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Cancer. Who gets cancer? . One million each year ____ men 1/3 women Any age However, 77% dx ages 55 + Incidence rate varies. What Causes Cancer?. Primary Contributors: Behavior & Lifestyle Smoking Diet ____________ Exposure to ultraviolet light Sexual Behavior

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Who gets cancer l.jpg
Who gets cancer?

  • One million each year

  • ____ men

  • 1/3 women

  • Any age

    • However, 77% dx ages 55 +

  • Incidence rate varies


What causes cancer l.jpg
What Causes Cancer?

  • Primary Contributors:

    • Behavior & Lifestyle

      • Smoking

      • Diet

      • ____________

      • Exposure to ultraviolet light

      • Sexual Behavior

  • Other Contributors:

    • Genetics

    • Environment


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What is Cancer?

  • Out-of-control growth of abnormal cells

  • Damaged _______

    • Can be inherited

    • Can be environment


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  • Forms as a tumor (usually)

    • Not all tumors are cancerous

    • e.g., ___________ (non-cancerous) tumors

  • 2nd leading cause of death in U.S.


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Common Cancer Types

________________

Bladder

Breast

Colon & Rectal

Endometrial

Kidney (Renal Cell)

Leukemia

Lung

Melanoma

Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

Pancreatic

Prostate

Thyroid


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What can you do?

  • The risk of developing most types of cancer can be reduced by changes in a person’s ____________.

  • Today, millions are either living with or have been cured of the disease.

  • The sooner cancer is found and treatment begins, the better the chances of being cured.


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Melanoma

  • Joshua Keller


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Skin Cancer

  • One of the more common cancers

  • Three basic types: Squamous cell, Basal cell, and Melanoma

  • Melanoma – Begins in ____________, which are cells that are responsible for our pigment which is called melanin.

    (The Melanoma Research Foundation)


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Melanoma

  • Most ____________ cancer of the skin

    • Melanocytes

    • Lower Epidermis

    • Melanin Production


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5 Stages

  • Stages 1-2 are still dealing with epidermis

  • By stage 3 the cancer has metastasized to the ________ _________

  • By stage 4 cancer has spread to multiple organs

  • By stage 5 the body is overwhelmed with the cancer


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What to Look for

  • Learn what to look for.

  • __________ (Nevi) are normal

    (on average between 10 and 40)

    • Potential melanoma

      ( Know Your ABCD’s)


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ABCD’s

Asymmetrical

Border Irregularity

__________ varied

Diameter larger

(The Melanoma Research Foundation)


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Facts

  • Can occur on any skin surface

  • Also occurs in other ____________

  • More likely in __________-skinned Caucasians

  • Increased risk as you age

  • One of the most common cancers among young people

    http://www.cancerventer.com


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More facts

  • Epidemic growth at 3% every year

  • Melanoma 5% of all skin cancers

  • Currently more new cases each year than ____________

  • Why such an increase?

    • Sun exposure

    • More sun exposure

      (The Melanoma Research Foundation)


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Increasing Risk

  • Severe Sunburns

  • Tanning Misconceptions

  • Fair skin

  • www.cancer.gov/newscenter/individualmelanoma


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Important!!!!!!

  • Remember ____________

  • Limit sun exposure

  • Consistently check your body


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Breast Cancer

Jenni Sanders


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Risk Factors

  • Age: very uncommon ___________________

  • Family history: higher if her mother, sister, or daughter had it before 40

  • Obesity: higher levels of estrogen in these women

National Cancer Institute. (2003). What you need to know about breast cancer. (NIH Publication No. 03-1556). Bethesda, MD: U.S.


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Risk Factors Cont.

National Cancer Institute. (2003). What you need to know about breast cancer. (NIH Publication No. 03-1556). Bethesda, MD: U.S.

  • Physical inactivity: ↓ activity ↑ risk

  • ________ beverages: ↑ __________ intake ↑ risk

  • Others: personal history, reproductive and menstrual history, race, radiation exposure, taking DES


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Diagnostics

  • Mammogram, MRI, PET, Ultrasonography, Biopsy

    • MRI is the new leader in detection for women with hereditary risk (Robson and Offit, 2004)

  • Self-Exam

    • Monthly

    • Does not replace regular screening

http://www.mri.jhu.edu/~dbluemke/Breast_MRI_pic.html

National Cancer Institute. (2003). What you need to know about breast cancer. (NIH Publication No. 03-1556). Bethesda, MD: U.S.


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Diagnostics Cont.

  • Clinical Breast Exam

  • Symptoms

    • Lump or thickening in breast or underarm areas

    • _______________

    • Change in appearance

    • Fluid

National Cancer Institute. (2003). What you need to know about breast cancer. (NIH Publication No. 03-1556). Bethesda, MD: U.S.


