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CHAPTER. OUTLINE. Chapter 1. Leading U.S. Health Problems. Physical Activity and Exercise. Surgeon General’s Report. Wellness, Fitness, and Longevity. Types of Physical Fitness. Fitness Standards. Benefits of a Wellness Program. National Health Objectives for 2010.

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Chapter 1 l.jpg

CHAPTER

OUTLINE

Chapter 1

Leading U.S. Health Problems

Physical Activity and Exercise

Surgeon General’s Report

Wellness, Fitness, and Longevity

Types of Physical Fitness

Fitness Standards

Benefits of a Wellness Program

National Health Objectives for 2010

Physical Fitness and Wellness


Physical fitness wellness l.jpg

Leading U.S. Health Problems

Physical Activity and Exercise

Surgeon General’s Report

Wellness, Fitness, and Longevity

Types of Physical Fitness

Fitness Standards

Benefits of a Wellness Program

National Health Objectives for 2010

Physical Fitness & Wellness

  • Research findings in the last three decades have shown that physical inactivity and negative lifestyle habits increase the risk for chronic diseases and premature mortality

  • Widespread interest in health and preventive medicine has led to an increase in people participating in organized fitness and wellness programs


Risks of physical inactivity l.jpg

Leading U.S. Health Problems

Physical Activity and Exercise

Surgeon General’s Report

Wellness, Fitness, and Longevity

Types of Physical Fitness

Fitness Standards

Benefits of a Wellness Program

National Health Objectives for 2010

Risks of Physical Inactivity

  • Physically inactive people die younger

  • Technological advances have greatly reduced required daily physical activity

  • About 400,000 deaths in the U.S. are attributed each year to physical inactivity and poor dietary habits


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Leading U.S. Health Problems

Physical Activity and Exercise

Surgeon General’s Report

Wellness, Fitness, and Longevity

Types of Physical Fitness

Fitness Standards

Benefits of a Wellness Program

National Health Objectives for 2010

Life Expectancy

  • Beginning of the 20th century

    • Life expectancy was 47 years

    • Major life threats were infectious diseases: tuberculosis, diphtheria, influenza, polio, etc.

  • Mid- to late 20th century

    • Infectious diseases eliminated with medical breakthroughs

    • Life expectancy increased to 76.9 years but living the so-called “good life” encouraged chronic diseases:hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes, cancer, etc.


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1.1

Causes of Deaths in United Statesfor Selected Years

  • Physical inactivity and poor lifestyle habits have caused an increase in the incidence of chronic diseases


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Leading U.S. Health Problems

Physical Activity and Exercise

Surgeon General’s Report

Wellness, Fitness, and Longevity

Types of Physical Fitness

Fitness Standards

Benefits of a Wellness Program

National Health Objectives for 2010

Fitness & Wellness Movement

  • The fitness and wellness movement resulted from the need to combat chronic disease

  • Focus became disease prevention through a healthy lifestyle


Healthy life expectancy in the u s l.jpg

Leading U.S. Health Problems

Physical Activity and Exercise

Surgeon General’s Report

Wellness, Fitness, and Longevity

Types of Physical Fitness

Fitness Standards

Benefits of a Wellness Program

National Health Objectives for 2010

Healthy Life Expectancyin the U.S.

  • Average life expectancy in the U.S. is 77.4 years

  • Healthy life expectancy is defined as the years of illness subtracted from life expectancy

  • The World Health Organization (WHO) calculated in 2000 that the healthy life expectancy of the U.S. was 24th in the world


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1.2

Healthy Life Expectancy for Selected Countries


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1.3

Leading Causes ofDeath in the United States


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Leading U.S. Health Problems

Physical Activity and Exercise

Surgeon General’s Report

Wellness, Fitness, and Longevity

Types of Physical Fitness

Fitness Standards

Benefits of a Wellness Program

National Health Objectives for 2010

Underlying Causes of Death in the United States

  • The top three causes of death in the U.S.— tobacco use, poor diet and inactivity, and alcohol abuse—are responsible for 920,000 deaths each year

Tobacco 435,000

Poor diet/inactivity 400,000

Alcohol 85,000

Microbial infections 75,000

Toxic agents 55,000

Motor vehicles 43,000

Firearms 29,000

Sexual behaviors 20,000

Drugs 17,000


Lifestyle as a health problem l.jpg

Leading U.S. Health Problems

Physical Activity and Exercise

Surgeon General’s Report

Wellness, Fitness, and Longevity

Types of Physical Fitness

Fitness Standards

Benefits of a Wellness Program

National Health Objectives for 2010

Lifestyle as a Health Problem

Almost 80% of deaths in the U.S. today could be prevented through a healthy lifestyle program.”


