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written v. oral traditions anthropology material culture artifacts. natural selection genetic drift gene flow species. paleontology fossils East Africa Rift Valley hominid bipedal Homo erectus range (fire) Homo sapiens . adaptation = observable DNA Cline regional color

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  • paleontology fossils

  • East Africa Rift Valley

  • hominid bipedal

  • Homo erectus range (fire)

  • Homo sapiens

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Euro-centric Approachto World Studies









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Multicultural Approachto World Studies






or Event





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  • Ideology: beliefs, values and approaches to study

  • Comparison

  • Influence on academic research/ writing/ teaching

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GHANA (500s - c. 1076)

MALI (mid 1200s - 1400s)

SONGHAY (1400s - 1591)

KONGO (1300 - )

BENIN (? - late 1400s)

Arrival of Portuguese - 1488

400 200 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800


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  • Ghana 700-1200 A.D.

  • commercial center - gold and salt

  • Kanem-Bornu 800-1850 A.D.

  • major trade route - sculpture Islam

  • Mali 1200-1500 A.D.

  • trading capital Timbuktu

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  • Benin 1300-1800 A.D.

  • artists, hunters, traders

  • bronze plaques commissioned by Oba (king)

  • Songhai 1350-1600 A.D.

  • warriors and scholars

  • control major caravan markets

  • establish single empire

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  • Arrival of Europeans

    Portuguese 1488

    • Prince Henry the Navigator 1441

    • Interest in navigation technology, fields

    • Portuguese sailors experienced in N/S Atlantic

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Spain - political unification

  • expulsion of Jews and Muslims 1492

    Slavery tied to European expansion

  • mercantilism

  • exploration and “discovery”

  • of the Americas (New World)

  • motives: gold, glory and God

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Cultures in conflict:

Differences become deficits

  • color

  • religion and spirituality -


  • technology and trade

  • history - oral tradition

  • behavior - clothing, rituals, kinship, marriage, ancestors, music, art

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New World




Peppers (Bell & Chili)




Beans (Lima, Pole,

Navy, Kidney)


Cassava Root (Manioc)


Peanut, Pecan, Cashew

Old World







Wheat, Asian Rice,

Barley, Oats, Soy

Sugar Cane




Peach & Pear

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New World





Black-eyed Susan




Wild Rice



Citrus Fruit








Crab Grass

New World


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  • Spain legal code 13th cent. Siete Partidas

  • slave = a person with a soul, part of family (household), rights and responsibilities

    slavery = contractual agreement, opposite of freedom

    Crown and Church as protectors

    colonies: Cuba, Puerto Rico, Jamaica

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Francelegal code - Code Noir

slave = dependent person, required conformity in religion, dress, conduct, responsible to the State

slavery = economic arrangement regulated by State

State protects slave as both

person and property

colonies: St. Dominique, Martinique, Guadeloupe

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Great Britain no legal code common law

private property is sacred value

slave = a thing, neglected as object of religion

slavery = as custom dictates/master controls

State = Crown has no interest/ representative govt. influence $

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slave is bought, sold, mortgaged, leased, inherited

murder of slave = crime against property

slave crimes treated as more

serious/ having social significance (insult, injury)

colonies: Barbados, North American colonies

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  • Dutch variations

  • demonstrate complexity

    Surinam (British origins till 1667/ Protestant)

    harsh slavery: high importation, high deaths

    • plantation economy

    • isolated plantations

    • absentee landlords (70-80%)

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manumission of preferred slaves --Surinam marriage

mulatto class = government worker

revolts: hit one plantation and retreat

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  • Curacao(Spanish origins till 1634/ Catholic)

  • lax system of slavery: natural increase commerce economy (Portuguese Jews)plantations = social status

  • resident owners = paternalism

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  • manumission of laborers(freed men worse off than slaves)

  • concubinesmulatto class = no educ./ treatment

  • revolts: against violation of rights

  • influenced by Haitian revolts

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Comparative slavery

  • Country’s length of experience

  • Spain/ Portugal domination of slave trade 15 - 16th century

    • Brazil and Caribbean--sugar islands

  • England/ France domination

  • 17 - 19th century (80% 1701-1850)

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    • Demographics:

      • proportion of population

      • male ratio

      • African cultures

      • distribution

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    • Economic pattern:

    • drive for quick profit

    • expansion of land

    • overproduction of staples

    • prices fall

    • attrition

    • paternalism

    • slavery as social system

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    France 1794 Danish 1805 British 1808

    • Importation:

      only 5% to North American colonies, yet by 1860 have 35% of all slaves --Factors of influence?

