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Group Think. A mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive in-group, when the members' strivings for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action (Janis 1972: 9)

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Group think

Group Think

A mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive in-group,

when the members' strivings for unanimityoverride their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action(Janis 1972: 9)

When the desire for unanimity overcomes a group’s ability to make rational assessments on all available information

Can include an unquestioned belief in your moral correctness – religious (give your life to God) or political (Nazi Germany)

Reduces team effectiveness because it can remove the ability/need to question or validate


Group behaviour

Group behaviour

Group Behaviour -

Positive and provides for trust, belonging, reliance,

Resulting in being happy at work - better more efficient service

Like minded people with similar ideas expectations

Did not join public service to make a fortune

Joined to

serve –

make a difference

belong

get self esteem (Maslow 1987)

Develop identity

Fitting-in (Baigent 2001)

Surface acting that develops into deep acting (Hochschild 1983)

Culture can inclusive

Realise needs (Maslow 1987)

Avoid alienation (Marx)

Resisting deskilling (Braverman 1974)

Culture can be negative

Racism (Macpherson 1999)

Sexism (Baigent 2008)

Resist modernisation (Baigent 2007)

Outsiders seen as the

other (civvies)

naive (what do they know about doing the job)

deviant stereotyping (sanctions taken against groups)

What are the stereotypes associated with being black? How might these affect a black male who wants to join the police?

What are the stereotypes associated with women – how will this effect women who want to join the fire and rescue service?


Formal public service culture
Formal Public Service Culture

Weberian Bureaucracy

  • Written rules (orders) for everything

  • A clear chain of command

  • No room for entrepreneurs

  • Rationality rules

  • An iron cage (Weber)


CAMBRIDGESHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE - CFRS STRUCTURE

CHIEF FIRE OFFICER

TOM CARROLL

COMMUNITY SAFETY DIRECTORATE

Lawrie Booth

MANAGEMENT SERVICES DIRECTORATE

Cheryl Rolph

DISTRICT COMMUNITY SAFETY

CAMBRIDGE CITY DISTRICTHUNTINGDON DISTRICT

Dave Warren Peter Sharpe

EAST CAMBS DISTRICTPETERBOROUGH DISTRICT

Dave Robertson Paul Malinowski

FENLAND DISTRICTSOUTH CAMBS DISTRICT

Paul Fredericks Pat Kilby

FIRE CONTROL

Elaine Wakerley

PERSONAL & ORGANISATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

GROUP

Maurice Moore

CORPORATE & DEMOCRATIC SERVICES

GROUP

Fiona Fowler

HUMAN RESOURCES

Tracy Bennett-Tighe/

Marissa Reynolds

TECHNICAL SERVICES DIRECTORATE

Peter Warner

RESOURCES DIRECTORATE

John Hummersone

FLEET & EQUIPMENT SERVICES GROUP

Frank Laska

COMMUNITY RISK MANAGEMENT GROUP

Gerry Dacey

FINANCE & CONTRACT MANGEMENTGROUP

Matthew Warren

INFORMATION & COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY GROUP

Martin Scott

NEW DIMENSIONS OFFICER

Andy Dunlop

AUDIT OFFICER

Mark Bennett-Tighe

PAYROLL TEAM

Daphne Baker

PROPERTY & ESTATES GROUP

Danny Rust


Appointment into

Crew Management upon

consistent demonstration

of competence.

Eligible to access

an NVQ award.

Appointment into

Watch Management upon

consistent demonstration

of competence.

Eligible to access

an NVQ award.

FF Competence confirmed through consistent performance. Eligible to access an NVQ award.

CREW

WATCH

FIREFIGHTING

CREW

WATCH

MANAGEMENT

MANAGEMENT

FIREFIGHTER

MANAGEMENT

MANAGEMENT

Firefighting

Crew

Watch

Firefighting

Development

Development

Management

Management

Programme

Development

Development

Programme

Phase III

Phase II

Programme

Programme

Decision about progression to

Decision about progression to

Watch Management based

Station Management based

Potential to

develop beyond

upon information gathered

upon information gathered

role identified through

from the Supervisory

Management ADC and

workplace assessment .

from the Supervisory

Management ADC and

workplace assessment.

continuous workplace

assessment and a snapshot

of PQAs.

