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1. Intro to the Human Body – Directional Terms, Planes, Quadrants, and Regions HST I
2. Correct Anatomical Position Standing
Arms at sides
Head and eyes forward
Palms facing forward
Used when describing anatomical positions and locations
3. Directional Terms Used to describe the anatomical position of a body part in relation to another
4. Directional Terms Superior or cranial (cranial used with animals)toward the head end of the body; upper; above(example, the head is superior to the neck). Inferior or caudal (caudal used with animals)away from the head; lower; toward the tailbone (example, the mouth is inferior to the nose).
Anterior or ventral (ventral used with animals)front (example, the teeth are anterior to the tongue). Posterior or dorsal (dorsal used with animals)back (example, the shoulder blades are posterior to the ribs).
Medial toward the midline of the body (example, the big toe is medial to the little toe).
5. Directional Terms Lateral away from the midline of the body; toward the sides (example, the ears are lateral to the cheekbone).
Proximal toward or nearest the trunk or the point of origin of a part (example, the elbow is proximal to the wrist)
Distal away from or farthest from the trunk or the point or origin of a part (example, the fingers are distal to the hand)
within the body
outside the body
6. Directional Terms Flexion
Decreasing the angle between two bones
Increasing the angle between two bones
Carrying toward a center
Carrying away from a center
Moving toward the midline
Moving away from the midline
Turning a body part outward
Turning a body part inward
Turning a body part downward (pointing toe)
Turning a body part upward (shrugging shoulders)
Away from the body surface, more internal
Toward or at the body surface
Toward the sole of the foot
Toward the palm of the hand
9. Directional Terms
10. Practice: The wrist is ___________ to the hand.
The breastbone is ________ to the spine.
The brain is _______ to the spinal cord.
The lungs are ______ to the stomach.
The thumb is ___________ to the fingers.
The ears are __________ to the nose.
The knee is __________ to the ankle
11. Answers: The wrist is _____proximal_______ to the hand.
The breastbone is __ventral______ to the spine.
The brain is __superior_____ to the spinal cord.
The lungs are _superior______ to the stomach.
The thumb is __lateral_________ to the fingers.
The ears are __lateral___________ to the nose.
The knee is ____proximal_______ to the ankle.
12. Abdominal Quadrants Divides the abdomen into 4 quadrants by midsagittal and a transverse planes
Intersection occurs at the belly button (navel or umbilicus)
Used when describing pain or injury to a patient OR for locating internal organs
RUQ – right upper quadrant
RLQ – right lower quadrant
LUQ – left upper quadrant
LLQ – left lower quadrant
13. Abdominal Quadrants Remember – right and left refers to the PATIENT’s right and left NOT YOURS
RIGHT KIDNEY AND ADRENAL
LEFT KIDNEY AND ADRENAL
15. Abdominopelvic (or Abdominal) Regions 9 total regions
Remember – right and left refers to the PATIENT’s right and left NOT YOURS
Right and left hypochondriac
Right and left lumbar
Right and left iliac
16. Abdominopelvic (or Abdominal) Regions
18. Body Planes 4 anatomical planes that pass through the body when in anatomical position
Sagittal = any left and right separation
Midsagittal = equal right and left separation (down the middle or midline of the body)
Transverse(Horizontal) = top and bottom (superior and inferior)
Coronal (Frontal) = front and back (anterior and posterior)
Oblique = at an angle between horizontal and vertical planes
19. Body Planes
20. Body Cavities 1. Cranial Cavity
2. Spinal Cavity (looking through body at spine)
4. Pleural Cavity
5. Pericardial Cavity
7. Abdominal Cavity
8. Pelvic Cavity
9. Abdominopelvic Cavity
10. Anterior (Ventral Cavity)
21. Body Cavities 1. Cranial cavity - brain
2. (1 and 3) Posterior (Dorsal) Cavity
3. Spinal cavity – spinal cord
4. Thoracic cavity – heart, lungs, esophagus, trachea
6. Abdominal cavity – stomach, spleen, liver, gallbladder, small intestine and most of large intestine
7. Pelvic cavity – part of large intestine, urinary bladder, reproductive organs
(4- 7) Anterior (Ventral) Cavity
22. Medical Abbreviations: (A) @ at
A&P Anterior and Posterior OR
Anatomy and Physiology
aa of each
ab partial abortion
ac before meals
ADL activities of daily living
23. adm admission
AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
AD right ear
AS left ear
AU both ears
24. AP apical pulse
AMA American Medical Association
ANA American Nurses Association
aq or aqua aqueous
ASAP as soon as possible