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    Slavery in North America

    • New England: MA, CT, RI, ME, NH, VT

    • Ties to slave trade

      • New England enriched merchants

        and colonies through duties/ created gentility

    • Puritans justified slavery

      • labor shortage

      • colony established by

        God for “elect”

      • enslavement was act of mercy

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    • Legal sanctions

    • 1641 first enactment --

      war prisoners, voluntary

    • By 1670s -- children of slaves

    • Results

    • slavery became basis of economic life

    • creation of large merchant class

    • brought African influence on America

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    • Slave roles

      lack of plantations meant less numbers

      • except: Narragansett Planters -- 5-40 per plantation (dairy, horse breeding)

        occupations diverse:

        most frequent = farmer, whitesmith, blacksmith, shipbuilder, distiller, iron forge worker, sailor, servant, manager of warehouse, business, caulker

        laborers = hired out

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    • Slave roles

      living arrangements: with family

      • familiarity and inclusion

        use in colonial defense:

        trained for militia until 1660 (thereafter barred)

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    • Controls

      mild compared to NY and South

      slave codes: protect property,safeguard against insurrection

      preserve socioeconomic/political gap

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    • Common Deviance


      assault or defamation of whites



      limit movement

      care of poor

      conditions for freedom (manumission)

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    • banishment to W. Indies

      • mutilation for control

      • death

      • manumission of indigent or old

      • fines v. lash

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    • Protections

      • no work on Sunday

      • willful death i.e. 1686 death penalty for master

      • interracial sex forbidden 1705

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    • Status as property and person (Puritan household member)

      • taxable, seized for debts, movable goods

      • right to life

      • right to property (buy, sell, transfer, hold)

      • court rights: testify, sue, make contracts, request inquest, trial by jury

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    • Diversions

      house raising, maple sugar festivals, corn husking, hunting, fishing, fiddling, storytelling, vacations

      Training Day (militia training)

      Election Day (mock elections)

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    • Humane in comparison

      economy could not absorb many

      less numbers = less fear = less controls

      • 1720 = 9.3 per 1000

      • 1740 = 11.6

      • 1760 = 1.9

        By 1750 = 3% of total population

        1800 1:50 in N. Eng. 2:3 in S. Carolina

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    intimate association = kinder

    (illness, clothing, food, education, punishments)

    religion = slaves as person with soul

    education = liberal, needed for diverse jobs, brought higher prices

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    • Abolition of slavery

      sue for freedom in courts: Jennie Slew

      Elizabeth Freeman “Mum Bett”

      Quok Walker 1783 natural rights argument

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    • Middle Colonies:

    • New York, New Jersey, Pa. - 6.5%

      Dutch colonial background --

      harsh slavery

      Pa. -- colonial haven for Quakers (German)

      • Society of Friends

      • conformed to norms until 1773

      • Philadelphia and Quaker influence




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    • Economic Growth

    • commerce

    • growth of commerce, port cities, multiplied need for slaves, workers, servants

    • port cities

    • Need for slaves

    • workers: laborers, artisans, sailors, servants

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    • Statutory recognition

      • NY = 1665

      • Pa. = 1700

      • NJ = 1702

        Slavery peaked by 1720, then decline

      • 1720 - 10% of region/ 15% = NY

      • 1720 = 66.7 per 1000

      • 1740 = 11.4

      • 1760 = 20.3

      • 1780 = 1.6




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    • Middle Colony

    • Achievers

      Gustavas Vasa (Olaudah Equiano)

      James Derham

      Paul Cuffe

      Richard Allen

      James Forten

      Absalom Jones

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    • Southern Colonies:

    • VA, MD, DE, NC, SC, GA

      Types of plantation labor:

      task (rice), gang (tobacco, cotton)

      Upper South Lower South

      1720 = 147 per 1000 891

      1740 = 149 375

      1760 = 171 171

      1780 = 72 179

    • Total of population:

    • 7% in 1680/ 25% in 1720

    MD DE





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    • property owning --

      land, personal, chattel

      • headrights, wills, land grants

      • as population increases/laws enacted

      • 1661 statutory recognition

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    family structure = enough females = creole

    • interracial-surrepticious (no need for class)

    • cheaper to raise: healthier, adapted

    • more productive, less rebellious, stable

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    • North Carolina


      • statutory recognition=1715

      • never chief slaveholding colony

        most whites (72%) had no slaves/67% slaveholders had 1- 9

        many free Blacks-artisans, mechanics, barbers, maritime, blacksmith, coopers, distillers

      • women = spinners, weavers, dressmakers, milliners


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    • South Carolina

      plantation agriculture =

      rice, indigo, forestry

      1670 = first Blacks come with Europeans

      1680 = statutory recognition

      • 25-33% newcomers = Black, mostly males

        by 1800 = 1:1 ratio


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    • Africanisms: survival of culture

      banjo, spiritualism, rice cultivation, herding, plant use, fishing, handling crocodiles, boats, Gullah dialect

    • naming: Cuffee, Cajoe, Quash, Quok

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    African Elements in African-American English

    West African



    Acquisition of foreign vocabulary

    Maintains original morphology, phonology, grammar

    More words and some grammar


    Maintains original morphology and grammar

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    African Elements in African-American English


    Maintains morphology

    Englishization- Ebonics

    Maintains original communication style

    Maintains some lexical items

    Ability to switch

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    From African Languages to Ebonics



    Examples in

    English translation


    Near past

    Remote past


    Aspect of progress

    Aspect of completion

    he go

    he gone

    he been gone

    he going to go

    he going

    he done gone

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    Slavery and the American Revolution

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    • 1775

    • April = Lord Dunmore: Governor of Va.