CPD

CPD

CPD

Specialist

Specialist

Role

Test of

Potential

Test of

Potential

Attraction

Role

Supervisory

Management

Assessment

Centre

Middle

Management

Assessment

Centre

Firefighting

Point of Entry

Required

Required

Development

training

training

Assessment

Phase I

inputs

inputs


Forming a society
Forming a society

  • Jones (1994) suggests that Durkheim has an orthodox consensus view of social structures made up of norms, values and rules.

  • Durkheim argues we learn about norms, values and rules through socialisation

  • Norms values and rules serve the function of making social life possible

  • Each generation of people pass on these norms, values and rules to the next (tradition)

  • Functionalists believe in a society formed by social structures

  • Structures that become real in their consequences (W I Thomas)

  • The argument of functionalist is that any social process exists because they serve a function

  • For example we have laws because they lay down the boundaries of what is acceptable in a society

  • Durkheim uses the term ‘social solidarity’ to describe how people achieve social order

  • Social solidarity was achieved by collective standards and rules of behaviour that make the ‘social glue’ that holds society together

  • Social solidarity/order flows from consensus - the existence of shared norms, values and rules

  • When individuals do not feel they belong in a society – share the same norms and values they feel alienated a situation that Durkheim saw as ‘anomie’

  • Mayo, recognise that workers at Hawthorn suffered from anomie – they did not feel as is they belonged – during his experiment he made them feel important – that they belonged and therefore they were happier and worked harder.


Durkheim
Durkheim

  • A collective way of living/being can be termed a ‘culture’

  • Cultures can be macro – gender, ethnicity, class

  • Cultures can be micro – family, work, teenagers

  • Each generation has the ability to change their culture

  • People have a choice if they comply or not

  • In Public Services there are two cultures

    • Formal

    • Informal


These arguments almost make as if culture has a life of its own
These arguments almost make as if culture has a life of its own

  • As a result, it is often the culture rather than individuals that is seen as responsible for how cultural values get put into practice

  • Formal police culture may appear to have strength, power and authority, but this is due to a combination of group ownership, tradition and history, not because it actually exists.

  • Police culture is a structure – accepted/constructed by the individuals who operate within it

  • Because the culture has to be put into action by individuals, there is space for those individuals to act differently


It is sometimes possible to forget that
It is sometimes possible to forget that: own

  • People in the fire and police services have minds of their own

  • Frequently group behaviour acts like a snowball – almost forcing people to put their own values on hold as they to give up some free will to join in with the group

  • People in the fire or police services make a choice when they join in on cultural practices

  • Sometimes choice is not made under circumstances that the individual would choose


There can be a number of views about public service culture
There can be a number of views about public service culture. own

  • values that one cohort of public servants pass down to the next

  • a common form of behaviour amongst public servants

  • a public service ethos to serve and protect

  • values that officers, managers, constables, firefighters, soldiers etc. have in common

  • something people sign up to because it provides for your needs, a sense of belonging, identity, purpose


Alienation not here

Alienation – not here own

Public Servants love their jobs

Teamwork can prevent alienation from the work process

Informal culture gives individuals some control over what they do

The process of deskilling

What do the workers feel


Tuckman b 1965 developmental sequence in small groups psychological bulletin 63 6 forming
Tuckman, B. (1965) 'Developmental sequence in small groups', Psychological Bulletin 63(6): Forming

Identifying the task and how to accomplish it.

  • Deciding what is acceptable group behaviour and how to handle group conflict

  • Deciding what information needs to be gathered to tackle the task

  • Abstract conceptual discussions or some members' impatience with these discussions

  • No clear focus on task or problem as evidenced by irrelevant discussions

  • Complaining about organisational problems and barriers to accomplishing the task instead of focusing on the task


Storming
Storming

  • Arguing among group members, even if they agree on the issues

  • Choosing sides within the group, bids for power, drawing divisional lines

  • Tension, jealousy, lack of unity, and a perceived hierarchy

  • Establishing unobtainable goals, increased concerns about too much work to be done.


Norming
Norming

  • Conflict avoidance in an attempt to promote harmony

  • Friendlier discussions on a more personal level, more discussions about the dynamics of the group, begin to confide in one another

  • More of a sense of group cohesion and esprit, more commonality of goals

  • Establishing and maintaining realistic group parameters for behaviour and performance

  • Organising how team will sanction transgressors


Performing
Performing

  • Constructively changing one's self--actually changing for the betterment of the group.

  • Ability to avoid group conflict and, should conflict arise, being able to work through it.

  • Much closer identity with the group, understanding each other's strengths and weaknesses.