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Stage 0:

Lobular

Ductal

Stage 1:

Tumor is no more than 2cm, cells contained in breast only

Stage 2:

No more than 2cm, ___________ has occurred, or

Tumor size 2-5cm, may have spread, or

Tumor is larger than 5cm, no spreading

Stages

National Cancer Institute. (2003). What you need to know about breast cancer (NIH Publication No. 03-1556). Bethesda, MD: U.S.


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Stage 3:

May be large but no spreading, called “____________ cancer”

IIIa: spreading to underarm lymph nodes

IIIb: tumor has grown into chest wall or skin of the breast

IIIc: more lymph node spreading other than underarm nodes

Stage 4:

____________ cancer

Other parts of body affected

Stages Cont.

National Cancer Institute. (2003). What you need to know about breast cancer (NIH Publication No. 03-1556). Bethesda, MD: U.S.


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Treatments

  • ____________ therapy: surgery and radiation

    • Surgery is the most common

      • Includes lumpectomy or mastectomy options

    • Radiation usually after surgery

National Cancer Institute. (2003). What you need to know about breast cancer (NIH Publication No. 03-1556). Bethesda, MD: U.S.


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Treatments Cont.

  • ____________ therapy: chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, biological therapy

    • Chemotherapy: drugs injected or a pill

    • Hormonal therapy:

      • Use of a drug to block estradiol

      • Surgery to remove ovaries

    • Biological therapy

      • Herceptin: a monoclonal antibody

National Cancer Institute. (2003). What you need to know about breast cancer (NIH Publication No. 03-1556). Bethesda, MD: U.S.


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Statistics

  • “A woman’s chance of being diagnosed with breast cancer is:

    • from age 30 through age 39 . . . . . . 0.44 percent (often expressed as “1 in 229”)

    • from age 40 through age 49 . . . . . . 1.46 percent (often expressed as “1 in 68”)

  • from age 50 through age 59 . . . . . . 2.73 percent (often expressed as “1 in 37”)

  • from age 60 through age 69 . . . . . . 3.82 percent (often expressed as “1 in 26”) .”

American Cancer Society. Breast Cancer Facts & Figures 2005-2006. Atlanta: American Cancer Society, Inc.



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Statistics Cont.

  • Overall Survival Rate 

    • After 5 years- 88%

    • After 10 years- 80%

    •   After 15 years- 71%

    •   After 20 years- ____% 

American Cancer Society. Breast Cancer Facts & Figures 2005-2006. Atlanta: American Cancer Society, Inc.


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Cancer Prevention

Elizabeth Hill


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General Prevention

  • _______________________:

    DFN- the use of natural or synthetic substances to reduce the risk of developing cancer or to reduce the chance that cancer will recur.

    National Cancer Institute (http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopicss/factsheet/Prevention/chemoprevention)


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General Prevention cont.

  • ____________ and Cancer Prevention:compounds slow or prevent the growth of tumor cells

  • Red Wine & Cancer Prevention:

    Polyphenols

    National Cancer Institue (http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet


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Breast Cancer Prevention

  • Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs)

    DFN- drugs that have some anti-estrogen properties and some estrogen-like properties


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Breast Cancer Prevention cont.

  • Tamoxifen

    -Breast Cancer Prevention trial


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Breast Cancer Prevention cont.

  • Preventive mastectomy

    DFN- surgery to remove one or both ____________ in effort to prevent or reduce the risk of breast cancer


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Breast Cancer Prevention cont.

Procedures Involved

  • Total mastectomy

  • _____________________ mastectomy

    -Reduce risk by about 90%

    Information on the past four slides was obtained from:

    National Cancer Institute (http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/prevention/breast/Patient/page2)


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Skin Cancer Prevention

  • Limit direct sun exposure between ___ am to 4pm

  • Cover up

  • Use sunscreen w/ SPF of 15 or higher


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Skin Cancer Prevention Cont.

  • Wear sunglasses that block UV rays

  • Avoid tanning __________________________

    Information on the past two slides was retrieved from:

    (http://www.cancer.org/docroot/PED/content/ped_7_1_Skin_Cancer_Detection_What _You_Can_Do.asp?sitearea=PED


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Tips for Daily Cancer Prevention

1.Stop Smoking!

2. Eat a healthy diet

3. Use alcohol in moderation


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Tips for Daily Cancer Prevention

4. Avoid exposure to UV rays

5. Exercise ____________

  • Recognizing occupational & environmental hazards

    Information on the past two slides was

    retrieved from:

    Journal of the American Medical Association

    (Ovid: Torpy:JAMA, Volume291(20).May 26,

    2004.2510


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