ENVIROMENTAL STATUS AND DEVELOPMENT PROBLEMS IN THE COASTAL AREA OF NHATRANG BAY Nguyen Tac An Chairman of Vietnam National IOC. Nhatrang – a coastal city of beauty and wealth.
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ENVIROMENTAL STATUS AND DEVELOPMENT PROBLEMS IN THE COASTAL AREA OF NHATRANG BAY
Nguyen Tac An
Chairman of Vietnam National IOC
Nhatrang – a coastal city of beauty and wealth
Nha Trang (Khanh Hoa province) is a strong marine economic center in Vietnam, with important industries such as marine shipping, port industry, fishery, aquaculture, tourism…
Its development objectives focus simultaneously on the balance of three aspects: economic, social and environmental
Great attention is paid to the report on sustainable development from World Bank and IMF
Main resources are geographical posision,human, cultural and marine resources, beautiful landscape
I. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCE FOR THE DEVELOPMENT IN NHATRANG
Development activities in Nhatrang
- Nhatrang area: 251 km², population 400,000 (2006), estimated to increase to 500,000 – 600,000 in 2020.
- Annual GDP growth in Nhatrang: 12%, higher than that of the whole country (8%)
- Developments focused largely on 8 groups of products:
1. Tourism and urban-development
2. Ship-building and –repairing, mechanical and electronical products;
3. Seafood & agricultural products processing;
4. Minerals exploitation and processing – production of building materials;
5. Forest products processing-handicraft production
6. Textile-garment products, garment accessories;
7 Soft drink products
8. Infomation technology
- Port, marine shipping and transportation, and industrial activities:
+ Port and marine shipping in Nhatrang formed early and is now one of its strength
+ Provincial industrial value in 2007 reached 11,356 billion VND, increased by 12.4% compared with 2006
Printing carton parking at Dong A Parking Joint Stock Company
Electronic car for tourism- a products of KHATOCO Machinery Enterprise
Weaving fabrics at
Tan Tien Textile Factory
at Nhatrang shipyard
Some industrial activities in Nha Trang
- Tourism, service and urban development activities:
+ In 2007, Nha Trang attracted more 1,124,452 of arrivals, increased by 21.36% compared with 2006, making a turnover of 850.6 bilion VND, increased by 30.6%.
+ 802 hotels & guest-houses with 8,945 rooms, 701 bussinesses deal in tourism service in Khanh Hoa.
Cutural and Tourism activities in Nhatrang
- Fisheries and aquaculture:
+ Fishery production value in 2007: 1,259 billlion VND, increased by 1.4% compared with 2006 (70% from aquaculture, 30% from capture).
+ Fishing yield in 2007: 66,872 thousand tons, increased by 2.5%
+ Salangene nest production: 2.310 kg, increased 0,9%.
+ Aquaculture: Tiger shrimp, lobster, greenmussel, grouper, pearl oyster, seaweeds etc.
Tiger shrimp culture area in 2007: 4,328 ha, increased by 0.7%. Shrimp production: 5,476 tons, increased by 6.4%; shrimp seeds increased by 1.2%, reached 2,090 milion individuals, pearl production: 848 kg, decreased 46.3%.
+ The lobster farming is developing strongest in Khanh Hoa, with 30,000 cages, of which 8.472 are in Nha Trang. However, lobster production in 2007 decreased by 51.4% to 595 tons, because of mass mortality by diseases since July 2007, lost 200 billion VND.
+ Khanh Hoa target up to year 2010: to incease fishing yield to 100-110 thousand tons, aquaculture output: 30-35 thousand tons, aquaculture area: 5000 - 5500 ha, and export turnover to 300 million USD.
- Investment–development focus:Nhatrang and its surroundings
Taking salangane nest
Green mussel culture
Environmental changes caused by socio-economic activities
General feature of Nhatrang bay:
Nhatrang bay has a surface area of 40,341 ha; volume: 6,798 million m3, 103 km coastline.
Nhatrang’s total runoff is < 5,000m3/head/year, while national’s total runoff is 13,000m3/head/year and that of the world is 12,000 m3//head/year.
Cai river basin: 2,000km2, total water input 389.8x109m3;
Cua Be river basin: 83km2, total water input 60,1.109m3.
Lessons and experiences of other countries
Impacts of development projects on the coastal area of Nhatrang:
1. Promoting the economic growth, creating jobs, improving the standard of living
2. Impacts on the environment: pollution, eutrophication, disruption of ecological balance…
BOD average value in waste water from Khanhhoa fishery processing is 1.193 mg/l (ranging 773 – 1976), average COD: 1762 mg/l (1176 – 2815).
Water quality in Nhatrang Beach: Field data
Eutrophic index in the coastal waters of Khanh Hoa
Polution at Nhatrang
seabed and Cai estuary
3. Seafood safety: heavy metal accumulation, harmful algal bloom...
4. Increasing the conflicts and interests with other sectors
Red tide and dead fishes caused by harmful algal bloom
Mangrove cut-off for shrimp culture - a fight without victor
Landfill reclaim, Dam Gia, Nhatrang bay, 2005. The seagrass bed is almost completely covered by reclaim area. Photo: Bernard O’Callaghan.
Dead corals in Nhatrang bay caused by anchorage and destructive fishing
5. Biodiversity changes/loss and exhaustion of marine resources:
Habitats degradation:coral coverage declined 31% in last 10 years; Seagrass bed decreased to 1/3 in area; Mangrove forest almost disappeared…
Overdevelopment of Seaweed on live and dead corals in Nhatrang bay, may be due to eutrophication
Crown-of thorns seastars outbreak leads to destruction of coral reefs
Dynamite fishing consequense
Fishing with undersized meshes
Exhaustion of marine resources:
6. Impacts on the scenery, aesthetics, cutural and human resources
7. Changes on the coastal litho-dynamic processes, sedimentation, erosion....
8. Increase of natural disasters and diseases resulted by human activites
Landfill for coastal reclaim partly burying branching corals, releasing substantial amounts of sediments to coastal waters.
It also impacts on the scenic beauty
II. DEVELOPMENT AND
Challenges in environment protection in Nha Trang, Khanh Hoa
Environment protection goals
1. Reduce pollution and environment degradation, prevent environmental disasters caused by human and nature. Pollution treatment, improve and enhance environment quality.
2. Sustainable use and protection of natural resources. Biodiversity protection, rehabilitation, protection and development of degraded ecosystems.
3. Enhance capacity in environment management for all government levels, sectors, and localities.
4. Raise awareness, encourage the participation of the community.
5.Mitigation of the impact of and adaptation to Climate
change and varibility
Environment protection plan
3. Planning for sustainable use based on local conditions
4. Planning for waste treatment area, waste collection and treatment technology
5. Adjust the balance between aquaculture, fisheries and seafood processing to support sustainable resource use
6. Appropriate technology transfer for aquaculture and seafood processing
7. Suitable policies for change in community livelihoods and natural resource management (co-management model)
8. Human capacity building in term of environmental management
Three issues for discussion:
1. Firstly, economic growth should be promoted
2. Secondly, speed up the identification of ownership and right of use of marine resources and sea surface
3. Finally, quickly establish feasible policies for marine economic development and environmental protection