Self-appointed peer group leaders

members who protect the group

Maintain/police behaviour

Protect the current culture – holding the accepted norms, values and rules in trust for the next generation An illusion of invulnerability,

We know best

Optimistic about your power

Prepared to challenge managers covertly

Ignore modernisation

Collectively

Rationalise your arguments

Discount warnings

Avoid reconsidering your assumptions

Justify what you think

Stick with past views (traditions)

An unquestioned belief that the group is right

Belief in the group's inherent morality

Ignoring the real, ethical or moral consequences of your actions

Stereotyped views of politicians – managers – public

Too weak

Too stupid

Don’t know whats going on

Overcome any efforts to change

Without solidarity we shall loose our way of knowing the job – link this to a view about serving the public

Make it clear that loyalty is key to solidarity

Snowball and confront anyone who challenges the groups view

Teach lessons about what it means to be marginalised

Self-censorship

Don’t even consider the consequences of action or lack of reflection

Distort incoming arguments

Minimise/discount any thoughts that you might be wrong

Shared illusion

We are all together

Sink or swim

Silence is consent – we permit what we allow/ignore


Norming and action theories

‘Norming’ and Action theories

Impression management (Goffman)

Labelling theory (Becker)

Deviancy amplification (Cohen)

What if you are black how might the police service label you

What do the public services think of modernisation

How does the label ‘female’ affect you if you are applying for a job the fire service


Macpherson w 1999 the stephen lawrence inquiry london hmso

Macpherson, W. (1999) The Stephen Lawrence Inquiry, London: HMSO.

6.44 We heed this warning, but upon all the facts we assert that the conclusion that racism played its part in this case is fully justified. Mere incompetence cannot of itself account for the whole catalogue of failures, mistakes, misjudgements, and lack of direction and control which bedevilled the Stephen

6.3 In this Inquiry we have not heard evidence of overt racism or discrimination, unless it can be said that the use of inappropriate expressions such as "coloured" or "negro" fall into that category. The use of such words, which are now well known to be offensive, displays at least insensitivity and lack of training. A number of officers used such terms, and some did not even during their evidence seem to understand that the terms were offensive and should not be used.

11.36 The main conclusion that we reach is that the inadequacy of the steps taken was as the result of the failure of direction by supervisory officers. The standard of command and co-ordination during the first two hours after this murder was in the opinion of the Inquiry abysmal.

The collective failure of an organisation to provide an appropriate and professional service to people because of their colour, culture, or ethnic origin. It can be seen or detected in processes, attitudes and behaviour which amount to discrimination through unwitting prejudice, ignorance, thoughtlessness and racist stereotyping which disadvantage minority ethnic people.


Bain g 2002 the future of the fire service reducing risk saving lives london odpm
Bain, G. (2002) The Future of the fire service: reducing risk, saving lives, London: ODPM

10. Personnel policy, procedures and practices in the Fire Service give cause for concern. Despite clear policies from management and the FBU in favour of diversity, in practice only lip-service is paid to it. Harassment and bullying are still too prevalent.

  • The leadership must recognise that urgent action is required. An improved programme of HR management must be put in place as a matter of priority. The work on the introduction of the new Integrated Personal Development System (IPDS) gives a framework for this improvement programme. But the programme itself will not be a substitute for real effort by management at all levels to tackle the problems. (Bain 2002: V).

  • 6.28 We have been told by many – including some politicians – that the leadership and general input from local politicians to fire authorities is poor. This is disappointing. If only because of the spotlight that has now been shone on the Service, it must be clear to all that good leadership and management have been lacking in many respects.


Positive action another view
Positive Action another view risk, saving lives, London: ODPM

DB: So if there's a positive action day for ethnic minorities only, do you think, is that a good or a bad thing?

Ff: I think that’s racist.

DB: You think it’s racist?

LF: Yes, absolutely. It’s out and out discrimination against the white, well, every other. It basically says it doesn’t matter if you apply or not, they’re not interested in you as a person or interested in this group or this group at this time.


Fire works for equality in the fire service

Fire risk, saving lives, London: ODPMWorksfor equality in the fire service

Barriers of Ethnic Minority Recruitment

  • Perceived Barriers

  • Cultural sensitivities prohibited some BEM groups from applying

  • Religious restrictions prevented other ethnic groups from applying

  • Asians saw the firefighting profession as a low-status career

  • Problem of recruitment rested with BEM groups


I think therefore i am

I think therefore I am risk, saving lives, London: ODPM

Fitting-in


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