Rhizosphere interactions under elevated co 2 impact on soil organic carbon dynamics
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Rhizosphere interactions under elevated CO 2 : Impact on soil organic carbon dynamics. Shuijin Hu North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC 27695 Email: [email protected] An Overview of Recent and Ongoing Research Projects. Microbes & plant competition.

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Rhizosphere interactions under elevated CO 2 : Impact on soil organic carbon dynamics

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Rhizosphere interactions under elevated co 2 impact on soil organic carbon dynamics

Rhizosphere interactions under elevated CO2: Impact on soil organic carbon dynamics

Shuijin Hu

North Carolina State University

Raleigh, NC 27695

Email: [email protected]


Rhizosphere interactions under elevated co 2 impact on soil organic carbon dynamics

An Overview of Recent and Ongoing Research Projects

Microbes & plant competition

Carbon & nitrogen dynamics in agroecosystems

Plant-Microbe Interactions

Microbial diversity & ecosystem stability

Microbial responses to climate change


Rhizosphere interactions under elevated co 2 impact on soil organic carbon dynamics

Air temperature has increased ca. 0.6 oC

Air temperature is predicted to increase another 2-5 oC in the next 100 years


Rhizosphere interactions under elevated co 2 impact on soil organic carbon dynamics

The increasing atmospheric CO2 is correlated with the temperature rise


Rhizosphere interactions under elevated co 2 impact on soil organic carbon dynamics

Global warming has some major consequences


Rhizosphere interactions under elevated co 2 impact on soil organic carbon dynamics

One central goal of global change research is to understand:

whether and how terrestrial ecosystems can sequester more organic C.


Rhizosphere interactions under elevated co 2 impact on soil organic carbon dynamics

Why ecosystem C sequestration for mitigation of climate change?

Active C pools on the Earth surface:

  • Air CO2-C: 750× 1015 g

  • 2. Biomass-C: 550-650 × 1015 g

  • Soil organic C: 1500-2100 × 1015 g


Rhizosphere interactions under elevated co 2 impact on soil organic carbon dynamics

Elevated CO2 stimulates photosynthesis and net primary production –

Increases short-term C inputs

Herrick & Thomas. 2001


Rhizosphere interactions under elevated co 2 impact on soil organic carbon dynamics

Prerequisites for long-term ecosystem C sequestration under elevated CO2

  • Plants can effectively acquire available nutrients;

  • Mechanisms exist to sustain N supply for plants;

  • Microbial decomposition is “contained”.

Plants are primarily nutrient-limited but microbes are C-limited


Rhizosphere interactions under elevated co 2 impact on soil organic carbon dynamics

1. Can plants acquire available nutrients

more effectively under elevated CO2?

The prevailing paradigm in 1990’s was:

Microbes outcompete plants for acquiring nutrients in soil.


Rhizosphere interactions under elevated co 2 impact on soil organic carbon dynamics

Elevated CO2

Plants

C inputs

Available N

Organic N

Microbes

Elevated CO2 alters the plant-microbial competition in favor of plant N utilization.

Hu et al. 2001. Nature


Rhizosphere interactions under elevated co 2 impact on soil organic carbon dynamics

Nutrient Limitation of Ecosystem C Sequestration

Luo et al. 2004. Bioscience


Rhizosphere interactions under elevated co 2 impact on soil organic carbon dynamics

  • Are there mechanisms that sustain N supply for plants under elevated CO2?

  • Can CO2-stimulation of plant growth be sustained over time?

  • To a large degree, it will depend on whether plants can acquire sufficient nutrients from the organic pool.


Rhizosphere interactions under elevated co 2 impact on soil organic carbon dynamics

Elevated CO2

Plants

C inputs

Microbes

Available N

Elevated CO2 increased plant N acquisition from soil organic N pool.

Hu et al. 2005. Global Ch. Biol.

Zak et al. 2011. Ecology Letters.

Drake et al. 2011. Ecology Letters

+

Organic N


The summary

The Summary

The Summary

Plants are more effective in nutrient acquisition under elevated than ambient CO2.

Plants are more effective in nutrient acquisition under elevated than ambient CO2.

Plants are more effective in nutrient acquisition under elevated than ambient CO2.

Next Question

How does elevated CO2 increase plant nutrient acquisition from soil?

How does elevated CO2 increase plant nutrient acquisition from soil?

How does elevated CO2 increase plant nutrient acquisition from soil?

How does elevated CO2 increase plant nutrient acquisition from soil?


