South America. South America. South American history and culture are marked by American Indian (e.g. – Inca) encounters with the Europeans. Conquest and colonization most influenced the early history of American Indian encounters with the European explorers. South America.
South American history and culture are marked by American Indian (e.g. – Inca) encounters with the Europeans. Conquest and colonization most influenced the early history of American Indian encounters with the European explorers.
Geographers consider the below listed factors when dividing South America into culturalregions:
forms of government
Why would they not consider climate?
Incas – There have been many lasting contributions of the Incan culture to South America. Some of these contributions are roads, terracing for farming, irrigation, domestication of animals, architecture and gold and silver jewelry. Which of these do you think is most important? Why? Discuss -
As Europeans migrated to South America they brought new cultural influences to the portions of the continent that were colonized.
Africans also came to the continent, as slaves, increasing the work force.
Most of South America was colonized by Spain. Because of this, most speak Spanish. And, because of both Spanish and Portuguese colonization, most people practice the catholic religion.
Brazil was colonized by Portugal. What cultural trait do you think most separates Brazil from other nations in South America?
South America has experienced many types of governments. These governments represent rule by one, rule by few and rule by many. These terms refer to the number of people who play a role in making decisions about the country.
Rule by one – dictator
Rule by few – junta
Rule by many – democracy
Argentina – The government of Argentina has evolved after a long period of what is known as the Dirty War. Citizens revolted after a military coup. Between 1976 and 1983, from 9,000 to 30,000 people were killed or “disappeared.” The terrorism was carried out largely by the military dictatorship (Rule by Few).
Argentina’s Dirty War was an example of:
The right of people to protest government action being taken away
The right of people to free speech being taken away
The right of people to safety and protection being taken away.
The military government finally stepped aside and democracy was restored after mounting pressure from activists and a humiliating military defeat to Great Britain in the Falkland Islands. Once democracy is established in a country, it is important for its citizens to take seriously their responsibilities, example: serving on juries
During the Dirty War, the cause of the “disappeared” gained international recognition. The mothers of the “Disappeared” held the position that you should limit the power of government to limit possible abuses.
Today, nearly all of the countries in South America have governments that arerule by many including:
One country that still has Rule by Few is Venezuela. However, the government, including the president, is elected by popular vote. Venezuela is also one of the more developed countries with large cities and significant trade. What effect do you think the economy has on the government?
As countries adapt to modern economies, there are lessons to be learned. During this century, a bank run in Argentina created a short supply on cash, one of the basic factors of production (capital). This could have been prevented by proper government regulation.
Two countries that have been under heavy government regulation have been very successful and are considered economic miracles today:
Since the late 1800’s, many technological innovations have effected the economies of the region. One recentinnovation that has rapidly transformed communications in South America is the cellular telephone.
ReligionThe dominance of one religion in the region has had negative effects:(1.) adisregard of rights for people in other religions, (2.) religious holidays only for people in the dominant group, and social clashes, (3.) arguments and violence, between religious groups
South America is home of the largest mountain range in the world. Look at the map. The Andes mountains act as a geographic barrier that makes it easier for Peru and Chile to protect their rich natural resources.
TheAndes mountains also affects the population density of Peru and Chile. These countries are not densely populated as they have a narrow area of fertile land bordered by desert and mountains.
South America is also home of numerous forests. Therefore, logging is the primary industry in Brazil. However, the dense rainforest has also prevented the growth of population centers and the development of other resources.
Deposits of coal and oil are located mostly on the edges of the continent.