Carnivorous plants
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Carnivorous Plants. Nepenthes hamata. Beautiful, Strange and Truly Wondrous. Adapted for nutrient-poor soils, wet climates, bright light Like all green plants, photosynthesize (I.e. they’re producers)

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Carnivorous Plants

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Carnivorous plants

Carnivorous Plants

Nepenthes hamata

Beautiful, Strange and Truly Wondrous


Carnivorous plants1

Adapted for nutrient-poor soils, wet climates, bright light

Like all green plants, photosynthesize (I.e. they’re producers)

Utilize excess sugars from photosynthesis (which only requires sunlight, water, and CO2) as bait

Attract and absorb macronutrients P-K-N (e.g. fertilizer) from prey

Hence, the adaptation of carnivory turns plentiful sunlight and water into essential nutrients that allow the plants to compete in impoverished soils

Carnivorous Plants

Classic examples of ecological resource trading


Carnivorous plants2

Soil with low mineral content(usuallyacidic)

Plenty of pure water (no salts, dissolved solids, metals, etc.)

Lots of sunlight

Little competition from alien species

Prey (mostly for flowering and fruiting)

As can be expected from this list, most are extremely endangered:

Development of the coastal swamps of the Southeast USA

Deforestation of SE Asia

Pollution of wetlands

Imported competition (Purple Loosestrife)

Carnivorous Plants

As a result, almost all species have similar needs


Genera of carnivorous plants

Genera of Carnivorous Plants

Over 550 Species; three basic trapping mechanisms

Sticky traps

(flypaper)

  • Byblis

  • Drosera

  • Drosophyllum

  • Pinguicula

Pitfall traps

(pitchers)

  • Darlingtonia

  • Cephalotus

  • Heliamphora

  • Nepenthes

  • Sarracenia

Active traps

(“steel trap” and “trap door”)

  • Aldrovanda

  • Dionaea

  • Utricularia

    Other/passive

    (Minnow traps)

  • Genlisea


Venus flytrap dionaea muscipula

Venus FlytrapDionaea muscipula

Active traps


Venus flytrap dionaea muscipula1

Venus FlytrapDionaea muscipula

Trigger hairs

Flowers and seeds


Drosera the sundews

Drosera – The Sundews

Sticky traps


Carnivorous plants

D.dichro-sepala

D.echino-blasta

D.citrina

D.ericksoniae

D.mannii

D.oreo-podeon

D.paleacea paleacea

D.pulchella (pink)

D.

microscapa

D.

occidentalis

D.ericks. x pulchella

D.silvicola

D.spilos

D.sp.Warriup

D.stelliflora


Carnivorous plants

Drosera multifida


Carnivorous plants

Drosera capensis


Carnivorous plants

Drosera capensis in action!!!

Sticky traps

+

Leaf blade movement to aid digestion


Tuberous sundew drosera peltata

Tuberous SundewDrosera peltata


Other stickies byblis liniflora

Other stickies: Byblis liniflora

The Rainbow Plant

Sticky traps


Other stickies pinguicula

Other stickies: Pinguicula

Sticky traps

The Butterworts


Sarracenia north american pitcher plants

Sarracenia - North American Pitcher Plants

Pitfall traps

S.purpurea


Carnivorous plants

Sarracenia flava


Sarracenia leucophylla and sarracenia psittacina

Sarracenia leucophylla and Sarracenia psittacina


Flytrap and sarracenia care

High light levels (full sun is usually best)

Never allow to dry out

Use pure water with few dissolved solids or salts (deionized/distilled/ reverse osmosis/rainwater)

No fertilizer!

Use peat moss based medium (mix w/ lime-free sand or perlite)

All are native to the USA (Flytraps from North Carolina)…

…and require a dormancy period

Flytrap and Sarracenia Care


Drosera care

Temperate

Similar to Dionaea and Sarracenia needs

But may tolerate dilute fertilizer: ¼ strength Mir-acid

And lower light levels

Pygmy

Dormancy required

May reproduce asexually by gemmae

Tuberous

Need dormancy generally in the summer in USA

Can tolerate direct sun

Some seeds actually need to be exposed to fire to germinate.

Drosera Care


Carnivorous plants

N.burbidgeae

N.lowii

Nepenthes - “Monkey Cup” Tropical Vine Pitcher Plant

Pitfall traps


Nepenthes monkey cup tropical vine pitcher plant

Pitcher size from 1” to more than 2 liters

Leaves up to 1 meter length

Some scramble, some climb many meters

Rats and baby monkeys have been found in pitchers

Over 100 species distributed in SE Asia

Found from sea level to 2000+ m elevation

Credit: Malesiana Tropicals

Nepenthes - “Monkey Cup” Tropical Vine Pitcher Plant


Carnivorous plants

Nepenthes Care

  • More tolerant of minerals in the water and drought

  • Separated into “Lowland” (<1000m) and “Highland” (>1000m) species

  • Lowlands expect 20+°C and high humidity at all times (~ terrarium)

  • Highland species expect (and often need) a cool night and open, less damp medium (sphagnum)

  • Some highlands even grow as epiphytes.

  • No dormancy

  • Propagated from cuttings, tissue culture, and sometimes seed


Carnivorous plants

Nepenthes ampullaria

“”detritivore”

Lowland species


Carnivorous plants

Nepenthes bicalcarata

Large lowland species: span 2m, vines 8+m Symbiotic with ant species


Nepenthes albomarginata blue spotted form

Nepenthes albomarginata (blue spotted form)

Lowland species

Specialized to eat termites

Highland species


Nepenthes campanulata

Nepenthes campanulata

Lowland species

Nepenthes gracilis


Nepenthes truncata

Nepenthes truncata

Lowland species


Nepenthes aristolochioides

Nepenthes aristolochioides

Highland species

Highland species


Nepenthes macrophylla

Nepenthes macrophylla

Highland species


Cephalotus follicularis albany pitcher plant

Cephalotus follicularisAlbany Pitcher Plant

Pitfall traps


Darlingtonia californica cobra lily

Darlingtonia californicaCobra Lily

Pitfall traps


South american pitcher plant heliamphora heterodoxa

South American Pitcher PlantHeliamphora heterodoxa

Pitfall traps


Carnivorous plant societies

Carnivorous Plant Societies

  • International Carnivorous Plant Society

    • www.carnivorousplants.org

  • New England Carnivorous Plant Society

    • Roger Williams Park, Providence, RI

    • www.necps.org

N.bicalcarata


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