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BISON PRODUCERS OF ALBERTA . CANADIAN BISON ASSOCIATION ANNUAL CONVENTION NOV 21-24 2009 Regina Saskatchewan . Minerals Meeting Bison’s Needs. Roy Lewis DVM 1981 WCVM Partner 6 Vet mixed practice Westlock Alberta Interests Large animal reproduction and herd health

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Bison producers of alberta l.jpg

BISON PRODUCERS OF ALBERTA

CANADIAN BISON ASSOCIATION ANNUAL CONVENTION

NOV 21-24 2009

Regina Saskatchewan


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Minerals Meeting Bison’s Needs

  • Roy Lewis DVM 1981 WCVM

  • Partner 6 Vet mixed practice Westlock Alberta

  • Interests Large animal reproduction and herd health

  • 10% Practice involves bison elk camelids

  • Own 30 bison cows

    Written numerous articles bison and cattle.


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Why Minerals ???

  • Needed for Muscle growth

  • Bone Growth

  • Reproduction (Phos)

  • Immune status

  • Enzyme Function

  • Blood Formation

  • Check mineral status best on Liver slaughter samples

  • Mineral deficiencies occur in 75-95% of feeds grown in Alberta


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Decreased Growth

Reproductive Rates decline

Poorer Immune Response

More Prone to Disease and Parasites

Deficiencies slow to develop

Specific Mineral Deficiencies

I have personally seen Iodine def

Copper Deficiency

Selenium Def

Vitamin A

Deficiencies slow to correct once minerals added

If Bison Not Fed Minerals


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Initially no clinical signs

Poor growth rough hair coat

Diarrhea & wt loss (protein loss)

Part of the herd affected

Lungworms weight loss (coughing)

Lack of appetite

Death

Very little at gross postmortem

Signs of a worm burden


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Nutritionists Use N.R.C. reqts for cattle

Not specifically done for bison yet

Since Bison and cattle interbreed reqts will be very similar.

Based on weight reqts

Based on feed at season of year

Critical to breeding age animals

Critical to those undergoing rapid growth.

Requirementsof Minerals for Bison


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Calculating Amount Required

  • Nutritionists calculate on NRC assuming nothing in the feed

  • 1 bag = 25kg

  • 40 gms per mature bison daily

  • 25000gms/ 40gms = 625 bison days

  • Minerals and vitamins in the feed is the buffer zone

  • Different Minerals Formulated for Bison


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How to feed minerals

  • Blue salt is not minerals it is CO I salt

  • Loose minerals generally has approx 45% salt

  • In feedlot can be mixed in the ration

  • Free choice in feeders (need to be strong enough)

  • Top Dressed in Grain

  • Keep in front of them all the time.

  • I have never seen bison overeating minerals

  • I also keep Co I (blue) salt blocks out ???

  • Monitor uptake may need to change brands???


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Free Ranging Bison

  • Study 1990 WBNP most essential minerals were within normal cattle range

  • Levels lower in free ranging versus farmed

  • Exception was selenium (low in big area in western Canada)

  • Most plant species low in selenium.

  • Bison are the most indiscriminant eaters this is in our favor Bison select their range.


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Copper Deficiency

  • Poor Hair Coat

  • Enlargement of the Epiphysis (growth plates near the joints)

  • Chronic Diarrhea

  • Poor Growth & Repro Performance

  • Primary or Secondary (Mo and Sulphates)

  • Have feed tested cattle (8-10 ppm per feed)

  • Dr. Murray Woodbury Smoke Signals Feb 2006


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Other Topics

  • Pour On Deworming Study

  • Water Hemlock

  • Other Research Projects

  • Malignant Catarrhal Fever (MCF)


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