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Genetics!. Key Learning: Genetics in Animal Science. Unit EQ: Why is an understanding of genetics important in the animal science industry?. Concept : History Lesson EQ: How did research and knowledge of genetics evolve? Vocab Punnett Square, Dominant, Recessive, Mendel.

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Key learning genetics in animal science
Key Learning: Genetics in Animal Science

Unit EQ: Why is an understanding of genetics important in the animal science industry?

Concept : History

Lesson EQ:

How did research and knowledge of genetics evolve?

Vocab

Punnett Square, Dominant, Recessive, Mendel

Concept : Genetic Behavior

Lesson EQ:

How do genetics manifest?

Vocab

Crossover, Sex Linked, Sex Limited

Concept : Genetics in ANSC Industry

Lesson EQ:

How can genetics affect animals and their use?

Vocab

ACC, EPD, DTA, MBV


Objectives
Objectives

  • Analyze Meiosis and Mitosis

  • Discuss Gregor Mendel and his contributions to genetics


Pair share
Pair Share

  • Rally Robin

  • What do you KNOW about genetics? What other classes discuss genetics?

  • Why might genetics be important in animal science?


Essential question
Essential Question

  • How did research and knowledge of genetics evolve?


Back in the day
Back in the Day

  • Gregor Mendel THE FATHER OF GENETICS

  • 1822-1884

  • Priest

  • Study the inheritance traits in pea plants

  • Not recognized until the 20th century



What did this mean
What did this mean?

  • Selective Breeding

  • Crossbreeding

  • Heritability

    • What traits get passed on?



What about today
What about today?

  • Crossbreeding breeds registered

  • Cross bred crops

    • Aprium , Pluot, Grapple

  • Cross Bred Animals

    • Black Baldie, Labordoodle

  • Biotechnology

    • Fish in Strawberries to prevent freezer burn

    • Sub- arctic fish genes pumped into strawberries


Let s break it down why would we mix
Let’s break it down: Why would we mix?

LAB

POODLE

Rally Robin Traits

  • Rally Robin Traits


Let s break it down
Let’s Break it Down

  • Where is the information coming from?

  • Where is it stored?

  • What does it look like?

  • What information is carried?




Mitosis activity please copy into your packet
MitosisActivity:Please copy into your packet


Meiosis activity please copy into your packet
Meiosis: Activity:Please copy into your packet


What does it look like
What does it look like?

  • Genotype

  • Phenotype




Pair share1
Pair Share

  • How is genetic information transferred and mapped in animal science?


Activities
Activities

  • Video; Intro to Genetics United Streaming

  • Follow along in your packet


Vocabulary pair share please a define b use in a sentence
Vocabulary Pair/Share: Please A Define: B Use in a Sentence

Cross Breeding

Selective Breeding

Mitosis

Meiosis

  • Heritability

  • Gregor Mendel

  • Gene

  • Chromosome

  • Genotype

  • Phenotype

  • Pedigree

  • Gamete


Genetics the punnett square

Genetics! The Punnett Square


Objectives1
Objectives

  • Analyze heritable traits

  • Calculate heritability using Punnett Square Method


Pair share2
Pair Share

  • What does the Punnett Square represent/ Calculate?

  • In what other classes do you learn about Punnett Squares?



Remember dominant vs recessive
Remember Dominant Vs Recessive

  • Tell your face partner

    • What is the difference between Dominant and Recessive traits?

  • Tell your shoulder partner

    • How are dominant vs recessive traits represented in a P.S. ?


What is a punnett square
What is a Punnett Square?

  • an n × n square used in genetics to calculate the frequencies of the different genotypes and phenotypes among the offspring of a cross




What does it mean
What does it mean?

  • We can follow traits



Reading the results
Reading the Results

RATIOS

1:2:1

AA:Aa:aa

PERCENTAGES


Let s practice
Let’s Practice

  • Worksheet- Punnett Practice


Remember pedigrees
Remember Pedigrees?

  • Using our information from our Punnett Square worksheet, lets practice building a pedigree (worksheet practice)


Vocabulary pair share please a define b use in a sentence1
Vocabulary Pair/Share: Please A Define: B Use in a Sentence

  • Punnett Square

  • Heritability

  • Monohybrid

  • Dihybrid


Think write share
Think, Write, Share

  • To Summarize:

    • How do you complete a punnett square?

    • Who is the

      • Sire, Dam, Offspring, and F# generation?

    • How are Punnett Squares and pedigrees related?

