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TELEVISION STATION PROGAMMING. A network affiliate is a broadcast station that carries the programs scheduled by a network on an exclusive basis in a DMA. WHAT MAKES BROADCAST NETWORKS DIFFERENT FROM EACH OTHER?. NETWORKS

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TELEVISION STATION PROGAMMING

A network affiliate is a broadcast station that carries the programs scheduled by a network on an exclusive basis in a DMA.



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NETWORKS

A network that schedules programs in most dayparts and has a record of earning a prime time share of 10% ormore for a period of one year or more

MINI-NETWORKS

A network that schedules programs in a few dayparts and has a record of earning a prime time share of 5% or more for a period of one year or more

NETWORKS and MINI-NETWORKS


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NETWORKS

ABC

CBS

FOX

NBC

PBS

UNIVISION

TELEMUNDO

MINI NETWORKS

WB

UPN

PAX

BROADCAST TV NETWORKS


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U.S. TV Stations: 695 VHF/ 983 UHF/ 1,688 Total

  • CBS Affiliates 183

  • NBC Affiliates 180

  • ABC-TV Affiliates 163

  • Fox Affiliates 105 631 “Big 4”network stations

  • WB Affiliates 126

  • UPN Affiliates 181

  • Paxnet 172

  • Univision 72 479 Mini network stations

  • Telemundo 60 132 Spanish Language stations

  • PBS 349

  • Religious/Other 97

  • Total 1,591 1,304 Commercial + 374 Educational


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70% OF SCHEDULE PROGRAMMED BY NETWORK

5-10% LOCAL PGMS

20-25% SYNDICATED SHOWS

LOCAL PGM SLOTS

Mon-Fri

9AM-NOON ( ET)

4PM-8PM (ET)

11:00-11:35PM (ET)

Sat/Sun

9AM-Noon

Early,Late News

After 11:35 PM

ABC/CBS/NBC AFFILIATE PROGRAMMING


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8% NETWORK PROGRAMMING 8-10 PM SUN-FRI (ET)

92% LOCAL PROGRAMMING ALL OTHER TIMES

FOX HAS NFL

Local Programming

All times except 8-10PM (ET)

Smaller market affiliates air no local news or buy from competitor.

Fox airs late night Saturdays

FOX, WB, UPN AFFILIATEPROGRAMMING


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NETWORKS USED TO PAY AFFLIATES TO CARRY SHOWS

UNTIL THE 90’s

NETWORKS PAID ALL AFFILIATES $200,000-MILLIONS TO CARRY THEIR PROGRAMS


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NETWORK COMPENSATION NOW BEING PHASED OUT

ONLY THE BIGGEST MARKET STATIONS WITH CRUCIAL SIGNALS

WILL BE COMPENSATED IN THE FUTURE


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The audience cares only about the program and does not care what channel transmits the program to them.

The job of a station is to get the audience to tune to their station regardless of other programming.

PROGRAMS vs. STATIONS


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AFFILIATES

Strive to reach the largest possible audience

They are the classic

mass media

CABLE & MINI-NETS

Are targeted to more narrow age, gender,

and psychographic

groups favored by advertisers

AFFILIATES vs. CABLE and MINI NETWORKS


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WHAT MAKES LOCAL STATIONS DIFFERENT FROMBROADCAST NETWORKS AND CABLE NETWORKS?


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LOCALISM

The great strength of local stations is that they cover local news, weather, and feature local people.

Local programs are the major thing that set local stations apart from other channels.


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THE #1 LOCAL NEWS STATION IS ALMOST ALWAYS #1 5AM - 1AM

  • LOCAL NEWS IS A HUGE SOURCE OF REVENUE.

  • IN A WELL-RUN STATION 50% OF ALL REVENUE COMES FROM NEWS


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The Benefits of Local News

To a Broadcast Station

or Cable System


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Risk Mitigation

Compared to other types of shows, local news is seldom an abject failure and can nearly always be resuscitated if they stumble


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Exclusivity of Product

No other station has news with the same anchors, features, or ambience … they are exclusive to one station.