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Leading U.S. Health Problems

Physical Activity and Exercise

Surgeon General’s Report

Wellness, Fitness, and Longevity

Types of Physical Fitness

Fitness Standards

Benefits of a Wellness Program

National Health Objectives for 2010

Lifestyle as a Health Problem

  • Over 50% of people who die in U.S. die because of what they do

    • More than half of disease is lifestyle-related

    • A fifth is attributed to the environment

    • A tenth is influenced by the health care the individual receives

    • Only 16% is related to genetics

  • The individual controls as much as 84% of vulnerability to disease and quality of life

  • 83% of deaths before age 65 are preventable


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Leading U.S. Health Problems

Physical Activity and Exercise

Surgeon General’s Report

Wellness, Fitness, and Longevity

Types of Physical Fitness

Fitness Standards

Benefits of a Wellness Program

National Health Objectives for 2010

Lifestyle as a Health Problem

In essence, most people in the United States are threatened by the verylives they lead today.”


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Physical Activity: Bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles; requires expenditure of energy and produces progressive health benefits

Exercise: A type of physical activity that requires planned, structured, and repetitive bodily movement with the intent of improving or maintaining one or more components of physical fitness

Leading U.S. Health Problems

Physical Activity and Exercise

Surgeon General’s Report

Wellness, Fitness, and Longevity

Types of Physical Fitness

Fitness Standards

Benefits of a Wellness Program

National Health Objectives for 2010

Key Terms


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Leading U.S. Health Problems

Physical Activity and Exercise

Surgeon General’s Report

Wellness, Fitness, and Longevity

Types of Physical Fitness

Fitness Standards

Benefits of a Wellness Program

National Health Objectives for 2010

1996 Surgeon General’s Report

  • Poor health because of lack of physical activity is a serious public health problem

  • More than 60% of adults do not achieve the recommended amount of physical activity

  • 25% are not physically active at all

  • Almost half of all people between 12 and 21 years of age are not vigorously active on a regular basis


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Leading U.S. Health Problems

Physical Activity and Exercise

Surgeon General’s Report

Wellness, Fitness, and Longevity

Types of Physical Fitness

Fitness Standards

Benefits of a Wellness Program

National Health Objectives for 2010

1996 Surgeon General’s Report

  • Physical inactivity is more prevalent in

    • Women than men

    • African Americans and Hispanic Americans than whites

    • Older than younger adults

    • Less affluent than more affluent people

    • Less educated than more educated adults


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1.1

Percent of Total U.S. Adult Population That Regularly Participates in Physical Activity

  • The 1996 report became a nationwide call to action


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Leading U.S. Health Problems

Physical Activity and Exercise

Surgeon General’s Report

Wellness, Fitness, and Longevity

Types of Physical Fitness

Fitness Standards

Benefits of a Wellness Program

National Health Objectives for 2010

Critical Thinking

  • Do you consciously incorporate physical activity into your daily lifestyle?

  • Can you provide examples?

  • Do you feel that you get sufficient daily physical activity to maintain good health?


Key terms19 l.jpg

Leading U.S. Health Problems

Physical Activity and Exercise

Surgeon General’s Report

Wellness, Fitness, and Longevity

Types of Physical Fitness

Fitness Standards

Benefits of a Wellness Program

National Health Objectives for 2010

Key Terms

  • Wellness: The constant and deliberate effort to stay healthy and achieve the highest potential for well-being; it integrates seven dimensions


Wellness continuum l.jpg

Leading U.S. Health Problems

Physical Activity and Exercise

Surgeon General’s Report

Wellness, Fitness, and Longevity

Types of Physical Fitness

Fitness Standards

Benefits of a Wellness Program

National Health Objectives for 2010

Wellness Continuum

  • Although an individual may demonstrate adequate or excellent fitness, indulgence in unhealthy lifestyle behaviors will increase risk for chronic diseases and diminish wellness


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Physical Wellness: Good physical fitness and confidence in one’s personal ability to take care of health problems

Emotional Wellness: The ability to understand one’s own feelings, accept limitations, and achieve emotional stability

Mental Wellness: A state in which one’s mind is engaged in lively interaction with the surrounding world; also called intellectual wellness

Social Wellness: The ability to relate well to others, both within and outside the family unit

Leading U.S. Health Problems

Physical Activity and Exercise

Surgeon General’s Report

Wellness, Fitness, and Longevity

Types of Physical Fitness

Fitness Standards

Benefits of a Wellness Program

National Health Objectives for 2010

Key Terms


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Environmental Wellness: The capability to live in a clean and safe environment that is not detrimental to health

Occupational Wellness: The ability to perform one’s job skillfully and effectively under conditions that provide personal and team satisfaction and adequately reward each individual

Spiritual Wellness: The sense that life is meaningful, that life has purpose, and that some power brings all humanity together; the ethics, values, and morals that guide one and give meaning and direction to life

