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Genetics!. Key Learning: Genetics in Animal Science. Unit EQ: Why is an understanding of genetics important in the animal science industry?. Concept : History Lesson EQ: How did research and knowledge of genetics evolve? Vocab Punnett Square, Dominant, Recessive, Mendel.

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Key learning genetics in animal science

Key Learning: Genetics in Animal Science

Unit EQ: Why is an understanding of genetics important in the animal science industry?

Concept : History

Lesson EQ:

How did research and knowledge of genetics evolve?


Punnett Square, Dominant, Recessive, Mendel

Concept : Genetic Behavior

Lesson EQ:

How do genetics manifest?


Crossover, Sex Linked, Sex Limited

Concept : Genetics in ANSC Industry

Lesson EQ:

How can genetics affect animals and their use?





  • Analyze Meiosis and Mitosis

  • Discuss Gregor Mendel and his contributions to genetics

Pair share

Pair Share

  • Rally Robin

  • What do you KNOW about genetics? What other classes discuss genetics?

  • Why might genetics be important in animal science?

Essential question

Essential Question

  • How did research and knowledge of genetics evolve?

Back in the day

Back in the Day


  • 1822-1884

  • Priest

  • Study the inheritance traits in pea plants

  • Not recognized until the 20th century

What did mendel study

What did Mendel Study?

What did this mean

What did this mean?

  • Selective Breeding

  • Crossbreeding

  • Heritability

    • What traits get passed on?

Lit frayer model

Lit Frayer Model

What about today

What about today?

  • Crossbreeding breeds registered

  • Cross bred crops

    • Aprium , Pluot, Grapple

  • Cross Bred Animals

    • Black Baldie, Labordoodle

  • Biotechnology

    • Fish in Strawberries to prevent freezer burn

    • Sub- arctic fish genes pumped into strawberries

Let s break it down why would we mix

Let’s break it down: Why would we mix?



Rally Robin Traits

  • Rally Robin Traits

Let s break it down

Let’s Break it Down

  • Where is the information coming from?

  • Where is it stored?

  • What does it look like?

  • What information is carried?

Where is the info coming from

Where is the info coming from?

  • Parents

Where is it stored

Where is it stored?

  • Cells

Mitosis activity please copy into your packet

MitosisActivity:Please copy into your packet

Meiosis activity please copy into your packet

Meiosis: Activity:Please copy into your packet

What does it look like

What does it look like?

  • Genotype

  • Phenotype

What information is carried

What information is carried?

  • Chromosomes

Why follow genetics

Why follow genetics?

  • Pedigree

Pair share1

Pair Share

  • How is genetic information transferred and mapped in animal science?



  • Video; Intro to Genetics United Streaming

  • Follow along in your packet

Vocabulary pair share please a define b use in a sentence

Vocabulary Pair/Share: Please A Define: B Use in a Sentence

Cross Breeding

Selective Breeding



  • Heritability

  • Gregor Mendel

  • Gene

  • Chromosome

  • Genotype

  • Phenotype

  • Pedigree

  • Gamete

Genetics the punnett square

Genetics!The Punnett Square



  • Analyze heritable traits

  • Calculate heritability using Punnett Square Method

Pair share2

Pair Share

  • What does the Punnett Square represent/ Calculate?

  • In what other classes do you learn about Punnett Squares?

It started with a pea plant

It started with a Pea [plant]

Remember dominant vs recessive

Remember Dominant Vs Recessive

  • Tell your face partner

    • What is the difference between Dominant and Recessive traits?

  • Tell your shoulder partner

    • How are dominant vs recessive traits represented in a P.S. ?

What is a punnett square

What is a Punnett Square?

  • an n × n square used in genetics to calculate the frequencies of the different genotypes and phenotypes among the offspring of a cross

More than 1 trait

More than 1 trait

Monohybrid vs dihybrid

Monohybrid vs. Dihybrid

What does it mean

What does it mean?

  • We can follow traits

How to punnett square dance

How to Punnett Square [Dance]

Reading the results

Reading the Results





Let s practice

Let’s Practice

  • Worksheet- Punnett Practice

Remember pedigrees

Remember Pedigrees?

  • Using our information from our Punnett Square worksheet, lets practice building a pedigree (worksheet practice)

Vocabulary pair share please a define b use in a sentence1

Vocabulary Pair/Share: Please A Define: B Use in a Sentence

  • Punnett Square

  • Heritability

  • Monohybrid

  • Dihybrid

Think write share

Think, Write, Share

  • To Summarize:

    • How do you complete a punnett square?

