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L1 in L2 Teaching and Learning


L1 in L2 Teaching and Learning. LESLLA Koeln , Germany Dr. Heide Spruck Wrigley Literacywork International. LESLLA in Koeln. Not just about learning English Although expectations persist that everyone speak English .. Or . Framing Considerations . Presentation Informed by .

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L1 in L2 Teaching and Learning

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L1 in l2 teaching and learning

L1 in L2 Teaching and Learning

LESLLA

Koeln, Germany

Dr. Heide Spruck Wrigley

Literacywork International


Leslla in koeln

LESLLA in Koeln

Not just about learning English

Although expectations persist that everyone speak English .. Or


Framing considerations

Framing Considerations


Presentation informed by

Presentation Informed by

  • Teacher training on US-Mexico border

  • National studies on ESL - L1 use in L2

  • Dpt of Labor – Language and Literacy in US and Mexico

  • Technical Assistance on dual language program designs

  • Project on mediated self-access to technology

  • National Academy of Sciences – Adult Lit and Cognition

  • Life and work consists of moving across and between languages


Associations and connections

Associations and Connections

Cognitive sciences shows that the brain learns through associations of ideas and concepts previously learned


Brain makes assocations between

Brain Makes Assocations Between

  • Prior knowledge and current knowledge

  • Multiple sources of input (text, visual, auditory)

  • Different kinds of texts

  • Previous experiences and new experiences

  • Oral and written language

  • L1 and L2 systems

    These connections deepen learning and information retrieval becomes more effective


Connecting fish stories

Connecting Fish Stories

Teacher can preview anectode in L1 or in the target language


A typical conversation with my mom

A Typical Conversation with my Mom

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XmecyCCdknk


Using l1 to facilitate comprehension

Using L1 to Facilitate Comprehension

  • Teacher offers preview of video in L1

  • Students predict what words they might hear (L1 and L2)

  • Teacher focuses students on a few key phrases (I don’t like fish; it’s good for you) – T allows student to translate

  • Students watch and listen – focus on key words of the video

  • Students work in pairs to retell story – using stick figures as part of a story board. Students may use L1 as they discuss the story – but try to recreate dialogue in English

  • Teachers work with students to recreate story in English, using story boards (Language Experience)


Research in cognition and l1 l2

Research in Cognition and L1/L2


Research in cognition and l1 l21

Research in Cognition and L1/L2

  • Both L1 and L2 systems are active in the brain

    • L2 learners are mental jugglers

    • There is no switching off L1

    • Translation continues even with advanced proficiency

  • Cummins: Underlying Common Proficiency

    • Linguistic knowledge from L1 system transfers to L2

    • Both as interference and as source of knowledge

    • “The more you know, the more you know”

See references


The what works study

The What Works Study

  • Examined “learning opportunities” and instructional practices that promote English acquisition for LESLLA learners (Condelli and Wrigley, 2009)

  • Showed that the “judicious” use of the native language positively influences second language development (ESL) of LESLLA learners

  • Found that learners in programs where L1 was used judiciously had higher English scores than learners in classes where only English was used


Does multi lingualism make you smarter

Does Multi-lingualism Make You Smarter?

  • Bilingual children score higher on cognitive tests

    • Able to ignore irrelevant information

    • Better able to switch between tasks

  • Bilingualism protects against dementia (less precipitous decline on tasks that demand “executive function”) -

Judith Kroll – see references


Socio political contexts

Socio-Political Contexts


Language attitudes and ideologies

Language Attitudes and Ideologies

  • Most of the world operates in bi-or multi-lingual contexts

  • Where mono-linguals predominate –Encouragment and use of L1 issue becomes emotional and contentious

    • Fear of separatism

    • L2 or L1 – seen as a zero sum game

    • Lack of understanding of SLA: Why can’t they just …

    • Native languages are commonly used in L2 learning by students or bilingual teachers – and definitely by the brain

