Research methodology
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Research Methodology. Meaning. Clifford Woody

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Research Methodology

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Research methodology

Research Methodology


Meaning

Meaning

Clifford Woody

Research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions, collecting, organizing and evaluating data, making deductions and reaching conclusions and at the last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis.


Importance

Importance

  • To gain familiarity or achieve new insights

  • To portray accurately the characteristics of an individual, situation or group

  • To determine the frequency

  • To test a hypothesis


Types of research

Types of Research

  • Descriptive vs Analytical Research

  • Applied vs Fundamental

  • Quantitative vs Qualitative

  • Conceptual vs Empirical

  • One time research

  • Simulation research

  • Exploratory research

  • Historical research

  • Decision oriented


Research methods methodology

Research Methods & Methodology

  • Differences


Research process

Research Process

  • Formulating the research problem

  • Extensive literature survey

  • Development of working hypothesis

  • Preparing the research design

  • Determining sample design

  • Deliberate sampling, convenience, judgment

  • Simple random sampling

  • Systematic sampling


Contd

Contd

- Stratified sampling

- Quota sampling

- Cluster sampling & area sampling

- Multi- stage sampling

  • Sequential sampling

  • Collecting the data

  • By observation

  • Personal interview

  • Telephonic interview


Contd1

Contd

  • Mailing questionnaire

  • Schedules

  • Execution of the project

  • Analysis of the data

  • Hypothesis testing

  • Generalization

  • Report preparation


Research problem

Research Problem

  • Individual or group which has a difficulty or problem

  • Some objective to be attained

  • Some alternatives

  • Some doubt in the mind of the researcher

  • Some environment


Technique involved in defining a problem

Technique Involved in Defining a Problem

  • Statement of the problem in a general way

  • Understanding the nature of the problem

  • Surveying the available literature

  • Developing the ideas through discussions

  • Rephrasing the research problem


Points to be observed in defining the problem

Points to be observed in defining the problem

  • Technical terms or phrases should be clearly defined

  • Basic assumptions

  • Statement of value of investigation

  • Time frame and availability of data

  • Scope of investigation


Characteristics of hypothesis

Characteristics of Hypothesis

  • Clear and precise

  • Should be capable of being tested

  • State relationship between variables

  • Must be consistent


Concepts for testing of hypothesis

Concepts for testing of Hypothesis

  • Null and alternative hypothesis

  • Level of significance

  • Decision rule or test of hypothesis

  • Type I & type II errors

  • Two-tail and one-tailed tests


Procedure for hypothesis testing

Procedure for hypothesis testing

  • Making a formal statement

  • Selecting a significance level

  • Deciding the distribution

  • Selecting a random sample

  • Calculating values

  • Comparing the probability


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