L1 in L2 Teaching and Learning
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L1 in L2 Teaching and Learning

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L1 in L2 Teaching and Learning

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1. LESLLA Koeln, Germany Dr. Heide Spruck Wrigley Literacywork International L1 in L2 Teaching and Learning

2. LESLLA in Koeln Not just about learning English Although expectations persist that everyone speak English .. Or

4. Framing Considerations

5. Presentation Informed by Teacher training on US-Mexico border National studies on ESL - L1 use in L2 Dpt of Labor ? Language and Literacy in US and Mexico Technical Assistance on dual language program designs Project on mediated self-access to technology National Academy of Sciences ? Adult Lit and Cognition Life and work consists of moving across and between languages

6.

7. Associations and Connections Cognitive sciences shows that the brain learns through associations of ideas and concepts previously learned

8. Brain Makes Assocations Between Prior knowledge and current knowledge Multiple sources of input (text, visual, auditory) Different kinds of texts Previous experiences and new experiences Oral and written language L1 and L2 systems These connections deepen learning and information retrieval becomes more effective

9. Connecting Fish Stories Teacher can preview anectode in L1 or in the target language

10. A Typical Conversation with my Mom http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XmecyCCdknk

11. Using L1 to Facilitate Comprehension Teacher offers preview of video in L1 Students predict what words they might hear (L1 and L2) Teacher focuses students on a few key phrases (I don?t like fish; it?s good for you) ? T allows student to translate Students watch and listen ? focus on key words of the video Students work in pairs to retell story ? using stick figures as part of a story board. Students may use L1 as they discuss the story ? but try to recreate dialogue in English Teachers work with students to recreate story in English, using story boards (Language Experience)

12. Research in Cognition and L1/L2 Brain Imaging ? depending on the context ? L1 and l2 are active ? beginning learners translate ? even advanced learners ? translate or move between languages as they code switch - - L2 acquisition has to involve interacrtion between l1 and L2 = question and the challenge ? what are ways in which we can take advantage of this dual system that the brain is ready to access? Native languagBrain Imaging ? depending on the context ? L1 and l2 are active ? beginning learners translate ? even advanced learners ? translate or move between languages as they code switch - - L2 acquisition has to involve interacrtion between l1 and L2 = question and the challenge ? what are ways in which we can take advantage of this dual system that the brain is ready to access? Native languag

13. Research in Cognition and L1/L2 Both L1 and L2 systems are active in the brain L2 learners are mental jugglers There is no switching off L1 Translation continues even with advanced proficiency Cummins: Underlying Common Proficiency Linguistic knowledge from L1 system transfers to L2 Both as interference and as source of knowledge ?The more you know, the more you know? See references Judith Kroll ? see references Judith Kroll ? see references

14. The What Works Study Examined ?learning opportunities? and instructional practices that promote English acquisition for LESLLA learners (Condelli and Wrigley, 2009) Showed that the ?judicious? use of the native language positively influences second language development (ESL) of LESLLA learners Found that learners in programs where L1 was used judiciously had higher English scores than learners in classes where only English was used

15. Does Multi-lingualism Make You Smarter? Bilingual children score higher on cognitive tests Able to ignore irrelevant information Better able to switch between tasks Bilingualism protects against dementia (less precipitous decline on tasks that demand ?executive function?) - Judith Kroll ? see references

16. Socio-Political Contexts

17. Language Attitudes and Ideologies Most of the world operates in bi-or multi-lingual contexts Where mono-linguals predominate ?Encouragment and use of L1 issue becomes emotional and contentious Fear of separatism L2 or L1 ? seen as a zero sum game Lack of understanding of SLA: Why can?t they just ? Native languages are commonly used in L2 learning by students or bilingual teachers ? and definitely by the brain Skeleton in the closet

18. Stealth Teaching

19. Assumptions about Language

21. Assumption that L2 Literacy is the Only Literacy that Counts

23. Resurgence

24. Heritage Languages Resurgence of Catalan and Basque Celtic languages Wales ? public notices and such

25. Lost in Translation

26. Increased Attention to L1 and L2 Studies in the bilingual brain (imaging) Understanding of the economic value Higher earnings L2 literacy not the only literacy that counts Professionalism in Bilingual Contexts Health care workers Mechanics Construction