      • Skeleton in the closet


Stealth teaching

Stealth Teaching


Assumptions about language

Assumptions about Language


Assumption that l2 literacy is the only literacy that counts

Assumption that L2 Literacy is the Only Literacy that Counts


Resurgence

Resurgence


Heritage languages

Heritage Languages

  • Resurgence of Catalan and Basque

  • Celtic languages

    • Wales – public notices and such


Lost in translation

Lost in Translation


Increased attention to l1 and l2

Increased Attention to L1 and L2

  • Studies in the bilingual brain (imaging)

  • Understanding of the economic value

    • Higher earnings

  • L2 literacy not the only literacy that counts

  • Professionalism in Bilingual Contexts

    • Health care workers

    • Mechanics

    • Construction


Rationale

Rationale


Practical applications

Practical Applications


The dilemma

The Dilemma


Bilingual aides

Bilingual Aides

Refugee Programs in Australia

Women’s Refugee Alliance

Intake and Assessment

  • Someone who looks like me

    Focus Groups and Discussions

  • Issue of voice

    Bilingual Aides as Liaisons and Advocates


L1 in l2 classroom

L1 in L2 Classroom


Multiple ways of using l1

Multiple Ways of Using L1

  • Welcoming Team

  • Making L1 and L2 interaction explicit

    • Contrastive analysis of writing systems

  • Print awareness and curiosity

    • Signs, labels

  • Peer to peer interaction

    • Retelling

    • Problem Solving Scenarios

    • L1 coaching (names, holidays, recognition)


Problem solving scenarios

Problem-solving Scenarios

Example: The Rich Immigrant

The following slide presentation can be used with or without text or sound. We recommend the teacher preview the story orally in L1 or L2 and then tell the story using the slides without print to start. Students then retell the story based on the slides. On the second round, the class reads the story together. Students may also listen to the story independently using the audio slides.


The rich immigrant

The Rich Immigrant

  • Story without text

  • Story with text

  • Story without text with narration

  • Story with text and narration

Return to Beginning


The rich immigrant1

The Rich Immigrant

WITHOUT TEXT

Return to Beginning


L1 in l2 teaching and learning

Return to Beginning


L1 in l2 teaching and learning

Return to Beginning


L1 in l2 teaching and learning

Return to Beginning


L1 in l2 teaching and learning

Return to Beginning


L1 in l2 teaching and learning

Return to Beginning


L1 in l2 teaching and learning

Return to Beginning


L1 in l2 teaching and learning

Return to Beginning


L1 in l2 teaching and learning

Return to Beginning


L1 in l2 teaching and learning

Return to Beginning


L1 in l2 teaching and learning

Return to Beginning


L1 in l2 teaching and learning

Return to Beginning


L1 in l2 teaching and learning

Return to Beginning


The rich immigrant2

The Rich Immigrant

WITH TEXT

Return to Beginning


L1 in l2 teaching and learning

1. This is a story about Abel. Abel lives in the United States. He is an immigrant from Ethiopia.

Return to Beginning


L1 in l2 teaching and learning

2. Abel has a job. He drives a taxi in Washington, DC. He is not rich, but he makes enough money to pay for necessities.

Return to Beginning


L1 in l2 teaching and learning

3. Abel lives in an apartment with running hot and cold water, a TV and a new refrigerator. Abel has a family: a wife, two children, and a brother. He helps support his brother because the brother is out of work.

Return to Beginning


L1 in l2 teaching and learning

4. Abel is from a poor village in Ethiopia. The village is very small. Abel's family has food to eat but not much else. They do not have running water, a television or a refrigerator. Most people in the village do not have jobs, but they do have electricity.

Return to Beginning


L1 in l2 teaching and learning

5. When Abel comes to visit, he brings presents for all the people in his family. They are happy for his gifts, but they think he should bring more: a TV, a radio, blue jeans, and tennis shoes.

Return to Beginning


L1 in l2 teaching and learning

6. People in his family think Abel is a rich man because he lives in an apartment, has a car, and has a job.

Return to Beginning


L1 in l2 teaching and learning

7. The other people in the village are also poor. There is a tradition in the village: when an immigrant comes back to visit, he brings presents for all the families in the village.

Return to Beginning


L1 in l2 teaching and learning

8. Abel doesn't know what to do. If he goes home, he must bring presents. Presents for his family are expensive. Presents for the whole village are very expensive. He can't afford to buy so many presents.

