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J200: Journalism and Mass Communications - Week V. Manuscripts, Books, and Maps: The Printing Press and a Changing World. News of the day…. NYTimes “Bodies on Bridge” To Portray the Horror, News Media Agonize (play video) You Be the Editor Naming a Juror Went Too Far.

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J200 journalism and mass communications week v l.jpg
J200: Journalism and Mass Communications - Week V

Manuscripts, Books, and Maps:

The Printing Press

and a

Changing World


News of the day l.jpg
News of the day….

  • NYTimes “Bodies on Bridge”

  • To Portray the Horror, News Media Agonize (play video)

  • You Be the Editor

  • Naming a Juror Went Too Far

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003


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Watch for necessary conditions for mass media gestation:

  • Production technology

  • Literate audience

  • Distribution system

  • Changes in the Infosphere

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003


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Four Important Periods in the History of the Book

  • The 7th to the 9th century was the heyday of the church-produced "illuminated manuscript".

  • 13th to 15th Century: The secularization of book production.

  • 15th to 16th Century: The first printed books.

  • 16th to 17th Century: New information is put into books; important consequences for European life and society.

Source: http://communication.ucsd.edu/bjones/Books/four.html

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003


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7th to 13th Century

  • 7th to 13th Century: The age of religious "manuscript" book production.

    • Books in this period are constructed by hand,

    • Largely religious texts whose creation is meant as an act of worship.

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003


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Scriptorium

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003


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Illuminated manuscript

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003


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Illuminated MSS page

Today’s Scriptorium: Christ in the Desert

www.historicpages.com/ texts/mshist.htm

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003


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13th – 15th Centuries

  • Canterbury Tales is written sometime between 1387 and Chaucer's death in 1400.

  • It is possible to see the beginning of the shift to secular concerns in religious works. The themes of the works are still religious but the secular world is beginning to intrude on the borders.

  • Even quasi-religious books begin to show non-religious aspects of life: more realistic looking people and artifacts. The Visconti Hours is a 14th century book of hours

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003


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The production of secular books is driven by two things:

  • The rise of universities in Europe, spreading from Italy.

  • The return of the crusaders in the 13th century, who bring with them texts from Byzantium. These books, written during the Greek and Roman periods in history, focus on this-world concerns.

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003


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15th to 16th Century:

  • The first printed books. These are print versions of traditional works like the Bible, books of hours (prayer books) and the religious calendars.

  • Press & Bible: 1455 Frankfurt Book Fair, and cost the equivalent of three years' pay for the average clerk.

  • By 1495: 55 publishing houses throughout Europe

  • 1500: approximately 35,000 book titles have been printed; some 10 million copies

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003


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15-16th Centuries

  • 1450: A few newsletters begin circulating in Europe.

  • 1495: A paper mill is established in England.

  • 1560: Legalized, regulated private postal systems grow in Europe.

  • 1609: First regularly published newspaper appears in Germany.

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003


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16-17th Centuries

  • 1631: A French newspaper carries classified ads.

  • First printing presses in Americas:Mexico by 1542; Cuba, Peru = 1570s.

  • 1639: In Boston, someone is appointed to deal with foreign mail.

  • 1639: First printing press in the American colonies

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003


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The Printing Press and a Changing World

  • 1650: Leipzig has a daily newspaper.

  • 1653: Parisians can put their postage-paid letters in mail boxes.

  • 1659: Londoners get the penny post.

  • 1661: Postal service within the colony of Virginia.

  • 1673: Mail is delivered on a route between New York and Boston.

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003


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The Printing Press and a Changing World

  • 1689: Newspapers are printed, at first as unfolded "broadsides."

  • 1696: By now England has 100 paper mills.

  • 1698: Public library opens in Charleston, S.C.

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003


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18th Century

  • 1704: A newspaper in Boston prints advertising.

  • 1714: Henry Mill receives patent in England for a typewriter.

  • 1719: Reaumur proposes using wood to make paper.

  • 1727: Schulze begins science of photochemistry.

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003


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18th Century

  • 1755: Regular mail ship runs between England and the colonies.