Rhizosphere interactions under elevated co 2 impact on soil organic carbon dynamics

Elevated CO2

(15NH4)2SO4

NO3–

NO3–

NO3–

bacteria

PO43-

fungi

Ca2+

Residues

K+

Mg2+

NH4+

PO43-

Hu et al. 2005, Global Change Biol.


Rhizosphere interactions under elevated co 2 impact on soil organic carbon dynamics

Indeed, one major finding over the last two decades is: Elevated CO2 increases soil fungi, particularly mycorrhizal fungi.

Then the question is:

Why?

Treseder, 2004. New Phytologist


Rhizosphere interactions under elevated co 2 impact on soil organic carbon dynamics

Ectomycorrhzae

Arbuscular Mycorrhizae

  • Mycorrhizae are symbiotic associations between plant roots and fungi;

  • Over 80% of terrestrial plants form mycorrhizae with fungi;

  • Plants allocate up to 20% of photosynthates to mycorrizal fungi under ambient CO2 and up to 35-40% under elevated CO2.


Rhizosphere interactions under elevated co 2 impact on soil organic carbon dynamics

AM fungi protect organic C from microbial attack

Scanning electron micrograph of a VA mycorrhizal fungus with particles of clay firmly attached (left) and VA mycorrhizal fungi binding microaggregates into a stable macroaggregate (Tisdall and Oades 1979).


Rhizosphere interactions under elevated co 2 impact on soil organic carbon dynamics

Elevated CO2

Plant Growth

Mycorrhizae

Extraradical

Fungal Hyphae

Cell Wall Materials (Chitin)

Glomalin

Polysaccharides

Soil Aggregation

Carbon Sequestration

The current paradigm

of elevated CO2 impact on soil C

Rillig et al., 1999, Nature;Treseder & Allen, 2000, New Phytol.

Antoninka et al. 2009, GCB.Wilson et al. 2009. Ecol. Letters


Rhizosphere interactions under elevated co 2 impact on soil organic carbon dynamics

Major issues related to the current paradigm

  • The current paradigm is largely based on correlative information, rather than direct evidence;

  • Emerging evidence suggests that AM fungi may increase decomposition of organic residues (Hodge et al. 2001, Nature; PNAS 2010; Tu et al. 2006, Global Change Biology).


Rhizosphere interactions under elevated co 2 impact on soil organic carbon dynamics

Hodge et al. 2001


Rhizosphere interactions under elevated co 2 impact on soil organic carbon dynamics

Can CO2-stimulation of AM fungi increase decomposition of organic matter in soil?

Five stepsto assess the impact of CO2–enhancement of AM fungi on organic C decomposition


Rhizosphere interactions under elevated co 2 impact on soil organic carbon dynamics

Step 1

A microcosm experiment to assess AMF-mediated organic

C decomposition under different CO2 and N levels

CSTR chambers

Microcosm unit


Rhizosphere interactions under elevated co 2 impact on soil organic carbon dynamics

Isolation of root contribution from fungal effects on organic C decomposition

13C/15N labeled materials


Rhizosphere interactions under elevated co 2 impact on soil organic carbon dynamics

Step 2

A microcosm experiment to examine the impact of AMF identity on AMF-mediated organic C decomposition under different CO2 levels

AM fungal species or assemblages

A. Acaulospora morrowiae

B. Gigaspora margarita

C. Glomus clarum

D. Assemblage A: The combination of A, B and C

F. Assemblage B: Eight species from field, including A, B & C


Rhizosphere interactions under elevated co 2 impact on soil organic carbon dynamics

Step 3

A field experiment to determine AMF-mediated organic C decomposition under elevated CO2

Open-top chambers used to simulate atmospheric CO2 concentrations under future climate scenarios


Rhizosphere interactions under elevated co 2 impact on soil organic carbon dynamics

Result 1:

Elevated CO2 increased mycorrhizal infection of roots and AMF biomass in soil

Fig. S3. Elevated CO2 stimulated the growth of AMF in roots of Avena fatua and wheat, and in soil


Rhizosphere interactions under elevated co 2 impact on soil organic carbon dynamics

Result 2:

Higher AMF under elevated CO2 increases decomposition

A: Microcosm Exp. 1;

B. Microcosm Exp. 2;

C. Field Exp.

Cheng et al. 2012. Science


Why does elevated co 2 concentration increase organic c decomposition

Why does elevated CO2 concentration increase organic C decomposition?

Our initial hypothesis was: Elevated CO2 stimulates organic C decomposition because 1. N becomes more limiting, 2. plants under elevated CO2 need to obtain more N, and

3. plants allocate more carbohydrates to prime decomposition through stimulating saprotrophs.