    • Who is the

      • Sire, Dam, Offspring, and F# generation?

    • How are Punnett Squares and pedigrees related?

    • How can results be expressed? (include vocab)

What do we look for

What do we look for?

Genetics in Animals



  • Identify traits in animal breeding that are desirable based on breed and that are heritable

Essential question1

Essential Question

  • How can genetics affect animals and their use??

General concepts

General Concepts

  • Certain traits are heritable

    • Discuss

      • Is Behavior?

      • Is Intelligence?

      • Is color markings?

      • Is feed efficiency?

  • Hybrid vigor

    • By mixing breeds within a species, “genetic health” is stronger “Mutts live longer)

  • Purebred

    • “guaranteed results”



  • What kind of traits would you want in YOUR dog? If you had:

    • Children

    • Small apartment

    • Sheep herd

    • Loved running ?



  • Temperament can be bred for!

    • Especially aggression

  • Watch for heritable health risks

    • Eye Problems

      • Irish Setters and Progressive Retinal Atrophy

      • Collie Eye Anomaly

      • Cataracts

      • Entropion (eyelids turn in or out)

Dogs heritable health contin

Dogs- Heritable Health Contin

  • Hips and Joints

    • Hip dysplasia

      • Malformation/degeneration of the hip joint.

        • Retrievers, Cocker Spaniels, Shetland Sheepdog

    • Osteochondrosis Dessicans (OCD)

      • Bone spur or flake wears away at joint.

        • Present in dogs with OCD

    • Pateller Luxation

      • Elbow/kneecap slides out of place locking leg

        • Occurs more in smaller dogs

Cats heritable health

Cats- Heritable Health

  • Polydactyly

  • Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    • Heart muscle thickens

      • Main Coon Cats

  • Progressive Retinal Atrophy

  • Diabetes

    • Burmese

  • Feline Infectious Peritonitis

    • Some cats have a predisposition to the development of FIA

Cattle dairy cattle

Cattle – Dairy Cattle

  • Milk production

  • Milk Fat Content

  • Efficiency

    • Feed intake to Milk Output

  • Calving ability

Video break

Video Break

  • Body Builder Cattle:

  • Pair/ Share After viewing

    • How did the cattle’s purpose, and consumer demand, drive genetic engineering? What genetic engineering was used?

How do we track this information how is it used in industry to determine use of animals

How do we TRACK this information?How is it used in industry to determine use of animals?

  • Sire Summaries

    • In cattle

    • Compares information on 1 bull, to his generation

    • Information is gathered by the productivity of his offspring

    • Helps famers choose which bull’s semen will help increase their herd’s health, and therefore his profit, when bred to his cows

    • More offspring a bull has (through natural mating or AI) the more Accurate his information and therefore the better guarantee that THOSE desired traits will be passed down

Sire summary in cow calf op s

Sire Summary in Cow/Calf Op.s

Table 1Example of sire summary data from the 1984 Angus sire summary

University of Missouri: Extension



  • EPD: Expected Progeny Difference: express the genetic transmitting ability of a sire. The EPD is reported as a plus or minus value in the unit in which the trait is measured.

  • EPDs are calculated from a sire's progeny data. All bulls listed in the sire summary can be directly compared using EPD values. EPDs are an estimate of how a bull's progeny would be expected to perform compared to any other bull listed in the same summary.



  • ACC: Accuracy is a measure of how much the EPD value might change as additional progeny data become available. Sires with more calves in several different herds will have higher accuracy figures

  • Select bulls to use based upon their EPD values and use the accuracy figure to determine how much to use a bull.



  • Maternal Breeding Value (MBV) describes how daughters of a bull are expected to produce compared to other cows in a herd. Once a bull's own daughters come into production, the MBV is calculated using the records of his own daughters in addition to those of his sire and paternal and maternal grandsires.

  • Estimates of MBVs come from pedigree analysis, not sire evaluation



  • Number of Daughters.

  • Why would this information be needed or relevant?

Why perform strict analysis

Why perform strict analysis?

  • Both commercial and seedstock producers should find sire summaries useful. A producer using AI can obtain semen from bulls that are superior in the traits of interest.

  • Summaries also can be used to identify herds that excel in genetic merit and vice versa. A breeder who has several superior bulls listed in the report is a more reliable source of bulls than either the breeder who has no bulls listed or the breeder who has poorer than average bulls listed in the summary.