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News Brand Building

  • News content and production style should match the station’s desired market identity, built through a mosaic of :

  • network/syndicated shows local programs audience promotion community involvement Local news/prime time success are linked


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Customization of Product

  • The station can quickly alter its news content and format to match changing tastes.

  • If those changes don’t work, they can be quickly changed again.

  • Network/syndicated is not so versatile.


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Cost Containment

  • Costs can be accurately estimated and budgeted.

  • The cost of network and syndicated programs can be changeable and are not controllable.


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Revenue Enhancement

  • #1 news can show an enormous profit.

  • No barter - Station keeps its entire news spot inventory - can add more

  • Station can add more commercial breaks.

  • News not hit-listed.


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What is a “good” newscast?

  • It has friendly, attractive anchors who show that they like each other.

  • The show is a slick. fast-paced production with great graphics, many live shots and constant motion.


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WHAT IS A “GOOD” NEWSCAST?

  • TOPICS REFLECT COMMUNITY IN ITS TOTALITY.

  • FOCUS ON LARGER ISSUES AND TRENDS THAT AFFECT MANY PEOPLE

  • DID THE STATION INITIATE INVESTIGATIONS AND STORIES OR COPY STORIES FROM PRINT?


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WHAT IS A “GOOD” NEWSCAST?

  • BEING ACCURATE, CREDIBLE, AND FAIR. MULTIPLE POINTS OF VIEW.

  • HIGH QUALITY, IMPARTIAL SOURCES (CREDENTIALED EXPERTS)

  • LOCAL RELEVANCE - AFFECTS VIEWERS IN WHOLE DMA, MAJOR INSTITUTIONS IN AREA.


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How to Produce Quality Newsand Succeed in the Ratings

  • MORE LONG STORIES

  • BETTER SOURCING

  • MORE ENTERPRISE STORIES

  • STORIES ABOUT BIG IDEAS & ISSUES

  • MORE “EVERYDAY”PEOPLE IN STORIES “PERSON ON THE STREET” & HUMAN INTEREST STORIES


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Successful stations feature more in-depth, viewer-oriented enterprise stories

But they retain many short stories, the fast pace, and highly graphic presentation of a traditional news show.


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Competition from cable has forced local stations to re-examine their core strength

Locally-produced shows can be very popular and create a long term franchise. But they must be high quality and professionally produced.


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Non-News Local Programming re-examine their core strength

While news grew in audience,

other forms of local programming

were increasingly pushed into the background.


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Regularly scheduled re-examine their core strength

mostly produced by news or management Public affairs or weekend sports shows.

Special Events

Ball games, parades Limited number of broadcasts even in very largest markets

Two Categories of local Programs


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Local Programming re-examine their core strength

4 Liabilities of Local Programming


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Labor Intensive re-examine their core strength

Can require dozens of people working for weeks to plan, produce, and edit the show.


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Cost Intensive re-examine their core strength

  • Production quality must be competitive with network. It would defeat its purpose if it looked amateurish.

  • Cost can be recouped by syndicating to other stations


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Local shows need proven ratings/quality to be bought re-examine their core strength

  • Buyers must be assured that program content is on target and quality is high.

  • Buyers must have sound estimate of rating to be delivered. Unless the show is regularly scheduled (has ratings) or a local traditional event, even local buyers might shy away.

  • National will not buy unknown local shows.


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Promotion Cost re-examine their core strength

  • Local shows are promoted by station only. No national or regional media.

  • Heavy concentration on one show is a disproportionate effort for minimal revenue return.


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Regional station clusters can share costs of high quality show

  • By sharing costs of production, regional station clusters can produce much higher quality shows that could never be done by one station.

  • New technology can lower post-production and live connection expenses.

  • Stations need local, high quality shows and clusters offer that opportunity. *


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