Return to Beginning


L1 in l2 teaching and learning

9. Abel knows that if he does not bring presents for the whole village, some people will say bad things to his parents. They will say, "Your son is a bad son. He lives in America. He is rich. He should bring presents for all of us."

Return to Beginning


L1 in l2 teaching and learning

10. Abel wants his family back home to be happy. But he needs money just to pay the rent. His children would like bicycles and his wife needs a new winter coat.

Return to Beginning


L1 in l2 teaching and learning

11. Abel misses his parents. He wants to fly back to his village in December. The flight will be very expensive and he can't afford a lot of presents.

Return to Beginning


L1 in l2 teaching and learning

12. If he doesn't fly back, his parents will be sad. If he flies back and does not bring many presents, the villagers will say he's a bad son. If he uses a credit card to charge a lot of presents, his family will suffer. He doesn't know what to do.

Return to Beginning


The rich immigrant3

The Rich Immigrant

WITHOUT TEXT | WITH NARRATION

Return to Beginning


L1 in l2 teaching and learning

Return to Beginning


L1 in l2 teaching and learning

Return to Beginning


L1 in l2 teaching and learning

Return to Beginning


L1 in l2 teaching and learning

Return to Beginning


L1 in l2 teaching and learning

Return to Beginning


L1 in l2 teaching and learning

Return to Beginning


L1 in l2 teaching and learning

Return to Beginning


L1 in l2 teaching and learning

Return to Beginning


L1 in l2 teaching and learning

Return to Beginning


L1 in l2 teaching and learning

Return to Beginning


L1 in l2 teaching and learning

Return to Beginning


L1 in l2 teaching and learning

Return to Beginning


The rich immigrant4

The Rich Immigrant

WITH TEXT | WITH NARRATION

Return to Beginning


L1 in l2 teaching and learning

1. This is a story about Abel. Abel lives in the United States. He is an immigrant from Ethiopia.


L1 in l2 teaching and learning

2. Abel has a job. He drives a taxi in Washington, DC. He is not rich, but he makes enough money to pay for necessities.


L1 in l2 teaching and learning

3. Abel lives in an apartment with running hot and cold water, a TV and a new refrigerator. Abel has a family: a wife, two children, and a brother. He helps support his brother because the brother is out of work.


L1 in l2 teaching and learning

4. Abel is from a poor village in Ethiopia. The village is very small. Abel's family has food to eat but not much else. They do not have running water, a television or a refrigerator. Most people in the village do not have jobs, but they do have electricity.

Return to Beginning


L1 in l2 teaching and learning

5. When Abel comes to visit, he brings presents for all the people in his family. They are happy for his gifts, but they think he should bring more: a TV, a radio, blue jeans, and tennis shoes.

Return to Beginning


L1 in l2 teaching and learning

6. People in his family think Abel is a rich man because he lives in an apartment, has a car, and has a job.

Return to Beginning


L1 in l2 teaching and learning

7. The other people in the village are also poor. There is a tradition in the village: when an immigrant comes back to visit, he brings presents for all the families in the village.

Return to Beginning


L1 in l2 teaching and learning

8. Abel doesn't know what to do. If he goes home, he must bring presents. Presents for his family are expensive. Presents for the whole village are very expensive. He can't afford to buy so many presents.

Return to Beginning


L1 in l2 teaching and learning

9. Abel knows that if he does not bring presents for the whole village, some people will say bad things to his parents. They will say, "Your son is a bad son. He lives in America. He is rich. He should bring presents for all of us."

Return to Beginning


L1 in l2 teaching and learning

10. Abel wants his family back home to be happy. But he needs money just to pay the rent. His children would like bicycles and his wife needs a new winter coat.

Return to Beginning


L1 in l2 teaching and learning

11. Abel misses his parents. He wants to fly back to his village in December. The flight will be very expensive and he can't afford a lot of presents.

Return to Beginning


L1 in l2 teaching and learning

12. If he doesn't fly back, his parents will be sad. If he flies back and does not bring many presents, the villagers will say he's a bad son. If he uses a credit card to charge a lot of presents, his family will suffer. He doesn't know what to do.