27. Rationale

30. Practical Applications

31. The Dilemma

32. Bilingual Aides Refugee Programs in Australia Women?s Refugee Alliance Intake and Assessment Someone who looks like me Focus Groups and Discussions Issue of voice Bilingual Aides as Liaisons and Advocates

33. L1 in L2 Classroom

34. Multiple Ways of Using L1 Welcoming Team Making L1 and L2 interaction explicit Contrastive analysis of writing systems Print awareness and curiosity Signs, labels Peer to peer interaction Retelling Problem Solving Scenarios L1 coaching (names, holidays, recognition)

35. Problem-solving Scenarios Example: The Rich Immigrant The following slide presentation can be used with or without text or sound. We recommend the teacher preview the story orally in L1 or L2 and then tell the story using the slides without print to start. Students then retell the story based on the slides. On the second round, the class reads the story together. Students may also listen to the story independently using the audio slides.

36. The Rich Immigrant Story without text Story with text Story without text with narration Story with text and narration

37. The Rich Immigrant

38. 1. This is a story about Abel. Abel lives in the United States. He is an immigrant from Ethiopia. 1. This is a story about Abel. Abel lives in the United States. He is an immigrant from Ethiopia.

39. 2. Abel has a job. He drives a taxi in Washington, DC. He is not rich, but he makes enough money to pay for necessities. 2. Abel has a job. He drives a taxi in Washington, DC. He is not rich, but he makes enough money to pay for necessities.

40. 3. Abel lives in an apartment with running hot and cold water, a TV and a new refrigerator. Abel has a family: a wife, two children, and a brother. He helps support his brother because the brother is out of work. 3. Abel lives in an apartment with running hot and cold water, a TV and a new refrigerator. Abel has a family: a wife, two children, and a brother. He helps support his brother because the brother is out of work.

41. 4. Abel is from a poor village in Ethiopia. The village is very small. Abel's family has food to eat but not much else. They do not have running water, a television or a refrigerator. Most people in the village do not have jobs, but they do have electricity. 4. Abel is from a poor village in Ethiopia. The village is very small. Abel's family has food to eat but not much else. They do not have running water, a television or a refrigerator. Most people in the village do not have jobs, but they do have electricity.

42. 5. When Abel comes to visit, he brings presents for all the people in his family. They are happy for his gifts, but they think he should bring more: a TV, a radio, blue jeans, and tennis shoes. 5. When Abel comes to visit, he brings presents for all the people in his family. They are happy for his gifts, but they think he should bring more: a TV, a radio, blue jeans, and tennis shoes.

43. 6. People in his family think Abel is a rich man because he lives in an apartment, has a car, and has a job. 6. People in his family think Abel is a rich man because he lives in an apartment, has a car, and has a job.

44. 7. The other people in the village are also poor. There is a tradition in the village: when an immigrant comes back to visit, he brings presents for all the families in the village. 7. The other people in the village are also poor. There is a tradition in the village: when an immigrant comes back to visit, he brings presents for all the families in the village.

45. 8. Abel doesn't know what to do. If he goes home, he must bring presents. Presents for his family are expensive. Presents for the whole village are very expensive. He can't afford to buy so many presents. 8. Abel doesn't know what to do. If he goes home, he must bring presents. Presents for his family are expensive. Presents for the whole village are very expensive. He can't afford to buy so many presents.

46. 9. Abel knows that if he does not bring presents for the whole village, some people will say bad things to his parents. They will say, "Your son is a bad son. He lives in America. He is rich. He should bring presents for all of us." 9. Abel knows that if he does not bring presents for the whole village, some people will say bad things to his parents. They will say, "Your son is a bad son. He lives in America. He is rich. He should bring presents for all of us."

47. 10. Abel wants his family back home to be happy. But he needs money just to pay the rent. His children would like bicycles and his wife needs a new winter coat. 10. Abel wants his family back home to be happy. But he needs money just to pay the rent. His children would like bicycles and his wife needs a new winter coat.