    • How can results be expressed? (include vocab)


What do we look for

What do we look for?

Genetics in Animals


Objectives2
Objectives

  • Identify traits in animal breeding that are desirable based on breed and that are heritable


Essential question1
Essential Question

  • How can genetics affect animals and their use??


General concepts
General Concepts

  • Certain traits are heritable

    • Discuss

      • Is Behavior?

      • Is Intelligence?

      • Is color markings?

      • Is feed efficiency?

  • Hybrid vigor

    • By mixing breeds within a species, “genetic health” is stronger “Mutts live longer)

  • Purebred

    • “guaranteed results”


Dogs

  • What kind of traits would you want in YOUR dog? If you had:

    • Children

    • Small apartment

    • Sheep herd

    • Loved running ?


Dogs

  • Temperament can be bred for!

    • Especially aggression

  • Watch for heritable health risks

    • Eye Problems

      • Irish Setters and Progressive Retinal Atrophy

      • Collie Eye Anomaly

      • Cataracts

      • Entropion (eyelids turn in or out)


Dogs heritable health contin
Dogs- Heritable Health Contin

  • Hips and Joints

    • Hip dysplasia

      • Malformation/degeneration of the hip joint.

        • Retrievers, Cocker Spaniels, Shetland Sheepdog

    • Osteochondrosis Dessicans (OCD)

      • Bone spur or flake wears away at joint.

        • Present in dogs with OCD

    • Pateller Luxation

      • Elbow/kneecap slides out of place locking leg

        • Occurs more in smaller dogs


Cats heritable health
Cats- Heritable Health

  • Polydactyly

  • Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    • Heart muscle thickens

      • Main Coon Cats

  • Progressive Retinal Atrophy

  • Diabetes

    • Burmese

  • Feline Infectious Peritonitis

    • Some cats have a predisposition to the development of FIA


Cattle dairy cattle
Cattle – Dairy Cattle

  • Milk production

  • Milk Fat Content

  • Efficiency

    • Feed intake to Milk Output

  • Calving ability


Video break
Video Break

  • Body Builder Cattle:

  • Pair/ Share After viewing

    • How did the cattle’s purpose, and consumer demand, drive genetic engineering? What genetic engineering was used?


How do we track this information how is it used in industry to determine use of animals
How do we TRACK this information? How is it used in industry to determine use of animals?

  • Sire Summaries

    • In cattle

    • Compares information on 1 bull, to his generation

    • Information is gathered by the productivity of his offspring

    • Helps famers choose which bull’s semen will help increase their herd’s health, and therefore his profit, when bred to his cows

    • More offspring a bull has (through natural mating or AI) the more Accurate his information and therefore the better guarantee that THOSE desired traits will be passed down


Sire summary in cow calf op s
Sire Summary in Cow/Calf Op.s

Table 1Example of sire summary data from the 1984 Angus sire summary

University of Missouri: Extension


EPD

  • EPD: Expected Progeny Difference: express the genetic transmitting ability of a sire. The EPD is reported as a plus or minus value in the unit in which the trait is measured.

  • EPDs are calculated from a sire's progeny data. All bulls listed in the sire summary can be directly compared using EPD values. EPDs are an estimate of how a bull's progeny would be expected to perform compared to any other bull listed in the same summary.


ACC

  • ACC: Accuracy is a measure of how much the EPD value might change as additional progeny data become available. Sires with more calves in several different herds will have higher accuracy figures

  • Select bulls to use based upon their EPD values and use the accuracy figure to determine how much to use a bull.


MBV

  • Maternal Breeding Value (MBV) describes how daughters of a bull are expected to produce compared to other cows in a herd. Once a bull's own daughters come into production, the MBV is calculated using the records of his own daughters in addition to those of his sire and paternal and maternal grandsires.

  • Estimates of MBVs come from pedigree analysis, not sire evaluation


DTS

  • Number of Daughters.

  • Why would this information be needed or relevant?


Why perform strict analysis
Why perform strict analysis?

  • Both commercial and seedstock producers should find sire summaries useful. A producer using AI can obtain semen from bulls that are superior in the traits of interest.

  • Summaries also can be used to identify herds that excel in genetic merit and vice versa. A breeder who has several superior bulls listed in the report is a more reliable source of bulls than either the breeder who has no bulls listed or the breeder who has poorer than average bulls listed in the summary.


Evaluating epd s exercise worth 50 points
Evaluating EPD’s Exercise Worth 50 points

  • Using the booklet provided at your TABLE please:

    • 1. Read the Packet!