Evaluating epd s exercise worth 50 points

Evaluating EPD’s Exercise Worth 50 points

  • Using the booklet provided at your TABLE please:

    • 1. Read the Packet!

    • 2. Formulate a Vocabulary sheet for ALL vocab words defined (all the abbreviations)

    • 3. Answer the worksheet questions in groups.

    • 4. Write down any questions you have.

    • Due Friday!

Once finished epd worksheet

Once Finished EPD worksheet

  • Summary Paper

    • 1 paragraph double spaced

      • Define the purpose of a Sire Summary. Who benefits from the sire summaries? What do sire summaries mean for producers? What information is provided on a sire summary?

Genetic terms to know

Genetic Terms to know



  • Define terms normally used when explaining and discussing genetics

Essential question2

Essential Question

  • Why is using appropriate terminology important in Veterinary Science?

Genetic vocabulary review

Genetic Vocabulary Review

Co dominance

Co Dominance

  • A condition in which both alleles of a gene pair in a heterozygote are fully expressed with neither one being dominant or recessive to the other

  • Example: Roan coloring in cattle

Roan coloring in cattle

Roan Coloring in Cattle

  • R is Red W is white

  • F1 Generation

    • All Roan

  • F2 Generation

    • 25% Red

    • 50% Roan

    • 25% White

    • 1:2:1 Ratio

Sex limited genes

Sex Limited Genes

  • Gene that exerts its effects primarily in one sex because of activation by androgens or estrogens

  • Both sexes may have the gene

  • Example hen/rooster feathering

Hen rooster feathering

Hen/Rooster Feathering

Sex determination

Sex Determination

  • Mammals

    • Determined at moment of fertilization

    • Female has regular chromosomes plus an XX

    • Male has only 1 sex chromosome Y

  • Birds

    • Females determine the sex of the offspring

Sex influenced genes

Sex Influenced Genes

  • Trait expressed to different extents depending on the sex of the individual.

  • Normally phenotypically recognized

  • Examples

    • Male pattern baldness in humans (comes from your mother)

    • Horns in sheep

    • Spotting in cattle

Sex linked characteristics

Sex Linked Characteristics

  • Genes carried on the sex chromosome

  • Example barred feather coloring in chickens

Genetics activities

Genetics Activities

  • Chromosomes and Genes

    • Simulation Activity

  • Dihybrid Guinea Pigs

  • Design a Species

  • Hardy-Weinburg?

Genetics in animals

Genetics in Animals

  • Using the terms learned today.

  • Find examples other than those used in the presentation to help define 1 vocabulary word from today

  • Vocab

    • Sex Linked - Codominance

    • Sex influenced - Sex limited

Gene behavior

Gene Behavior



  • Discuss common gene behavior

Essential question3

Essential Question

  • What types of gene behavior might appear as a phenotypic result



  • Tendency for certain traits to appear in groups in the offspring

  • Genes closer together on the chromosome are more likely to stay together



  • During meiosis chromosomes line up closely

  • Sometimes the genes jump and cross over forming new chromosomes with different combinations of genes

  • The farther apart two genes are on a chromosome the more likely they are to make a new combination



  • New trait appears that did not exist in parents

  • Some are harmful some are beneficial

  • Radiation will cause genes to mutate

  • Example: Polled Herefords

    • Cross between to horned resulted in polled

    • Polled is dominant – one parent must be polled

Mutation activity

Mutation Activity

  • Research a mutation in animals. (Your animal will be assigned)

  • Write a paragraph (10 sentences) summary describing the condition, what causes the condition, and if the condition benefits or harms the animal. Include a photo. Write up + photo = NO MORE THAN 1 PAGE in length

  • Provide sources in APA format have at least 2

  • This will be presented, and collected for grading. COMPLETE SENTENCES please

Final vocabulary define the following for your exam study guide




Sex linked

Sex influenced

Sex limited






Hybrid Vigor

Punnett Square




Final Vocabulary: Define the Following for your Exam Study Guide


Gregor Mendel







Cross Breeding

Selective Breeding



Copy the following from your notes should be copied on your test review

COPY THE FOLLOWING FROM your notes:Should be copied on your test review

  • How to complete a punnett square and give responses in ratio and percentages

  • Sex Limited Genes Example (hen/Rooster feathering) Punnett Square

  • Co-Dominance Example Punnett Squares (Roan Coloring)

  • Sex Linked Example (Barred Feathering) Example

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