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Intergoup negotiation and conflict. Tutorial : Social identity processes in organziations Tutor: Alina S. Hernandez Bark Speaker: Maria Wittek . Overview. The basics: Intergroup negotiations 1. Individual differences approach 2. Cognitive approaches 3. Motivational approaches

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Intergoup negotiation and conflict

Intergoupnegotiationandconflict

Tutorial: Socialidentityprocesses in organziations

Tutor: Alina S. Hernandez Bark

Speaker: Maria Wittek


Overview
Overview

The basics:

Intergroup negotiations

1. Individual differences approach

2. Cognitive approaches

3. Motivational approaches

Groupwork:

Social identity, negotiations and conflict management

Plenary:

Should conflict be avoided?


Intergroup negotiations
Intergroup negotiations

  • In pay negotiations between union and management – what would be the most desired outcome?

  • Which quadrant represents this outcome?

  • What are the possible results of the other outcomes?


Intergroup negotiations1
Intergroup negotiations

“the goal of negotiations is typically to reach so-called ‘win-win’ or integrative agreements that satisfy the minimum requirements of both parties”

→ this is represented in quadrant D (the bargaining zone) into which integrative agreements fall

Integrative agreements require creativity and flexibility on the part of the negotiators


Intergroup negotiations2
Intergroup negotiations

Which psychological and material conditions lead to integrative solutions?

  • Individuals need to be addressed as group members

  • “The most satisfactory and enduring outcomes will be those that make sense of group differences within the framework of a shared superordinate social identity”


An overview of negotiation research
An overview of negotiation research

  • Individual differences approach

  • Cognitive approaches

  • Motivational approaches


An overview of negotiation research1
An overview of negotiation research

  • Individual differences approach

  • Cognitive approaches

  • Motivational approaches


1 individual differences approach
1.Individual differences approach

This approach suggests that negotiation results are a product of the personalities or management styles involved in negotiations.

  • Individual differences are used to predict negotiators behavior


1 individual differences approach1
1. Individual differences approach

Approach 1:

4 types of motivational orientation

  • Individualistic: want to maximize own gain with no concern for others

  • Altruistic: want to maximize others gain with no concern for self

  • Competitive: want to maximize own gain at the expense of others

  • Cooperative: want to maximize own and others gain

    →consequently two cooperative negotiators would be most likely to reach an integrative agreement

    Approach 2:

    Dual concern model – differentiates on the basis of conflict styles

  • Concern for self

  • Concern for others

    →useful tool for managers to identify own and others’ negotiation style and what outcome to expect from negotiations


1 individual differences approach2
1. Individual differences approach

Pro

Contra

  • The various negotiation styles are readily identifiable

  • Dual concern model provides a useful conceptual framework for thinking about the negotiation process as a whole

  • Negotiation styles appear to be products of the particular negotiation context – and not fixed and invariant inputs


An overview of negotiation research2
An overview of negotiation research

  • Individual differences approach

  • Cognitive approaches

  • Motivational approaches


2 cognitive approaches
2. Cognitive approaches

This approach aims to understand why individuals adopt a particular negotiation style and, specifically, what factors induce them to behave cooperatively rather than competitively.

  • Discrimination, conflict and injustice are natural products of intergroup division


2 cognitive approaches1
2. Cognitive approaches

Stereotyping – conserves limited cognitive resources (cognitive miser model)

BUT:

  • Prone to error as it oversimplifies the true nature of one’s opponents, because we tend to see members of outgroups as

    (a) more similar or

    (b) more extreme

    Difficulties that arise from these errors are: framing, anchoring, availability, overconfidence, mythical fixed pie, stereotyped views, reactive devaluation

    →Solution: decategorization strategies, i.e. gaining individualizing information on the other party


2 cognitive approaches2
2. Cognitive approaches

Pro

Contra

  • Stereotyping does not actually lead to cognitive load reduction and is not as prone to error as often claimed – instead it adds information that is not provided by individual perception

  • Decategorization strategies can lead to the problem that core issues of intergroup conflict might not be tackled if negotiations take place on an interpersonal level


An overview of negotiation research3
An overview of negotiation research

  • Individual differences approach

  • Cognitive approaches

  • Motivational approaches


3 motivational approaches
3. Motivational approaches

This approach aims to recategorize rather than decategorizeand therefore uniting groups under an umbrella of an all new, all-encompassing identity.

  • Parameters and outcomes of negotiation are shaped by the motivations of participants


3 motivational approaches1
3. Motivational approaches

Negotiation outcomes depend (among other things) on the extent to which participants

  • Establish high or low outcome limits

  • Take the perspective of their opponents into account

  • Frame negotiation as a process in which they are likely to win or lose

    →these findings also support the dual concern model


3 motivational approaches2
3. Motivational approaches

Pro

Contra

  • Demonstrate that negotiators’ orientation (toward the negotiation process) and, hence, the outcomes of that process are structured by features of the social context that the parties confront

  • It is not clear why orientations and motivations often change over the course of negotiation and why these changes play a important role in the negotiations outcome


Group work
Group work

Your task:

Using the text, devise a negotiation/ conflict resolution strategy for your case study.

Case study 1: DB vs GDL

Case study 2: IvIvsFranconofurt


Plenary
Plenary

Should conflict be avoided?

→conflict management should take the form of conflict resolution, not conflict suppression

“Conflict is natural and inevitable. Yet an emerging view is that cooperation – not conflict or competition – is the way to achieve high performance. The new trends in management … all assume employee cooperation is a good thing. This means that successful organizations must find healthy ways to confront and resolve conflict. Managers champion a cooperate model of organization, meaning they foster cooperation and don’t stimulate competition or conflict, which work against the achievement of overall company goals.”

Daft (1995)


Bibliography
Bibliography

Haslam, A. Psychology in Organizations – The Social Identity Approach. London: Sage. 2004



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