    • promise of freedom to slaves followed by George Washington in November

    • Peter Salem & Salem Poor:

    • Battle of Bunker Hill

    • killing of Major Pitcairn (PS)

    • others: Prince Hall, Caesar Brown, Sampson Talbert

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    1770 1772 1774 1776 1778 1780 1782

    End of the American Revolution: Treaty of Paris

    Declaration of Independence

    Battles of Lexington & Concord

    Boston Massacre: Crispus Attucks

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    • 1776 Declaration of Independence

      principles antithetical to slavery

    • Roles: Fight Army & Navy

    • 5,000 (mostly North)

    • of 300,000

    • Flight - opportunity to escape

    • 1775 - 83 25,000 S.C.

    • 75% Ga.

    • 1778 30,000 Va.

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    The Northwest Ordinance of July 13, 1787

    Article G. There shall be neither slavery nor

    involuntary servitude in the said territory,

    otherwise than in the punishment of crimes

    whereof the party shall have been duly

    convicted: Provided, always, that any person

    escaping into same, from labor or service is

    lawfully claimed in any one of the original

    States, such fugitive may be lawfully reclaimed

    and conveyed to the person claiming his or

    her labor or service as aforesaid.

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    Article IV

    Section 2

    No person held to service or labor in one State,

    under the laws thereof, escaping into another,

    shall, in consequence of any law or regulation

    therein, be discharged from such service or

    labor, but shall be delivered upon claim of the

    party to whom such service or labor may be due.

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    The Constitution Legalizes the Slave Trade

    Article I, Section 9

    The Migration or Importation of such persons as

    any of the States now existing shall think proper

    to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress

    prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and

    eight, but a tax or duty may be imposed on such

    Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each


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    The Three-fifths Compromise

    Article I, Section 2

    Representatives and direct Taxes shall be

    apportioned among the several States which

    may be included within this Union, according

    to their respective Numbers, which shall be

    determined by adding to the whole number

    of free Persons, including those bound to

    Service for a Term of Years, and excluding

    Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other


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    Pinkney Treaty

    Bill of Rights

    Constitution ratified

    Northwest Ordinance:

    No slavery in NW territory

    1782 1784 1786 1788 1790 1792 1794 1800

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    Results of American Revolution on Slavery

    • Principles lead to manumission and antislavery movement

    • Slaveholder’s rights upheld in law

      • legitimate property claims

      • new mechanisms to defend slavery

      • strengthened plantation regime in

      • South

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    • Westward expansion:

    • British Proclamation of 1763 null

    • inventions:short staple cotton, cotton gin King Cotton

    • Split of free Black and slave populations yet broader

    • cultural unity due to racism

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    Methods of Social Control

    • Establish strict discipline

    • Create feelings of authority

    • Create fear of master’s power

    • Accept master’s values and status

    • Create dependence

    • Distribution of rewards

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    Resistance to Slavery

    in North America

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    • Types of resistance

      Day-to-day: sabotage, stupidity, malingering, shamming, feigning illness, pregnancy

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    Reprisals: poisoning, petty theft, arson, assault, crop destruction, blackmarket

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    • Running away: drapethomania

      • under 30 males/recent African (collective)

      • due to clear grievance

      • usually skilled (social, economic) 60%

      • why? relatives, pass/hire, escape

      • how? errand, passes, town (hide)

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    • Insurrection: USA = 250

      • Where:

        VA-25% LA-15% SC-16%

        catalysts: rapid population increase, high Black %, exposure to revolutionary ideas, leaders

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    • When:

    • 1. colonial VA, SC, 1712 NY

    • 2. 1776 - 1800 Revolutionary era

    • VA, SC, and LA

    • Gabriel 1800 VA

    • 3. 1801-1829 Old South and border st.

    • Vesey 1822 SC

    • 4. 1830 - 1860 Deep South Turner 1831 Virginia Doyle 1851 Texas

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    • factors: result of accultur-ation, task allotment (field, house, artisans)

      • setting (access to values, ways to resist)

      • antislavery whites, free Blacks, Africans

      • successful runaways

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    Brazil and Jamaica = over 400

    • slave master ratio 13:1/10:1

    • creole-African ratio

    • origin of slave leadership

    • character of white master

    • treatment

    • geography/ topography

    • soci-pol-econ changes



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    • release syncretism of African & Christian

      Old Testament, desire for freedom, emphasized group solidarity, self-esteem, spirituals-- hope and sorrow, secrets, optimism, defense against personal degradation (methods to verbalize aggression, preserve autonomy)