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Argentina. República Argentina. Geography. Capital is Buenos Aires Second biggest country in South America and eighth largest in the world Area- 1,078,000  sq  mi between the Andes in the west and the Atlantic Ocean in the east and south.

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Argentina

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Argentina l.jpg

Argentina

República Argentina


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Geography

  • Capital is Buenos Aires

  • Second biggest country in South America and eighth largest in the world

  • Area- 1,078,000 sq mi between the Andes in the west and the Atlantic Ocean in the east and south.

  • bordered by Paraguay and Bolivia in the north, Brazil and Uruguay in the northeast, and Chile in the west and south

  • divided into twenty-three provinces

  • Aconcagua (22,834 feet), is the highest mountain in the Americas, the Southern and Western Hemisphere

  • lowest point is Laguna del Carbón in Santa Cruz (−344 ft) below sea level- lowest point in South America


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Four Main Regions

  • fertile plains of the Pampas in the center of the country, the source of agricultural wealth

  • oil-rich plateau of Patagonia in the southern half

  • subtropical flats of the Gran Chaco in the north

  • Andes mountain range along the western border with Chile


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Climate

  • Temperate with extremes ranging from subtropical in the north to subpolar in the far south

  • North- very hot, humid summers with mild drier winters, periodic droughts

  • Central region- hot summers with thunderstorms (hail), and cool winters

  • South- warm summers and cold winters with heavy snowfall (especially in mountains)


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Flora

  • Ceibo- national flower

  • North- subtropical plants

  • Pampa- few plants; ombú, an evergreen

  • Northwest-cacti


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Fauna

  • mammels- jaguar, cougar, ocelot, howler monkey, tapir, capybara, anteater, ferret, raccoon

  • Birds- hummingbirds, flamingos, toucans, parrots, hornero (national bird)

  • Sea life- dolphins, orcas,whales

  • Snakes- boa constrictors, yacará pit viper, South American rattle snake

  • Reptiles, etc- Crocodiles, turtles


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History

  • 1480- the Inca Empire (Emperor Pachacutec) launched an offensive and conquered northwestern Argentina

    • Collasuyu

  • In the northeast, the Guaraní developed a culture based on yuca and sweet potato

  • Central and southern areas (Pampas and Patagonia)- nomads


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History: Spain

  • 1516- first Spanish conquistadors discovered the Río de la Plata

  • named the estuary Mar Dulce (fresh water sea)

  • Natives gave gifts of silver to the survivors of the shipwrecked expedition (led by Juan Díaz de Solís

  • Established colony in Buenos Aires area

  • RuyDíaz de Guzmán named the territory Tierra Argentina (Land of Silver)

    • latin word for silver-- argentums


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History: Independence

  • Spanish immigrants and their descendants (criollos)

  • Afro-Argentines(descendents of slaves)

  • Indigenous peoples

  • May 25, 1810, after the overthrow of King Ferdinand VII by Napoleon, citizens of Buenos Aires created the First Government Junta (May Revolution)

  • Formal independence from Spain was declared on July 9, 1816


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History: Self-Rule

  • 1817- General José de San Martín crossed the Andes to free Chile and Peru, eliminating the Spanish threat

  • Centralist and federalist groups were in conflict until national unity was established and the constitution written (1853)

  • 1880-1945: prosperity and prominence

    • became one of the 10 richest countries in the world

  • Conservatives dominated until 1916, when the Radicals won control of the government

  • The military forced Radicals from power in 1930, leading to another decade of Conservative rule


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History: Juan Perón

  • Political change led to the presidency of Juan Perón in 1946

    • working class- unionized workers

    • Eva Perón

  • Lost presidency during RevoluciónLibertadora of 1955

  • 1950s-1970s: govt. changed often

  • economy grew strongly and poverty declined

  • political violence continued

  • 1973- Perón returned to the presidency, but he died within a year of assuming power

    • his wife Isabel, the Vice President, succeeded him in office, but a military coup in 1976 removed her from office


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History: The Dirty War

  • 1976-1983: armed forces took power through a junta (National Reorganization Process)

  • military government repressed opposition and leftist groups using harsh illegal measures