Return to Beginning


L1 in bilingual contexts

L1 in Bilingual Contexts


Programmatic strategy

Programmatic Strategy

  • Build dual language competence – Low Literate adults

    • Spanish Medical Terminology plus English for Heatlh

    • IT – Green construction – Electricians – Pathway to Certificate


Validating experience

Validating Experience

Lila Downs: Medley: Pastures of Plenty/This Land is Your Land

Amazon

Sample


Teachers and students share the same language

Teachers and Students Share the Same Language


Using l1 purposefully judiciously strategically

Using L1 Purposefully, Judiciously, Strategically

  • Preview in L1 to build schema

  • Review to focus on what’s been learned

  • Minimize continuous translation

    • slow down – simplify language –

    • say it a nother way - Act it out – draw it

  • get students on your side (shrimp)

  • Allow students to communicate non-verbally


Resources for teachers

Resources for Teachers


Literacywork com

Literacywork.com


Challenge for leslla

Challenge for LESLLA

Acknowledge and break down attitudinal barriers

Further explore L1 in L2

Examine and document

Create student profiles


Further explore l1 in l2 contexts

Further Explore L1 in L2 Contexts

  • Explore the difference that teaching and learning in the native language can make

    • In bilingual learning contexts

      • Teachers and learners share the same language

      • Learners share a common language

    • In multilingual contexts

      • Some students share the same language

      • The teacher and the students do not share a common language

  • Develop teaching practices and learning strategies that take advantage of the L1 and L2 connections that the bilingual brain makes


What happens when we talk about l1

What Happens When We Talk about L1?

We might as well be wearing ear rings that say …..


References

References:

  • Condelli, L. and Wrigley, Heide Spruck (2009) What Works Study: Instruction, Literacy and language learning for Adult ESL Literacy Students. In S. Reder and J. Bynner (Eds.).Tracking Adult Literacy and Numeracy Skills: Findings from Longitudinal Research. London & New York: Routledge.

  • Cummins, J (2001) Empowering Language Minority Students: A Framework for Intervention. Harvard Educational Publishing Group. Vol. 71, Number 4/Winter 2001

  • Kroll, J. (2010) Cognitive Neuroscience Approaches to Late Second Language Literacy; Presentation to the National Academy of Sciences Panel on Foundations and Applications to Adolescent and Adult Literacy

  • Kroll, J. F. (2008). Juggling two languages in one mind. Psychological Science Agenda, American Psychological Association, 22.

  • Lesaux, N., Koda, K., Siegel, L. S., & Shanahan, T. (2006). Development of literacy. In

    D. August & T. Shanahan (Eds.), Developing literacy in second-language learners:

    Report of the National Literacy Panel on language-minority children and youth (pp.

    75-122). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. –


References 2

References (2)

  • Kroll, J. (2010) Cognitive Neuroscience Approaches to Late Second Language Literacy; Presentation to the National Academy of Sciences Panel on Foundations and Applications to Adolescent and Adult Literacy

  • Kroll, J. F. (2008). Juggling two languages in one mind. Psychological Science Agenda, American Psychological Association, 22.

  • Lukes, M.M. (2009). ‘We thought they had forgotten us’: Research, policy, and practice in the education of Latino immigrant adults. Journal of Latinos and Education, 8, 2, 161-172.

  • K. Rivera & A. Huerta-Macias (Eds.) – ( 2008) Adult biliteracy: Socio-cultural and programmatic responses . New York, NY: Laurence Erlbaum Associates.

  • Rivera, K. (1999).Native language literacy and adult ESL instruction. ERIC Digest.

  • Washington, DC: National Center for ESL Literacy Education


References 3

References (3)

  • Lesaux, N., Koda, K., Siegel, L. S., & Shanahan, T. (2006). Development of literacy. In D. August & T. Shanahan (Eds.), Developing literacy in second-language learners: Report of the National Literacy Panel on language-minority children and youth (pp. 75-122). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

  • Wrigley, H. S. (2003). What works for adult ESL students? Focus on Basics, 6(C). Retrieved March 2, 2006, from www.ncsall.net/?id=189


Heide@literacywork com

Heide@literacywork.com