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Prof. Pallapa Venkataram, Electrical Communication Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore – 560012, India. Multimedia Communications. Objectives. To know the networking evolution. To understand the network types.

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Prof. Pallapa Venkataram,

Electrical Communication Engineering,

Indian Institute of Science,

Bangalore – 560012, India

Multimedia Communications


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Objectives

To know the networking evolution.

To understand the network types.

To discuss multimedia requirements in the communication systems.

To understand the basics of a multimedia communication system.

To illustrate multimedia networks.

To know the Internet protocol suite for multimedia communications.


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Networking Infrastructure Evolution

Network deployment issues


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Network Topologies Evolution

LAN

Linear topology

Star-wired

Multisegment

Backbone-connected

Switched-backbonet

WLAN

WAN


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Multimedia Requirements

To develop schemes for multi-access networks which can provide performance guarantees.

To develop a distribute route-selection strategy for point-to-point networks.

Real-time multimedia applications require guaranteed performance communication services, such as throughput, delay, delay jitter and loss rate.

The characteristics of a source, such as peak and average rate, are known at channel establishment time.

Channel parameters have to be predicted in live continuous video sources.


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Communication Service for Multimedia

Quality-of-service (QoS) support and group communication system:

establishment and take-down of appropriately congured channels;

negotiation of QOS levels between end-systems, intermediate systems, and network control; and

control of the agreed QOS level

bandwidth, delay, delay jitter (variance), and reliability.

Audio/Video groups can:

have static or dynamic memberships during their lifetime,

have centrally (typically sender) or distributedly (typically receiver) controlled membership,

consist of members with homogeneous or be heterogeneous characteristics and requirements.


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Multimedia Communication System

Communication system - A system or facility capable of providing information transfer between persons and equipment.

CD-ROM: “Compact disk read-only memory.”

Client-Server Model: A client makes a request and a server fulfills that request.

Composite Video: Analog video signals can be broken down into parts such as luminance (Black & White) and chrominance (color).


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Multimedia File types

Here are some examples of le types:

Text Files: .txt, .doc, .rtf

Audio Files: .au, .aif, .wav

Graphic files: .jpg, .gif, .tif, .bmp, .pict, .pcx

Moving video files: .qt, .mov, .avi

Animation: .fli, .flc


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Multimedia Communication System

Interactive Multimedia Design

Interlacing

Interleaved

Linear Multimedia

Non-Interactive Multimedia

Nonlinear Multimedia

Presentation Multimedia

Latency and Bandwidth



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Multimedia Communication System

LAN Access Method

Routing

Frame and Packet Structures

Packet Discrimination

Identify packets that require special handling.

Be capable of accommodating those special requirements.

Bandwidth Requirement, Reservation and Conservation

High bandwidth and low latency


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Multimedia Communication System Architecture

The ability to manage dynamically the achieved QoS of each service component

The possibility for users to select some resources that best meet their needs.

The possibility to interact with another user whose equipment has differing characteristics.

The communications network must allow any user to select the service components he/she wants:

The possibility for users to join in or withdraw from a communication session according to certain policies, such as agreement of all interacting partners before admitting a new user.

The possibility to set such quality of service parameters as the synchronization tolerance between the service components, the echo sensitivity, the burst sensitivity, and so on.


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Multimedia Networks

Technical Issues

Admission control

Scheduling

Resource management

Congestion control

Policing/Shaping



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Multimedia Hardware/Software

Audio/Video Hardware

Digital Video (DV)

Analog to Digital devices

Built-in Hardware

Digital Video Software

Multimedia Software





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Multimedia Internet Protocols

Multimedia over TCP

Multimedia over UDP


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RTP

Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) provides support for the transport of real-time data such as video and audio streams.

RTP needs support from lower layers that actually have control over resources in switches and routers

RTP/RTCP provides functionality and control mechanisms necessary for carrying real-time content.

RTP/RTCP itself is not responsible for the higher-level tasks like assembly and synchronization. These have to be done at application level.


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RTCP

Real-Time Control Protocol extends RTP

In an RTP session, participants periodically send RTCP packets to convey feedback on quality of data delivery and information of membership.

Packets defined for carrying control information:

SR: Sender report, for transmission and reception statistics from session participants that are

active senders.

RR: Receiver report, for reception statistics from session participants, that are not active

senders.

SDES: Source description items, including CNAME

BYE: Indicates end of participation

APP: Application specific functions


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Multimedia Internet Protocols

SAP & SDP

Peer to peer communication, the concept of session.

SIP

Signaling mechanisms that are necessary to establish a session and to negotiate the parameters to be used in it, such as codecs, media, location, etc.

MBONE Tools

SDR, VIC, VAT and RAT, WB, NTE.


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Multimedia Internet Protocols

RSVP

Network control protocol

Allows data receiver to request a special end-to-end quality of service for its data flows.

RTSP

A client-server multimedia presentation protocol to enable controlled delivery of streamed multimedia data over IP network.

Aims to provide the same services on streamed audio and video just as HTTP does for text and graphics.


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Multimedia Communications

High-Density File Transfers

Graphics File Transfers

Audio File Transfers

Video File Transfers

Audio Communication

Computer-Based Telephony

Computer-Based Audio Conferencing

Streaming Audio

Video Communication

Video Conferencing

Streaming Video


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