Leading U.S. Health Problems

Physical Activity and Exercise

Surgeon General’s Report

Wellness, Fitness, and Longevity

Types of Physical Fitness

Fitness Standards

Benefits of a Wellness Program

National Health Objectives for 2010

Key Terms


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Moderate physical activity: Activity that uses 150 calories of energy per day, or 1,000 calories per week

Vigorous activity: Any exercise that requires a MET level equal to or greater than 6 METs or 21 ml/kg/min (1 MET = energy expenditure at rest or the equivalent of 3.5 ml/kg/min)

Leading U.S. Health Problems

Physical Activity and Exercise

Surgeon General’s Report

Wellness, Fitness, and Longevity

Types of Physical Fitness

Fitness Standards

Benefits of a Wellness Program

National Health Objectives for 2010

Key Terms


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1.8

Physical Activity vs. Mortality

  • Studies show an inverse relationship between physical activity and premature mortality rates


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1.9

Fitness Levels vs. Mortality

  • Although greater improvements in fitness yield a slightly lower risk for premature death, the largest drop is between the low fit and the moderate fit groups


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Leading U.S. Health Problems

Physical Activity and Exercise

Surgeon General’s Report

Wellness, Fitness, and Longevity

Types of Physical Fitness

Fitness Standards

Benefits of a Wellness Program

National Health Objectives for 2010

Moderate Physical Activity

  • Provides benefits through regular participation

    • Can prevent premature death, unnecessary illness, and disability

    • For people who are not physically active:

      • Can provide substantial benefits in health and well-being

    • For people who are already moderately active:

      • Greater health and fitness benefits can be obtained when intensity of physical activity is increased


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Physical fitness: The ability to meet the ordinary as well as the unusual demands of daily life safely and effectively without being overly fatigued and still have energy left for leisure and recreational activities

Health-related fitness: Fitness programs that are prescribed to improve the overall health of the individual, encompasses cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength and endurance, muscular flexibility, and body composition

Leading U.S. Health Problems

Physical Activity and Exercise

Surgeon General’s Report

Wellness, Fitness, and Longevity

Types of Physical Fitness

Fitness Standards

Benefits of a Wellness Program

National Health Objectives for 2010

Key Terms


Health related fitness l.jpg

Leading U.S. Health Problems

Physical Activity and Exercise

Surgeon General’s Report

Wellness, Fitness, and Longevity

Types of Physical Fitness

Fitness Standards

Benefits of a Wellness Program

National Health Objectives for 2010

Health-Related Fitness

Cardiorespiratory endurance

Muscular flexibility

Body composition

Muscular strength and endurance


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Critical Thinking

  • What role do the four health-related components of physical fitness play in your life?

  • Can you rank in order of importance to you and explain your rationale in doing so?


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Skill-related fitness:Fitness components important for success in skillful activities and athletic events; encompasses agility, balance, coordination, power, reaction time, and speed

Metabolic fitness:Improvements in the metabolic profile through a moderate-intensity exercise program in spite of little or no improvement in physical fitness measures

Leading U.S. Health Problems

Physical Activity and Exercise

Surgeon General’s Report

Wellness, Fitness, and Longevity

Types of Physical Fitness

Fitness Standards

Benefits of a Wellness Program

National Health Objectives for 2010

Key Terms


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Health fitness standard

Minimum fitness values required for disease prevention and health

Physical fitness standard

Higher standard required to achieve good or excellent physical fitness

Physical fitness standard

Requires more intense exercise to allow people of all ages the freedom to enjoy life’s daily and recreational activities to their fullest potential

Current health fitness standards are not enough to achieve these objectives

Leading U.S. Health Problems

Physical Activity and Exercise

Surgeon General’s Report

Wellness, Fitness, and Longevity

Types of Physical Fitness

Fitness Standards

Benefits of a Wellness Program

National Health Objectives for 2010

Two Fitness Standards


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1.12

Health and Fitness Benefits according to Lifestyle and Physical Activity Program

  • Attaining the health fitness standard requires only moderate physical activity

  • For high physical fitness, a high intensity exercise program is required


Motor skill related fitness l.jpg

Leading U.S. Health Problems

Physical Activity and Exercise

Surgeon General’s Report

Wellness, Fitness, and Longevity

Types of Physical Fitness

Fitness Standards

Benefits of a Wellness Program

National Health Objectives for 2010

Motor Skill–Related Fitness


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Leading U.S. Health Problems

Physical Activity and Exercise

Surgeon General’s Report

Wellness, Fitness, and Longevity

Types of Physical Fitness

Fitness Standards

Benefits of a Wellness Program

National Health Objectives for 2010

Wellness Programs Provide

  • Multiple health benefits

  • Economic benefits


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Leading U.S. Health Problems

Physical Activity and Exercise

Surgeon General’s Report

Wellness, Fitness, and Longevity

Types of Physical Fitness

Fitness Standards

Benefits of a Wellness Program

National Health Objectives for 2010

Selected Health Benefits

  • Improves cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, and muscular endurance