  • thousands of dissidents disappeared

  • greatly increased the national debt

  • economic problems, corruption, public revulsion, human rights abuses

  • 1982- defeat by the British in the Falklands War


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History: Democracy

  • Democracy was restored in 1983

  • Raúl Alfonsín- Radical government

    • Prosecuted leaders of junta

    • Attempted to resolve the issue of the “disappeared”

    • Failure to turn around the economic depression and debt


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Government

  • En unión y libertad

  • Federal Presidential Representative Democratic Republic

  • President - both head of state and head of government

    • Néstor Kirchner 


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Separation of Powers

  • Executivepower resides in the President and his cabinet

    • President and Vice President are directly elected to four-year terms, limited to two consecutive terms, and the cabinet ministers are appointed by the president

  • Legislative power is given to a bicameral National Congress (Congreso de la Nación), consisting of a Senate (Senado) of seventy-two seats, and a Chamber of Deputies (Cámara de Diputados) of 257 members

    • A third of the candidates presented by the parties must be women

  • Argentine Supreme Court of Justice- seven members who are appointed by the President in consultation with the Senate


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International Affairs

  • The only country from Latin America to participate in the Gulf War under mandate of the UN

  • Anti-U.S. protests, emphasizing Mercosur (Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay) as its first international priority

  • Armed forces are controlled by the Defense Ministry

    • President is Commander-in-Chief

    • one of the best equipped in the region

    • Army, Navy, and Air Force


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Economy

  • 1970s the country piled up public debt, high inflation, depreciated worth of the peso

  • 1998 a period of profound economic recession began

  • By the end of 2002 the economy began to stabilize- careful spending control and heavy taxes on then-soaring exports allowed the state to regain resources and conduct monetary policy

  • 2003- NéstorKirchner elected president

    • paid off outstanding debts with the International Monetary Fund and nationalized some previously privatized enterprises

    • Period of high economic growth and political stability- an improvement in the situation of the poorer sectors and a strong rebound of the middle class


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Natural Resources

  • Soy and vegetable oils

  • Wheat, corn, oats, sorghum, and sunflower seeds

  • Cattle (beef, dairy, leather)

  • Sheep(wool), pigs

  • The world's fifth-largest wine producer

  • Industrial petrochemicals, oil, natural gas, coal, metals


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Industry

  • Telecommunications- cell phones, internet

  • Tourism


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Demographics

  • Population- 40,301,927 

  • Mostly European descent (85-97%)- Spaniards, Italians

  • Portuguese, Germans, French, Poles, Ashkenazi Jews

  • 1990s- immigrants from Paraguay, Bolivia, Peru

    • Large Arab community- immigrants from Syria and Lebanon (most are Christian)

  • Illegal immigration-Bolivia and Paraguay

    • launched a program called Patria Grande ("Greater Homeland"),to encourage illegal immigrants to regularize their status

  • Highly urbanized- 3.53 million people live in Buenos Aires

  • Official language is Spanish-"Castellano"


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Religion

  • 93% Roman Catholic

  • Protestants present in most communities.

  • Mormons- the seventh-largest concentration in the world

  • Largest Jewish population in all of Latin America (2%)

  • Muslims (1.5%), mostly Sunni


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Education

  • After independence, constructed a national public education

  • literacy rate of 97.5%

  • School attendance is compulsory between the ages of 5 and 17

  • English is the most common languages taught at school


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Sports

  • Futbol (soccer)- most popular sport

    • national team won FIFA World Cup twice

  • The Open Polo Championship of Buenos Aires

  • Rugby

  • The official national sport of the country is pato, played on horseback


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The Arts

  • world-renowned literature- Jorge Luis Borges

  • major producer of motion pictures- world's first animated feature films- 1917 and 1918

    • The Motorcycle Diaries (Diarios de motocicleta)

  • Tango- dance focused music, (1930 to mid-1950s)

    • neo-tango (Gotan Project)


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Technology

  • René Favaloro developed the techniques and performed the world's first ever coronary bypass surgery

  • Francisco de Pedro invented a more reliable artificial cardiac pacemaker

  • Luis Agote performed one of the first two blood transfusions with pre-stored blood

  • RaúlPateras de Pescara demonstrated the world's first flight of a helicopter

  • Satellite, the PEHUENSAT-1was successfully launched on January 10, 2007


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