Does elevated CO2 really reduce N availability?


Rhizosphere interactions under elevated co 2 impact on soil organic carbon dynamics

Result 3:

Elevated CO2 reduces soil NH4+ in N-limiting soils but increases soil NO3- in the N-rich field soil

A: Microcosm Exp. 1;

B. Microcosm Exp. 2;

C. Field Exp.

Cheng et al. 2012. Science


Rhizosphere interactions under elevated co 2 impact on soil organic carbon dynamics

  • These results led us to ask:

  • Why do plants not use the increased NO3- under elevated CO2?

  • 2. Does elevated CO2 lead to plant preference of soil NH4+ over soil NO3- ?


Rhizosphere interactions under elevated co 2 impact on soil organic carbon dynamics

Fig. 1. Three methods for assessing

nitrate absorption (Absorb) and assimilation (Assim.) in wheat

and Arabidopsis plants in hydroponic solutions where the shoots were exposed to atmospheres containing 380-ppm CO2 and 21% O2, 720-ppm CO2 and 21% O2, or 380-ppm CO2 and 2% O2.

Bloom et al. 2010. Science


Rhizosphere interactions under elevated co 2 impact on soil organic carbon dynamics

  • Step 4

  • A meta-analysis of elevated CO2 impact on soil N and plant N acquisition in the literature

  • Does elevated CO2 lead to plant preference of soil NH4+ over soil NO3- ?


Rhizosphere interactions under elevated co 2 impact on soil organic carbon dynamics

  • Step 4

  • A meta-analysis of elevated CO2 impact on soil N and plant N acquisition in the literature.

  • 38 studies that quantified the concentrations of soil NH4+ and NO3– and/or the capacity of plant use of NH4+ and NO3– under eCO2;

  • These studies encompassed more than 58 species of crop, grass, and tree species.


Rhizosphere interactions under elevated co 2 impact on soil organic carbon dynamics

Result 4:

Elevated CO2 reduced plant NO3- uptake and increased soil NO3- (Net effect %).

40

20

-20

-40

Cheng et al. 2012. Science


Rhizosphere interactions under elevated co 2 impact on soil organic carbon dynamics

  • Step 5

  • A field experiment to assess the impact of nitrification inhibition on AMF-mediated organic C decomposition under elevated CO2

X


Rhizosphere interactions under elevated co 2 impact on soil organic carbon dynamics

Result 5:

Inhibition of nitrification offsets CO2-enhancement of AMF-mediated organic C decomposition

Cheng et al. 2012. Science


Rhizosphere interactions under elevated co 2 impact on soil organic carbon dynamics

The Summary

Fig. 4. A conceptual framework

of AMF-mediated decomposition

driven by CO2-enhancement of plant N acquisition. CO2-enhancement of AMF primes residue decomposition and ammonium (NH4+) release

and optimizes NH4+ acquisition, while reducing nitrification.

Cheng et al. 2012. Science


Rhizosphere interactions under elevated co 2 impact on soil organic carbon dynamics

  • Potential Implications

  • The contribution of arbuscular mycorhizal fungi to soil C sequestration under future CO2 scenarios may have been over-estimated;

  • Increasing plant N use efficiency and reducing decomposition through effective management of soil N transformations are keys to facilitate soil C sequestration.


Rhizosphere interactions under elevated co 2 impact on soil organic carbon dynamics

Acknowledgements

Lab members (in the last 6 years): Sean Blosvies*, Xin Chen, Jared Chauncey, Lei Cheng, Mary Claire Garrison, Natalie Gross*, Anna Johnson, Marissa Lee, Lingli Liu, Karen Parker, Tomin Sa*, Qinghua Shi*, Cong Tu*, Jinping Wang*, Liang Wang, Yi Wang, Dolly Watson, Scotty Wells*, Li Zhang*, Yi Zhang*, Lishi Zhou*

Major Collaborators

NCSU: David Shew, Chris Reberg-Horton, Julie Grossman, Frank Louws, Mike Benson, David Bird, Mike Burton, Nancy Creamer, Marc Cubeta, Ralph Dean, Greg Hoyt, Paul Mueller, Jean Ristaino, David Ritchie, Tom Rufty, Michelle Schroeder, Wei Shi, Lane Tredway, Dolly Watson

USDA-ARS: Fitz Booker, Kent Burkey

Funding Agencies:

USDA-NRI: Soil Processes, Pest Management Alternative, Managed Ecosystems

USDA-SARE

USDA_NIFA_ORG

NC Center for Turfgrass Environmental Research & Education

USDA-ARS Plant Research Unit


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