48. 11. Abel misses his parents. He wants to fly back to his village in December. The flight will be very expensive and he can't afford a lot of presents. 11. Abel misses his parents. He wants to fly back to his village in December. The flight will be very expensive and he can't afford a lot of presents.

49. 12. If he doesn't fly back, his parents will be sad. If he flies back and does not bring many presents, the villagers will say he's a bad son. If he uses a credit card to charge a lot of presents, his family will suffer. He doesn't know what to do. 12. If he doesn't fly back, his parents will be sad. If he flies back and does not bring many presents, the villagers will say he's a bad son. If he uses a credit card to charge a lot of presents, his family will suffer. He doesn't know what to do.

50. The Rich Immigrant

51. 1. This is a story about Abel. Abel lives in the United States. He is an immigrant from Ethiopia.

52. 2. Abel has a job. He drives a taxi in Washington, DC. He is not rich, but he makes enough money to pay for necessities.

53. 3. Abel lives in an apartment with running hot and cold water, a TV and a new refrigerator. Abel has a family: a wife, two children, and a brother. He helps support his brother because the brother is out of work.

54. 4. Abel is from a poor village in Ethiopia. The village is very small. Abel's family has food to eat but not much else. They do not have running water, a television or a refrigerator. Most people in the village do not have jobs, but they do have electricity.

55. 5. When Abel comes to visit, he brings presents for all the people in his family. They are happy for his gifts, but they think he should bring more: a TV, a radio, blue jeans, and tennis shoes.

56. 6. People in his family think Abel is a rich man because he lives in an apartment, has a car, and has a job.

57. 7. The other people in the village are also poor. There is a tradition in the village: when an immigrant comes back to visit, he brings presents for all the families in the village.

58. 8. Abel doesn't know what to do. If he goes home, he must bring presents. Presents for his family are expensive. Presents for the whole village are very expensive. He can't afford to buy so many presents.

59. 9. Abel knows that if he does not bring presents for the whole village, some people will say bad things to his parents. They will say, "Your son is a bad son. He lives in America. He is rich. He should bring presents for all of us."

60. 10. Abel wants his family back home to be happy. But he needs money just to pay the rent. His children would like bicycles and his wife needs a new winter coat.

61. 11. Abel misses his parents. He wants to fly back to his village in December. The flight will be very expensive and he can't afford a lot of presents.

62. 12. If he doesn't fly back, his parents will be sad. If he flies back and does not bring many presents, the villagers will say he's a bad son. If he uses a credit card to charge a lot of presents, his family will suffer. He doesn't know what to do.

63. The Rich Immigrant

76. The Rich Immigrant

77. 1. This is a story about Abel. Abel lives in the United States. He is an immigrant from Ethiopia.

78. 2. Abel has a job. He drives a taxi in Washington, DC. He is not rich, but he makes enough money to pay for necessities.

79. 3. Abel lives in an apartment with running hot and cold water, a TV and a new refrigerator. Abel has a family: a wife, two children, and a brother. He helps support his brother because the brother is out of work.

80. 4. Abel is from a poor village in Ethiopia. The village is very small. Abel's family has food to eat but not much else. They do not have running water, a television or a refrigerator. Most people in the village do not have jobs, but they do have electricity.

81. 5. When Abel comes to visit, he brings presents for all the people in his family. They are happy for his gifts, but they think he should bring more: a TV, a radio, blue jeans, and tennis shoes.

82. 6. People in his family think Abel is a rich man because he lives in an apartment, has a car, and has a job.

83. 7. The other people in the village are also poor. There is a tradition in the village: when an immigrant comes back to visit, he brings presents for all the families in the village.

84. 8. Abel doesn't know what to do. If he goes home, he must bring presents. Presents for his family are expensive. Presents for the whole village are very expensive. He can't afford to buy so many presents.

85. 9. Abel knows that if he does not bring presents for the whole village, some people will say bad things to his parents. They will say, "Your son is a bad son. He lives in America. He is rich. He should bring presents for all of us."

