The First Vietnam War
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The First Vietnam War. Part I. Review. Bad Japan. You are very, very bad! No more trading with you!!!. During World War II. Part II. (New Stuff) What would happen after the war?. Hopeful Ho Walked a Tightrope. Ho Chi Minh had a clear goal  Vietnamese Independence

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The First Vietnam War

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The first vietnam war

The First Vietnam War


The first vietnam war

Part I. Review


The first vietnam war

Bad Japan. You are very, very bad! No more trading with you!!!


During world war ii

During World War II


The first vietnam war

Part II. (New Stuff)What would happen after the war?


Hopeful ho walked a tightrope

Hopeful Ho Walked a Tightrope

  • Ho Chi Minh had a clear goal  Vietnamese Independence

  • However, there were A LOT of obstacles

    • Not all Vietnamese nationalists accepted Ho’s leadership, especially since not all nationalists were Communists

      • Would Communism place Vietnam under the control of the Soviet Union?

    • Foreign powers were jockeying for world power

      • A small nation could get trampled underfoot

      • China and France were the two countries most interested in Vietnam in the short term


Ho tried to play his cards skillfully

Ho Tried to Play His Cards Skillfully

  • He let France return to force China out

    • Why a good bet from Ho’s perspective?

  • Formed the Vietminh

    • A group dedicated to Vietnamese independence

    • Is a coalition, including non-Communist nationalists

  • Appealed to the U.S.

    • Declaration of Independence

    • Multiple letters to President Truman asking for American help against the French


The first vietnam war

What about us, Uncle Sam?

Help us, Uncle Sam!!!


President charles de gaulle in 1945

President Charles de Gaulle in 1945

“ The Russians are advancing apace as you well know…If the public here comes to realize that you are against us in Indochina, there will be terrific disappointment and nobody knows to what that will lead. We do not want to become communist; we do not want to fall into the Russian orbit, but I hope you do not push us into it.”


U s increasingly influenced by the looming cold war decided to side with france in vietnam

U.S., Increasingly Influenced by the Looming Cold War, Decided to Side With France in Vietnam

I know I’m gonna regret this, but…<chomp>

  • France would keep Vietnam capitalist

  • Also, American friendliness might keep France itself from falling to Communism


The war began

The War Began

  • French and Vietminh friction built as each tried to assert control over as much of the nation as possible

  • A fight over customs revenue in Haiphong Harbor, resulted in French shelling of city of Haiphong

  • Vietminh headed for the hills/jungle of North West Vietnam in order to prepare for a protracted guerrilla-style war

Haiphong Harbor


The first vietnam war

Guerra

Guerrilla Warfare

  • The French were cocky

    • ‘We can win in eight days’

    • 1st World v 3rd World military

  • Ho is convinced that the Vietnamese desperate need for independence was the key to victory

    • “You may kill 10 men for every 1 you lose, but even at these odds, I will win.”

  • Also, Vietnam is pretty ideally suited to Guerrilla warfare…

+

illa


Part iii growing american involvement

Part III. Growing American Involvement

Cold War Hysteria….


The domino theory

The Domino Theory…

  • In 1949, China ‘fell’ to Communism. Was this the 1st domino?

  • The U.S. developed the strategy of ‘Containment’- using military force to prevent the spread of Communism


One example of containment was the korean war fought at the same time as the 1 st indochina war

One example of containment was the Korean War… (fought at the same time as the 1st Indochina War)


The first vietnam war

Similarities between Korea and Vietnam - Small peninsular nation dominated by China -Separate occupations of North and South after WWII- nationalists wanted to reunite the nation-north (communist) -south (capitalist) -U.S. supported the south-China supported the north-Proxy War End Result-stalemate-partition (to this day!)


The first vietnam war

The French War in Vietnam Began to Turn Into Proxy War, Too

  • Americans supported the French, who soon became exhausted by the fight

    • By Dien Bien Phu, the U.S. was paying 80% of the war costs!

  • North Vietnamese began to get supplies from China and the USSR


Attempts were made by the french to preserve some kind of victory

Part IV. French Determination Began to Waver

Attempts Were Made by the French to PreserveSome Kind of Victory

  • Mid-War, The French declared Vietnam ‘independent’ under Bao Dai

  • he was a blood heir of the Vietnamese royal family (from before the French arrived)

  • The French had used him as a puppet before WWII

  • Few Vietnamese supported Bao Dai because they knew he was a puppet


The french increasingly limped along

The French Increasingly Limped Along

  • French were weakened by their system of government

    • Parliamentary System

      • This means that governments are coalitions

      • Positive lots of voices heard

      • Negative If a few members of coalition leave, gov. collapses

    • During the last few years of the war with Vietnam, French govs lasted an average of 3 months

      • Hard to follow a clear military policy with a new gov every 3 months

  • “Yellowing” of the French army

  • War lasted from 1946 to 1954

    • As the war dragged on, it increasingly harmed France’s international reputation

      • why?


Part v dien bien phu

Part V. Dien Bien Phu

  • French plan to disrupt Vietminh supply lines (which?) and to lure the Vietminh into a conventional battle

    • Location

  • While the French were fortifying Dien Bien Phu, the United Nations called for a conference in Geneva in 3 months’ time (the Geneva Conference) to try to bring peace to Indochina. All major players were invited: U.S., France, Russia, China, Vietminh, Bao Dai, etc.

  • One might expect the fighting to let up during these three months, but it didn’t

    • Why not?


Dien bien phu cont

Dien Bien Phu (cont.)

  • Vietnamese managed to move heavy artillery

    • How?

  • U.S. aid denied by Eisenhower

  • Casualties

    • Vietminh

      • 7,950 dead

      • 15,000 wounded

    • France

      • 2,293 dead

      • 5,195 wounded

      • 11,800 captured

  • Point of these #s…?


Geneva

Geneva

On the first day of the Geneva Conference, Dien Bien Phu fell.

Vietminh and French refused to speak to each other

American ambassador refused to shake the hand of the Chinese ambassador

Agreement at Geneva

partition the county

Vietminh get north

French get south

General elections to be held in 2 years to decide the fate of the south (Why were Vietminh Ok with this?)

Most experts felt that Ho Chi Minh would win the election when it happened.

It never did. (cue the eerie music!!!)


The first vietnam war

HansenName ____________________The Vietnam Era Period _________Lecture Guide- The 1st Indochina War – France v Vietnam

► Part I. Review of WWII

►Part II. What Would Happen After the War?

  • Hopeful Ho Walked _________________________

    • Ho Chi Minh had a clear goal  _________________________

    • However, there were A LOT of obstacles

      • