Medical terminology
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Medical terminology. Part 6. The Muscular system. Constructed medical terms:.

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Medical terminology

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Medical terminology

Medical terminology

Part 6

The Muscular system


Medical terminology

Constructed medical terms:

Many medical terms are ‘constructed’ from a combination of word parts… prefixes, Greek or Roman root words, and suffixes. Determine the meaning of the whole word by first deciphering the meaning of the suffix, then the prefix, and finally the root word. Then combine the 3 parts.

MICRO / SCOP / IC

Prefix meaning ‘small’ / root word meaning ‘viewing instrument’ / suffix meaning ‘pertaining to’

When you start with a root word and add a suffix that starts with a consonant OR another root word, then you have to connect the two word parts with a vowel. This is called a ‘combining vowel’, and is usually an ‘o, i, or e’.

HEM / O / PHILIA

Root word meaning ‘blood’ / combining vowel / suffix meaning ‘love of’


Medical terminology

Nonconstructed medical terms:

If a medical term is not constructed from a combination of word parts, then it is called ‘nonconstructed’. These are words derived from other languages, words derived from names of people, from initials that form acronyms, or from abbreviations. To learn the meanings of nonconstructed terms, you must simply commit them to memory.

The term ‘pasteurize’ refers to the process of heating milk to a temperature that kills harmful microorganisms. The term is derived from the name of its inventor… Louis Pasteur (1822-1895).


Medical terminology

Medical root words of the muscular system…


Medical terminology

Medical prefixes for the muscular system…


Medical terminology

Medical suffixes for the muscular system…


Medical terminology

Medical terms, signs, & symptoms of the muscular system…

Arthralgia (ahr THRAL jee ah)

Joint pain. A common complaint following injury to a joint.


Medical terminology

Medical terms, signs, & symptoms of the muscular system…

Reduction in muscle strength, size, and mobility due to lack of use. This is a common problem discovered after a broken limb has been immobilized while healing in a plaster cast.

Atrophy (AT roh fee)


Medical terminology

Medical terms, signs, & symptoms of the muscular system…

Dyskinesia (diss kih NEE see ah)

Difficulty moving. This term is related to bradykinesia, which means ‘slow movement’.


Medical terminology

Medical terms, signs, & symptoms of the muscular system…

Cramps Prolonged, involuntary muscular contractions causing pain. They commonly affect the stomach wall or leg muscles after strenuous

exercise, likely due to an

imbalance of electrolytes.


Medical terminology

Medical terms, signs, & symptoms of the muscular system…

Hypertrophy (high PER troh fee)

Abnormal increase in the size of muscle cells, but may be purposefully induced by adding tension to weight-training activities.

Questionable use of hormones to accomplish this degree of hypertrophy

As a result of high blood pressure.


Medical terminology

Medical terms, signs, & symptoms of the muscular system…

Myalgia (my AL jee ah)

During strenuous exercise, the muscle cell activity may exceed the capacity of the cell to obtain and use oxygen during metabolism. When metabolism continues without oxygen, it results in the buildup of lactic acid, and that causes pain.


Medical terminology

Medical terms, signs, & symptoms of the muscular system…

Tenodynia (TEN oh DINN ee ah)

Tendon pain is a common symptom of the ‘weekend athlete’… the person who is relatively inactive during the week and then injures tendons during high levels of activity on their days off. Pain may last for weeks or months.


Medical terminology

Treatments and Procedures for the muscular system…

Arthrochondritis (AHR throh kon DRY tiss)

Joint pain that results when the articular cartilage within the synovial joints become inflamed.


Medical terminology

Diseases and disorders of the muscular system…

Bursitis (ber SIGH tiss) Inflammation of a bursa, the sac-like structure that cushions certain joints.


Medical terminology

Diseases and disorders of the muscular system…

Fibromyalgia(FIE broh my AHL jee ah)

Widespread pain of the musculoskeletal structures of the limbs, face, and trunk of the body. There is some evidence that sleep deprivation may be a factor in this disease.


Medical terminology

Diseases and disorders of the muscular systems…

Herniated Disk (HER nee ay ted) The rupture of an intervertebral disk, it causes pressure against spinal nerves and pain. This is a common back injury caused by sudden movement or improper lifting of heavy objects.


Medical terminology

Treatments and Procedures for the muscular system…

Myocele (MY oh seel ) A muscle is surrounded by a tough layer of connective tissue called the fascia. When a muscle is injured and tears through the fascia, it results in a protrusion

called a myocele, commonly

called a sports hernia.