86. 10. Abel wants his family back home to be happy. But he needs money just to pay the rent. His children would like bicycles and his wife needs a new winter coat.

87. 11. Abel misses his parents. He wants to fly back to his village in December. The flight will be very expensive and he can't afford a lot of presents.

88. 12. If he doesn't fly back, his parents will be sad. If he flies back and does not bring many presents, the villagers will say he's a bad son. If he uses a credit card to charge a lot of presents, his family will suffer. He doesn't know what to do.

89. L1 in Bilingual Contexts

90. Programmatic Strategy Build dual language competence ? Low Literate adults Spanish Medical Terminology plus English for Heatlh IT ? Green construction ? Electricians ? Pathway to Certificate

91. Validating Experience Lila Downs: Medley: Pastures of Plenty/This Land is Your Land

92. Teachers and Students Share the Same Language

93. Using L1 Purposefully, Judiciously, Strategically Preview in L1 to build schema Review to focus on what?s been learned Minimize continuous translation slow down ? simplify language ? say it a nother way - Act it out ? draw it get students on your side (shrimp) Allow students to communicate non-verbally

94. Resources for Teachers

95. Literacywork.com

96. Challenge for LESLLA Acknowledge and break down attitudinal barriers Further explore L1 in L2 Examine and document Create student profiles

97. Further Explore L1 in L2 Contexts Explore the difference that teaching and learning in the native language can make In bilingual learning contexts Teachers and learners share the same language Learners share a common language In multilingual contexts Some students share the same language The teacher and the students do not share a common language Develop teaching practices and learning strategies that take advantage of the L1 and L2 connections that the bilingual brain makes

98. What Happens When We Talk about L1? We might as well be wearing ear rings that say ?..

100. References: Condelli, L. and Wrigley, Heide Spruck (2009) What Works Study: Instruction, Literacy and language learning for Adult ESL Literacy Students. In S. Reder and J. Bynner (Eds.).Tracking Adult Literacy and Numeracy Skills: Findings from Longitudinal Research. London & New York: Routledge. ? Cummins, J (2001) Empowering Language Minority Students: A Framework for Intervention. Harvard Educational Publishing Group. Vol. 71, Number 4/Winter 2001 Kroll, J. (2010) Cognitive Neuroscience Approaches to Late Second Language Literacy; Presentation to the National Academy of Sciences Panel on Foundations and Applications to Adolescent and Adult Literacy Kroll, J. F. (2008). Juggling two languages in one mind. Psychological Science Agenda, American Psychological Association, 22. Lesaux, N., Koda, K., Siegel, L. S., & Shanahan, T. (2006). Development of literacy. In D. August & T. Shanahan (Eds.), Developing literacy in second-language learners: Report of the National Literacy Panel on language-minority children and youth (pp. 75-122). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. ?

101. References (2) Kroll, J. (2010) Cognitive Neuroscience Approaches to Late Second Language Literacy; Presentation to the National Academy of Sciences Panel on Foundations and Applications to Adolescent and Adult Literacy Kroll, J. F. (2008). Juggling two languages in one mind. Psychological Science Agenda, American Psychological Association, 22. Lukes, M.M. (2009). ?We thought they had forgotten us?: Research, policy, and practice in the education of Latino immigrant adults. Journal of Latinos and Education, 8, 2, 161-172. K. Rivera & A. Huerta-Macias (Eds.) ? ( 2008) Adult biliteracy: Socio-cultural and programmatic responses . New York, NY: Laurence Erlbaum Associates. Rivera, K. (1999).Native language literacy and adult ESL instruction. ERIC Digest. Washington, DC: National Center for ESL Literacy Education

102. References (3) Lesaux, N., Koda, K., Siegel, L. S., & Shanahan, T. (2006). Development of literacy. In D. August & T. Shanahan (Eds.), Developing literacy in second-language learners: Report of the National Literacy Panel on language-minority children and youth (pp. 75-122). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Wrigley, H. S. (2003). What works for adult ESL students? Focus on Basics, 6(C). Retrieved March 2, 2006, from www.ncsall.net/?id=189

103. Heide@literacywork.com


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