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written v. oral traditions anthropology material culture artifacts. natural selection genetic drift gene flow species. paleontology fossils East Africa Rift Valley hominid bipedal Homo erectus range (fire) Homo sapiens . adaptation = observable DNA Cline regional color

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slide1
written v. oral traditions
  • anthropology
  • material culture artifacts
slide2
natural selection
  • genetic drift
  • gene flow
  • species
slide3
paleontology fossils
  • East Africa Rift Valley
  • hominid bipedal
  • Homo erectus range (fire)
  • Homo sapiens
slide4
adaptation = observable
  • DNA
  • Cline regional color
  • lactose intolerance
  • sickle cell trait
  • hunting response
euro centric approach to world studies
Euro-centric Approachto World Studies

North

America

Asia

Europe

South

America

Australia

Africa

multicultural approach to world studies
Multicultural Approachto World Studies

Europe

North

America

Asia

Concept

or Event

South

America

Australia

Africa

afrocentrism eurocentrism8
Afrocentrism/Eurocentrism
  • Ideology: beliefs, values and approaches to study
  • Comparison
  • Influence on academic research/ writing/ teaching
slide9

GHANA (500s - c. 1076)

MALI (mid 1200s - 1400s)

SONGHAY (1400s - 1591)

KONGO (1300 - )

BENIN (? - late 1400s)

Arrival of Portuguese - 1488

400 200 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800

B.C./A.D.

slide10
Ghana 700-1200 A.D.
  • commercial center - gold and salt
  • Kanem-Bornu 800-1850 A.D.
  • major trade route - sculpture Islam
  • Mali 1200-1500 A.D.
  • trading capital Timbuktu
slide11
Benin 1300-1800 A.D.
  • artists, hunters, traders
  • bronze plaques commissioned by Oba (king)
  • Songhai 1350-1600 A.D.
  • warriors and scholars
  • control major caravan markets
  • establish single empire
slide12
Arrival of Europeans

Portuguese 1488

      • Prince Henry the Navigator 1441
      • Interest in navigation technology, fields
      • Portuguese sailors experienced in N/S Atlantic
slide13
Spain - political unification
  • expulsion of Jews and Muslims 1492

Slavery tied to European expansion

  • mercantilism
  • exploration and “discovery”
  • of the Americas (New World)
  • motives: gold, glory and God
slide14
Cultures in conflict:

Differences become deficits

  • color
  • religion and spirituality -

polytheism/sacred

  • technology and trade
  • history - oral tradition
  • behavior - clothing, rituals, kinship, marriage, ancestors, music, art
slide15
Slavery in Africa v. Slavery in Americas

African slavery

purpose and practices

African Diaspora

Americas slavery

purpose and practices

slide17

New World

Corn

Potato

Tomato

Peppers (Bell & Chili)

Chocolate

Vanilla

Tobacco

Beans (Lima, Pole,

Navy, Kidney)

Pumpkin

Cassava Root (Manioc)

Avocado

Peanut, Pecan, Cashew

Old World

Horse

Cattle

Pig

Sheep

Chicken

Honeybee

Wheat, Asian Rice,

Barley, Oats, Soy

Sugar Cane

Onion

Lettuce

Okra

Peach & Pear

slide18

New World

Pineapple

Blueberry

Sunflower

Petunia

Black-eyed Susan

Dahlia

Marigold

Quinine

Wild Rice

OldWorld

Watermelon

Citrus Fruit

Banana

Olive

Lilac

Daffodil

Tulip

Daisy

Dandelion

Crab Grass

New World

OldWorld

slide19
Comparisons
  • Spain legal code 13th cent. Siete Partidas
  • slave = a person with a soul, part of family (household), rights and responsibilities

slavery = contractual agreement, opposite of freedom

Crown and Church as protectors

colonies: Cuba, Puerto Rico, Jamaica

slide20
Francelegal code - Code Noir

slave = dependent person, required conformity in religion, dress, conduct, responsible to the State

slavery = economic arrangement regulated by State

State protects slave as both

person and property

colonies: St. Dominique, Martinique, Guadeloupe

slide21
Great Britain no legal code common law

private property is sacred value

slave = a thing, neglected as object of religion

slavery = as custom dictates/master controls

State = Crown has no interest/ representative govt. influence $

slide22
slave is bought, sold, mortgaged, leased, inherited

murder of slave = crime against property

slave crimes treated as more

serious/ having social significance (insult, injury)

colonies: Barbados, North American colonies

slide23
Dutch variations
  • demonstrate complexity

Surinam (British origins till 1667/ Protestant)

harsh slavery: high importation, high deaths

    • plantation economy
    • isolated plantations
    • absentee landlords (70-80%)
slide24
manumission of preferred slaves --Surinam marriage

mulatto class = government worker

revolts: hit one plantation and retreat

slide25

Curacao(Spanish origins till 1634/ Catholic)