  • 1770: The eraser.

  • 1780: Steel pen points begin to replace quill feathers.

  • 1785: Stagecoaches carry the mail between towns in U.S.

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003


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18th Century

  • 1790: In England, the hydraulic press is invented.

  • 1792: Mechanical semaphore signaler built in France. 1794: Signaling system connects Paris and Lille.

  • 1792: Postal Act gives mail regularity throughout U.S.

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003



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Books

  • Watch for necessary conditions for media evolution

    • Production technology

    • Literate audience(s)

    • Distribution system

  • Changes in the Infosphere

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003


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Some – SOME – important terms

  • acquisitions editor: recruits and signs new authors and titles for the company’s list of books

  • advance on royalties: money which the publisher anticipates earning on royalties of the book

  • best-selling book: a title which has sold >75,000 hardcover copies, or >100,000 paperback copies

  • blockbuster book: a title which has sold more than 100,000 hardcover copies

  • book clubs: individuals can join in order to select books from the club’s catalogue, and then purchase them through the mail or via the club’s web site, often for a discounted price

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003


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An overview of the book industry

Basic distinctions in the book publishing industry

  • Educational books

    • K-12

    • Higher education

    • University presses - Sometimes crossover titles

  • Professional books

  • Consumer Books

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003


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The Association of American Publishers (AAP)

Divides the consumer book market…

  • Trade books

  • Mass market paperbacks and trade paperbacks

  • Religious books

  • Book club books

  • Mail order books

  • University press books

  • Subscription reference books

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003


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Major trade association

  • American Booksellers Association http://www.bookweb.org/

  • Association of American Publishershttp://www.publishers.org/industry/2002.cfm

  • Book industry stats

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003


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Digital “books”

  • Alexandria Digital Libraryhttp://www.alexandria.ucsb.edu/frames1.html

  • Project Gutenberghttp://www.gutenberg.net/

  • “Other” publishing strategieshttp://www.lulu.com/

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003


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Industry economics

Financing book publishing

  • Is about finding, preparing, marketing, distributing, and exhibiting books in ways that will get particular audiences to notice and buy them

  • Borrowing capital

  • Sales “on consignment”

  • Returns permitted

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003


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J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003


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Production in book publishing industry

“The production of books involves finding them and preparing them for the marketplace”

  • Production at a trade press

    • Royalties

    • Bestseller sales status

    • Blockbuster sales status

  • Production at a university press

    • Different pressures mean different approaches

  • Book production in the electronic age

    • E-books http://www.palmdigitalmedia.com/?refid=45160

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003


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Ethical pitfalls in book publishing

  • Plagiarism

    • “Borrowing” story and/or plot ideas

    • The origins of Haley’s “ROOTS” http://www.galegroup.com/free_resources/bhm/bio/haley_a.htm

    • Also:http://www.martinlutherking.org/roots.html

    • WWW.betterwhois.com Insert “martinlutherking.org” Who owns it

    • Stormfront Inc Go to www.stormfront.org page?

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003


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Ethical pitfalls in book publishing

  • “Historian Ambrose sorry for copying phrases”http://www.olemiss.edu/mwp/news/2002/2002_01_06_ambrose.html

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003


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Reducing the risks of failure during the production process

  • Conducting prepublication research

  • Hiring authors with positive track records

  • Offering potential authors advances on royalties

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003


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Distribution in the book industry

Getting the right number of books to the right customers

  • The role of wholesalers in the distribution process

  • Assessing a title’s popularity

    • The size of the book’s print run

    • The content of reviews about the book in the media

    • The scope of the book’s marketing plan

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003


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Exhibition in the book industry

  • Exhibition varies widely by the type of book being sold

  • Exhibition in textbook publishing

    • El-hi textbook adoptions vs. college textbook adoptions

  • The strategy of new editions

  • Exhibition via bookstores

    • Large chain bookstores vs. small independent bookstores

    • Exhibition via computers and the web (Vistica)

    • Each year, more book-buyers doing web buys for books, CDs to DVDs to e-books. Maybe.

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003


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J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003


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