Medical terminology

Diseases and disorders of the muscular system…

Osteoarthritis ( OSS tee oh ahr THRYE tiss) A general disorder resulting in inflammation and degeneration of a joint. This is a condition of aging, where joints are worn over time.


Medical terminology

Treatments and Procedures for the muscular system…

Paraplegia (PAIR ah PLEE jee ah )

A loss of sensation or voluntary movement of the area of the body below the hips.

Quadriplegia (KWAHD rih PLEE jee ah)

Like paraplegia, only all four limbs are affected.


Medical terminology

Diseases and disorders of the muscular system…

Rheumatoid Arthritis (ROO mah toyd ahr THRYE tiss)

A general disorder resulting in inflammation and degeneration of a joint. This is an autoimmune disease, where the white blood cells attack the body’s own joints.


Medical terminology

Diseases and disorders of the muscular system…

Rotator Cuff Injury

The rotator cuff is a combination of the four muscles and their tendons that surround and stabilize the shoulder joint. A trauma to the shoulder can tear one or more of these tendons/muscles, causing inflammation, pain, and joint dislocation.


Medical terminology

Diseases and disorders of the muscular system…

Sprain

A tear in the collagen fibers within a ligament. It is usually the result of stretching a ligament beyond its normal range without warming up or slow stretching. There are 3 degrees of injury.

In a Type I sprain, the ligaments are simply stretched.


Medical terminology

Diseases and disorders of the muscular system…

Sprain

A tear in the collagen fibers within a ligament. It is usually the result of stretching a ligament beyond its normal range without warming up or slow stretching. There are 3 degrees of injury.

In a Type II sprain, the ligaments are slightly torn.


Medical terminology

Diseases and disorders of the muscular system…

Sprain

A tear in the collagen fibers within a ligament. It is usually the result of stretching a ligament beyond its normal range without warming up or slow stretching. There are 3 degrees of injury.

In a Type III sprain, the ligaments are torn completely through.


Medical terminology

Treatments and Procedures for the muscular system…

Strain Similar to a sprain, but it is caused by stretching a muscle beyond its normal range. It usually results in a bruise due to capillary damage.


Medical terminology

Treatments and Procedures for the muscular system…

Tendonitis

(TEN dunn EYE tiss )

A common sports injury occurring when the athlete starts into a physical exercise vigorously, without warming up first.


Medical terminology

Treatments and Procedures for the muscular system…

Arthroscopic Surgery (ahr THROSS koh pic )

Surgery using an arthroscope… an instrument integrating fiber optics, live-action photography, and computer enhancements.


Medical terminology

Treatments and Procedures for the muscular system…

Electromyography (ee LEK troh my OG rah fee )

An instrument stimulates a muscle and causes a contraction. It then measures and records the muscle strength during the contraction.


Medical terminology

Treatments and Procedures for the muscular system…

Osteopathy (oss tee OPP ah thee)

The medical field that emphasizes the relationship between the musculoskeletal system and overall health. There is an emphasis on body alignment and nutrition.


Medical terminology

Treatments and Procedures for the muscular system…

Repairing tendon in dog’s paw

Achilles tendon… the torn ends are frayed

Tenorrhaphy (ten OR ah fee)

The suturing of a tendon to close a tear. This is a common procedure to fix the Achilles tendon, the ankle tendon that attaches the calf muscles to the large heel bone.


Medical terminology

Abbreviations associated with the muscular system…

ACL Anterior Cruciate Ligament

A ligament that stabilizes the knee joint.


Medical terminology

Abbreviations associated with the muscular system…

CTS Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

A repetitive stress injury to the wrist. Inflammation of the wrist tendons cause pressure against the median nerve, resulting in local pain and restricted movement.


Medical terminology

Abbreviations associated with the muscular system…

MD Muscular Dystrophy (MUS kyoo lar DIS troh fee)

A degenerative skeletal muscle disease, resulting in muscle weakness and deterioration. Duchenne’s Muscular Dystrophy is one type.


Medical terminology

Abbreviations associated with the muscular system…

MG Myasthenia Gravis (my ass THEE nee ah GRAHV iss)

A serious muscle weakness, characterized by a progressive failure of muscles to respond to nerve stimulation. Muscles most affected are those in the face, eyes, arms, and legs.


Medical terminology

Abbreviations associated with the muscular system…

ROM Range of Motion

Refers to joint flexibility, measured in degrees.


Medical terminology

Medical terminology

The End

Part 6

The muscular system


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