  • lax system of slavery: natural increase commerce economy (Portuguese Jews)plantations = social status
  • resident owners = paternalism
slide26

manumission of laborers(freed men worse off than slaves)

  • concubinesmulatto class = no educ./ treatment
  • revolts: against violation of rights
  • influenced by Haitian revolts
comparative slavery
Comparative slavery
  • Country’s length of experience
  • Spain/ Portugal domination of slave trade 15 - 16th century
      • Brazil and Caribbean--sugar islands
  • England/ France domination
  • 17 - 19th century (80% 1701-1850)
slide28
Country’s legal concept of slavery
  • Country’s cultural perceptions
  • Differences
    • religious conversion
    • police regulations
    • manumission practices
    • prejudice and discrimination
slide29
Demographics:
    • proportion of population
    • male ratio
    • African cultures
    • distribution
slide30
Economic pattern:
  • drive for quick profit
  • expansion of land
  • overproduction of staples
  • prices fall
  • attrition
  • paternalism
  • slavery as social system
slide31
Abolition:

France 1794 Danish 1805 British 1808

  • Importation:

only 5% to North American colonies, yet by 1860 have 35% of all slaves --Factors of influence?

slavery in north america
Slavery in North America
  • New England: MA, CT, RI, ME, NH, VT
  • Ties to slave trade
    • New England enriched merchants

and colonies through duties/ created gentility

  • Puritans justified slavery
    • labor shortage
    • colony established by

God for “elect”

    • enslavement was act of mercy
slide33
Legal sanctions
  • 1641 first enactment --

war prisoners, voluntary

  • By 1670s -- children of slaves
  • Results
  • slavery became basis of economic life
  • creation of large merchant class
  • brought African influence on America
slide34
Slave roles

lack of plantations meant less numbers

      • except: Narragansett Planters -- 5-40 per plantation (dairy, horse breeding)

occupations diverse:

most frequent = farmer, whitesmith, blacksmith, shipbuilder, distiller, iron forge worker, sailor, servant, manager of warehouse, business, caulker

laborers = hired out

slide35
Slave roles

living arrangements: with family

      • familiarity and inclusion

use in colonial defense:

trained for militia until 1660 (thereafter barred)

slide36
Controls

mild compared to NY and South

slave codes: protect property,safeguard against insurrection

preserve socioeconomic/political gap

slide37
Common Deviance

runaways

assault or defamation of whites

theft

drunkenness

limit movement

care of poor

conditions for freedom (manumission)

slide38
Punishments:
  • banishment to W. Indies
    • mutilation for control
    • death
    • manumission of indigent or old
    • fines v. lash
slide39
Protections
    • no work on Sunday
    • willful death i.e. 1686 death penalty for master
    • interracial sex forbidden 1705
slide40
Status as property and person (Puritan household member)
    • taxable, seized for debts, movable goods
    • right to life
    • right to property (buy, sell, transfer, hold)
    • court rights: testify, sue, make contracts, request inquest, trial by jury
slide41
Diversions

house raising, maple sugar festivals, corn husking, hunting, fishing, fiddling, storytelling, vacations

Training Day (militia training)

Election Day (mock elections)

slide42
Humane in comparison

economy could not absorb many

less numbers = less fear = less controls

      • 1720 = 9.3 per 1000
      • 1740 = 11.6
      • 1760 = 1.9

By 1750 = 3% of total population

1800 1:50 in N. Eng. 2:3 in S. Carolina

slide43
intimate association = kinder

(illness, clothing, food, education, punishments)

religion = slaves as person with soul

education = liberal, needed for diverse jobs, brought higher prices

slide44
Achievers under the system

Jupiter Hammon

Newport Gardiner

Phillis Wheatley

  • Lucy Terry
slide45
Abolition of slavery

sue for freedom in courts: Jennie Slew

Elizabeth Freeman “Mum Bett”