    • 2. Formulate a Vocabulary sheet for ALL vocab words defined (all the abbreviations)

    • 3. Answer the worksheet questions in groups.

    • 4. Write down any questions you have.

    • Due Friday!


Once finished epd worksheet
Once Finished EPD worksheet

  • Summary Paper

    • 1 paragraph double spaced

      • Define the purpose of a Sire Summary. Who benefits from the sire summaries? What do sire summaries mean for producers? What information is provided on a sire summary?



Objectives3
Objectives

  • Define terms normally used when explaining and discussing genetics


Essential question2
Essential Question

  • Why is using appropriate terminology important in Veterinary Science?



Co dominance
Co Dominance

  • A condition in which both alleles of a gene pair in a heterozygote are fully expressed with neither one being dominant or recessive to the other

  • Example: Roan coloring in cattle


Roan coloring in cattle
Roan Coloring in Cattle

  • R is Red W is white

  • F1 Generation

    • All Roan

  • F2 Generation

    • 25% Red

    • 50% Roan

    • 25% White

    • 1:2:1 Ratio


Sex limited genes
Sex Limited Genes

  • Gene that exerts its effects primarily in one sex because of activation by androgens or estrogens

  • Both sexes may have the gene

  • Example hen/rooster feathering



Sex determination
Sex Determination

  • Mammals

    • Determined at moment of fertilization

    • Female has regular chromosomes plus an XX

    • Male has only 1 sex chromosome Y

  • Birds

    • Females determine the sex of the offspring


Sex influenced genes
Sex Influenced Genes

  • Trait expressed to different extents depending on the sex of the individual.

  • Normally phenotypically recognized

  • Examples

    • Male pattern baldness in humans (comes from your mother)

    • Horns in sheep

    • Spotting in cattle


Sex linked characteristics
Sex Linked Characteristics

  • Genes carried on the sex chromosome

  • Example barred feather coloring in chickens


Genetics activities
Genetics Activities

  • Chromosomes and Genes

    • Simulation Activity

  • Dihybrid Guinea Pigs

  • Design a Species

  • Hardy-Weinburg?


Genetics in animals
Genetics in Animals

  • Using the terms learned today.

  • Find examples other than those used in the presentation to help define 1 vocabulary word from today

  • Vocab

    • Sex Linked - Codominance

    • Sex influenced - Sex limited



Objectives4
Objectives

  • Discuss common gene behavior


Essential question3
Essential Question

  • What types of gene behavior might appear as a phenotypic result


Linkage
Linkage

  • Tendency for certain traits to appear in groups in the offspring

  • Genes closer together on the chromosome are more likely to stay together


Crossover
Crossover

  • During meiosis chromosomes line up closely

  • Sometimes the genes jump and cross over forming new chromosomes with different combinations of genes

  • The farther apart two genes are on a chromosome the more likely they are to make a new combination


Mutation
Mutation

  • New trait appears that did not exist in parents

  • Some are harmful some are beneficial

  • Radiation will cause genes to mutate

  • Example: Polled Herefords

    • Cross between to horned resulted in polled

    • Polled is dominant – one parent must be polled


Mutation activity
Mutation Activity

  • Research a mutation in animals. (Your animal will be assigned)

  • Write a paragraph (10 sentences) summary describing the condition, what causes the condition, and if the condition benefits or harms the animal. Include a photo. Write up + photo = NO MORE THAN 1 PAGE in length

  • Provide sources in APA format have at least 2

  • This will be presented, and collected for grading. COMPLETE SENTENCES please


Final vocabulary define the following for your exam study guide

Mutation

Crossover

Linkage

Sex linked

Sex influenced

Sex limited

Co-Dominance

DTS

EPD

MBV

ACC

Hybrid Vigor

Punnett Square

Heritability

Monohybrid

Dihybrid

Final Vocabulary: Define the Following for your Exam Study Guide

Heritability

Gregor Mendel

Gene

Chromosome

Genotype

Phenotype

Pedigree

Gamete

Cross Breeding

Selective Breeding

Mitosis

Meiosis


Copy the following from your notes should be copied on your test review
COPY THE FOLLOWING FROM your notes: Should be copied on your test review

  • How to complete a punnett square and give responses in ratio and percentages

  • Sex Limited Genes Example (hen/Rooster feathering) Punnett Square

  • Co-Dominance Example Punnett Squares (Roan Coloring)

  • Sex Linked Example (Barred Feathering) Example


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