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 35(1), 3-15.

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Laiken, D.S. (1989). Great illustrated classics: The Wizard of Oz by L. Frank Baum. New York: Baronet Books.

Lalli, J.S. & Browder, D.M. (1993). Comparison of sight word training procedures with validation of the most practical procedure in teaching reading for daily living. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 14, 107-127.

Laubach, F.C., Kirk, E.M., & Laubach, R.S. (1991). Laubach way to reading. Syracuse, NY: New Readers Press, Publication Division of Laubach Literacy International.

Moni, K.B., & Jobling, A. (2000a). Ignoring the frontiers: Teaching poetry to adolescents with Down syndrome. Social Alternatives, 19(3),36-39.

Gordon Pershey & Gilbert (2005) NRC


References3

References

Moni, K.B., & Jobling, A. (2000b). LATCH-ON: A literacy course for young adults with Down Syndrome. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 44, 40-49.

Moni, K., & Jobling, A. (2001). Reading related literacy learning of young adults with Down syndrome: findings from a three year teaching and research program. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 48 (4), 377-394.

Moutray, C. (1997). An exercise in juggling: Facilitating an adult literacy program. Paper presented at the 40th Leadership Conference and Biennial Council of Pi Lambda Theta, San Diego, CA.

Mulvaney, D.E., Fitzhugh, L.C., & Wagner, B.R. (1980). Teaching elementary spelling to a retarded resident by another retarded resident. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 51, 523-526.

Pershey, M.G., & Gilbert, T.W. (2002). Christine: A case study of literacy acquisition by an adult with developmental disabilities. Mental Retardation, 40(3), 219-234.

Raphael, D., Brown, I., Renwick, R., & Rootman, I. (1996). Assessing the quality of life of persons with developmental disabilities: Description of a new model, measuring instruments, and initial findings. International Journal of Disability, Development, and Education, 43(1), 25-42.

Gordon Pershey & Gilbert (2005) NRC


References4

References

Rootman, I. (1996). Assessing the quality of life of persons with developmental disabilities: Description of a new model, measuring instruments, and initial findings. International Journal of Disability, Development, and Education, 43(1), 25-42.

Ruiter, I. D. (2000). Allow me! A guide to promoting communication skills in adults with developmental delays. Toronto: The Hanen Centre.

Smith, F. (1988). Joining the literacy club: Further essays into education. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Smith, P. (1999). Drawing new maps: A radical cartography of developmental disabilities. Review of Educational Research, 69(2), 117-144.

Speaking of equality: A guide to choosing an inclusive literacy program for people with an intellectual disability. (1995). North York, Ontario: The Roeher Institute.

Speaking of equality: Making literacy programs accessible to people with an intellectual disability. (1995). North York, Ontario: The Roeher Institute.

Storey, K. & Horner, R. H. (1991). An evaluative review of social validation research involving persons with handicaps. The Journal of Special Education, 25(3), 352-401.

Gordon Pershey & Gilbert (2005) NRC


References5

References

Sturm, J. & Koppenhaver, D. A. (2000). Supporting writing development in adolescents with developmental disabilities. Topics in Language Disorders, 20(2), 73-92.

Trent, S.C., Artiles, A.J. & Englert, C.S. (1998). From deficit thinking to social constructivism: A review of theory, research, and practice in special education. In D.P. Pearson & A. Iran-Nejad, (Eds.), Review of research in educa­tion, Vol. 23 (pp.277-307). Washing­ton, DC:American Educational Research Association.

Van Kraayenoord, C.E. (1994). Literacy for adults with an intellectual disability in Australia. Journal of Reading, 37(7), 608-310.

van Kraayenoord, C. E., Moni, K.B., Jobling. A., & Ziebarth, K. (2002). Broadening approaches to literacy education for young adults with Down syndrome. In M. Cuskelly, S. Buckley, & A. Jobling (Eds.), Down syndrome across the lifespan pp.93-106. London: Whurr.Young, L., Moni, K.B., Jobling, A., & vanKraayenoord, C.E. (2004). Literacy Skills of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities in Two Community-Based Day Programs. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 51 (1), 83-97.

Wehmeyer, M.L. & Metzler, C.A. (1995). How self-determined are people with mental retardation? The National Consumer Survey. Mental Retardation, 33(2), 111-119.

Gordon Pershey & Gilbert (2005) NRC


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