Quok Walker 1783 natural rights argument

slide46
Middle Colonies:
  • New York, New Jersey, Pa. - 6.5%

Dutch colonial background --

harsh slavery

Pa. -- colonial haven for Quakers (German)

      • Society of Friends
      • conformed to norms until 1773
      • Philadelphia and Quaker influence

NY

Pa

NJ

slide47
Economic Growth
  • commerce
  • growth of commerce, port cities, multiplied need for slaves, workers, servants
  • port cities
  • Need for slaves
  • workers: laborers, artisans, sailors, servants
slide48
Statutory recognition
      • NY = 1665
      • Pa. = 1700
      • NJ = 1702

Slavery peaked by 1720, then decline

      • 1720 - 10% of region/ 15% = NY
      • 1720 = 66.7 per 1000
      • 1740 = 11.4
      • 1760 = 20.3
      • 1780 = 1.6

NY

Pa

NJ

slide49
Middle Colony
  • Achievers

Gustavas Vasa (Olaudah Equiano)

James Derham

Paul Cuffe

Richard Allen

James Forten

Absalom Jones

slide50
Southern Colonies:
  • VA, MD, DE, NC, SC, GA

Types of plantation labor:

task (rice), gang (tobacco, cotton)

Upper South Lower South

1720 = 147 per 1000 891

1740 = 149 375

1760 = 171 171

1780 = 72 179

  • Total of population:
  • 7% in 1680/ 25% in 1720

MD DE

VA

NC

SC

GA

slide51
The Chesapeake: Virginia & Maryland
  • tobacco, cereals

1619 = first Africans as indentured servants

      • by 1625 - 23
      • by 1700 - 1600

small population --

rights and opportunities

slide52
property owning --

land, personal, chattel

      • headrights, wills, land grants
      • as population increases/laws enacted
      • 1661 statutory recognition
slide53
family structure = enough females = creole
  • interracial-surrepticious (no need for class)
  • cheaper to raise: healthier, adapted
  • more productive, less rebellious, stable
slide54
high free population due to manumission
      • slave population drops by 1800
        • manumission and Westward expansion
      • slavery as paternalistic, patriarchy
        • white male at top/others as dependents
slide55
North Carolina

farming

      • statutory recognition=1715
      • never chief slaveholding colony

most whites (72%) had no slaves/67% slaveholders had 1- 9

many free Blacks-artisans, mechanics, barbers, maritime, blacksmith, coopers, distillers

      • women = spinners, weavers, dressmakers, milliners

NC

slide56
South Carolina

plantation agriculture =

rice, indigo, forestry

1670 = first Blacks come with Europeans

1680 = statutory recognition

      • 25-33% newcomers = Black, mostly males

by 1800 = 1:1 ratio

SC

slide57
Africanisms: survival of culture

banjo, spiritualism, rice cultivation, herding, plant use, fishing, handling crocodiles, boats, Gullah dialect

  • naming: Cuffee, Cajoe, Quash, Quok
african elements in african american english
African Elements in African-American English

West African

Languages

Niger-Congo

Acquisition of foreign vocabulary

Maintains original morphology, phonology, grammar

More words and some grammar

Pidginization

Maintains original morphology and grammar

african elements in african american english59
African Elements in African-American English

Creolization

Maintains morphology

Englishization- Ebonics

Maintains original communication style

Maintains some lexical items

Ability to switch

from african languages to ebonics
From African Languages to Ebonics

Niger-Congo

tense-aspect

Examples in

English translation

Present

Near past

Remote past

Future

Aspect of progress

Aspect of completion

he go

he gone

he been gone

he going to go

he going

he done gone

slide62
1775
  • April = Lord Dunmore: Governor of Va.
  • promise of freedom to slaves followed by George Washington in November
  • Peter Salem & Salem Poor:
  • Battle of Bunker Hill
  • killing of Major Pitcairn (PS)
  • others: Prince Hall, Caesar Brown, Sampson Talbert
slide63

1770 1772 1774 1776 1778 1780 1782

End of the American Revolution: Treaty of Paris

Declaration of Independence

Battles of Lexington & Concord

Boston Massacre: Crispus Attucks

slide64
1776 Declaration of Independence

principles antithetical to slavery

  • Roles: Fight Army & Navy
  • 5,000 (mostly North)
  • of 300,000
  • Flight - opportunity to escape
  • 1775 - 83 25,000 S.C.
  • 75% Ga.
  • 1778 30,000 Va.
the northwest ordinance of july 13 1787
The Northwest Ordinance of July 13, 1787