  • Helps maintain recommended body weight and lean body mass

  • Increases resting metabolic rate

  • Improves the immune system

  • Decreases risk for chronic diseases (cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, hypertension, osteoporosis)


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Leading U.S. Health Problems

Physical Activity and Exercise

Surgeon General’s Report

Wellness, Fitness, and Longevity

Types of Physical Fitness

Fitness Standards

Benefits of a Wellness Program

National Health Objectives for 2010

Selected Health Benefits

  • Relieves tension and stress

  • Raises energy levels and job productivity

  • Encourages positive lifestyle habits

  • Promotes psychological wellness

  • Helps maintain independent living

  • Extends longevity and slows down the aging process

  • Improves quality of life


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1.13

Health Care Costs in the U.S. for Selected Years


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1.14

Estimated 1989 and 1997 Healthcare Costs per Person for Selected Countries

  • U.S. spends more on yearly health care per person than any other industrialized nation

  • Yet U.S. health care ranks 37th in the world

  • One reason for low ranking is overemphasis on state-of-the art cures instead of prevention


Healthy lifestyle habits l.jpg

Leading U.S. Health Problems

Physical Activity and Exercise

Surgeon General’s Report

Wellness, Fitness, and Longevity

Types of Physical Fitness

Fitness Standards

Benefits of a Wellness Program

National Health Objectives for 2010

Healthy Lifestyle Habits

  • Participate in a lifetime physical activity program

  • Do not smoke cigarettes

  • Eat three nutritious meals each day

  • Avoid meaningless snacking

  • Maintain healthy weight

  • Get enough sleep


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Leading U.S. Health Problems

Physical Activity and Exercise

Surgeon General’s Report

Wellness, Fitness, and Longevity

Types of Physical Fitness

Fitness Standards

Benefits of a Wellness Program

National Health Objectives for 2010

Healthy Lifestyle Habits

  • Control stress

  • Be wary of alcohol

  • Surround yourself with healthy friendships

  • Be informed about the environment

  • Increase education

  • Take personal safety measures


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1.15

2010 National Health Objectives

  • Two unique goals of the 2010 national health objectives emphasize increased quality and years of healthy life and seek to eliminate health disparities among all groups of people


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Leading U.S. Health Problems

Physical Activity and Exercise

Surgeon General’s Report

Wellness, Fitness, and Longevity

Types of Physical Fitness

Fitness Standards

Benefits of a Wellness Program

National Health Objectives for 2010

Critical Thinking

  • What are your feelings about lifestyle habits that enhance health and longevity?

  • How important are they to you?

  • What obstacles keep you from adhering to such habits or incorporating new ones into your life?



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Implement motivational and behavior modification techniques for wellness

Determine whether medical clearance is needed for exercise participation

Conduct a nutrient analysis and follow recommendations for adequate nutrition

Write your own nutrition and weight-control programs

Leading U.S. Health Problems

Physical Activity and Exercise

Surgeon General’s Report

Wellness, Fitness, and Longevity

Types of Physical Fitness

Fitness Standards

Benefits of a Wellness Program

National Health Objectives for 2010

A Personalized ApproachIn this course you will learn to


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Assess your health-related and skill-related components of fitness

Write exercise prescriptions for cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength and endurance, and muscular flexibility

Understand the relationship between fitness and aging

Determine your levels of tension and stress, lessen your vulnerability to stress, and implement a stress management program if necessary

Leading U.S. Health Problems

Physical Activity and Exercise

Surgeon General’s Report

Wellness, Fitness, and Longevity

Types of Physical Fitness

Fitness Standards

Benefits of a Wellness Program

National Health Objectives for 2010

A Personalized ApproachIn this course you will learn to


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Follow a cancer risk–reduction program fitness

Implement a smoking cessation program, if applicable

Avoid chemical dependency and know where to find assistance if needed

Learn health consequences of sexually transmitted diseases

Leading U.S. Health Problems

Physical Activity and Exercise

Surgeon General’s Report

Wellness, Fitness, and Longevity

Types of Physical Fitness

Fitness Standards

Benefits of a Wellness Program

National Health Objectives for 2010

A Personalized ApproachIn this course you will learn to


A personalized approach in this course you will learn to47 l.jpg

Write objectives to improve your fitness and wellness and learn how to chart a wellness program for the future

Differentiate myths and facts about exercise and health-related concepts

Leading U.S. Health Problems

Physical Activity and Exercise

Surgeon General’s Report

Wellness, Fitness, and Longevity

Types of Physical Fitness

Fitness Standards

Benefits of a Wellness Program

National Health Objectives for 2010

A Personalized ApproachIn this course you will learn to


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End of Chapter learn how to chart a wellness program for the future


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