Article G. There shall be neither slavery nor

involuntary servitude in the said territory,

otherwise than in the punishment of crimes

whereof the party shall have been duly

convicted: Provided, always, that any person

escaping into same, from labor or service is

lawfully claimed in any one of the original

States, such fugitive may be lawfully reclaimed

and conveyed to the person claiming his or

her labor or service as aforesaid.

slide66
1788 Constitution ratified
    • fugitive slave clause
    • 3/5 clause
    • closing slave trade in 1808
article iv
Article IV

Section 2

No person held to service or labor in one State,

under the laws thereof, escaping into another,

shall, in consequence of any law or regulation

therein, be discharged from such service or

labor, but shall be delivered upon claim of the

party to whom such service or labor may be due.

the constitution legalizes the slave trade
The Constitution Legalizes the Slave Trade

Article I, Section 9

The Migration or Importation of such persons as

any of the States now existing shall think proper

to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress

prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and

eight, but a tax or duty may be imposed on such

Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each

Person.

the three fifths compromise
The Three-fifths Compromise

Article I, Section 2

Representatives and direct Taxes shall be

apportioned among the several States which

may be included within this Union, according

to their respective Numbers, which shall be

determined by adding to the whole number

of free Persons, including those bound to

Service for a Term of Years, and excluding

Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other

Persons.

slide70

Pinkney Treaty

Bill of Rights

Constitution ratified

Northwest Ordinance:

No slavery in NW territory

1782 1784 1786 1788 1790 1792 1794 1800

results of american revolution on slavery
Results of American Revolution on Slavery
  • Principles lead to manumission and antislavery movement
  • Slaveholder’s rights upheld in law
    • legitimate property claims
    • new mechanisms to defend slavery
    • strengthened plantation regime in
    • South
slide72
Westward expansion:
  • British Proclamation of 1763 null
  • inventions:short staple cotton, cotton gin King Cotton
  • Split of free Black and slave populations yet broader
  • cultural unity due to racism
methods of social control
Methods of Social Control
  • Establish strict discipline
  • Create feelings of authority
  • Create fear of master’s power
  • Accept master’s values and status
  • Create dependence
  • Distribution of rewards
slide74

Resistance to Slavery

in North America

slide75

1.

  • Types of resistance

Day-to-day: sabotage, stupidity, malingering, shamming, feigning illness, pregnancy

slide76

2.

Reprisals: poisoning, petty theft, arson, assault, crop destruction, blackmarket

slide77

3.

  • Running away: drapethomania
    • under 30 males/recent African (collective)
    • due to clear grievance
    • usually skilled (social, economic) 60%
    • why? relatives, pass/hire, escape
    • how? errand, passes, town (hide)
slide78

4.

  • Insurrection: USA = 250
    • Where:

VA-25% LA-15% SC-16%

catalysts: rapid population increase, high Black %, exposure to revolutionary ideas, leaders

slide79
When:
  • 1. colonial VA, SC, 1712 NY
  • 2. 1776 - 1800 Revolutionary era
  • VA, SC, and LA
  • Gabriel 1800 VA
  • 3. 1801-1829 Old South and border st.
  • Vesey 1822 SC
  • 4. 1830 - 1860 Deep South Turner 1831 Virginia Doyle 1851 Texas
slide80
factors: result of accultur-ation, task allotment (field, house, artisans)
    • setting (access to values, ways to resist)
    • antislavery whites, free Blacks, Africans
    • successful runaways
comparisons
Comparisons:

Brazil and Jamaica = over 400

  • slave master ratio 13:1/10:1
  • creole-African ratio
  • origin of slave leadership
  • character of white master
  • treatment
  • geography/ topography
  • soci-pol-econ changes

Jamaica

Brazil

slide82
Religion and Resistance
  • civilize: make obedient, morals, divine sanction, increase value, emphasize inferiority
slide83
release syncretism of African & Christian

Old Testament, desire for freedom, emphasized group solidarity, self-esteem, spirituals-- hope and sorrow, secrets, optimism, defense against personal degradation (methods to verbalize aggression, preserve autonomy)

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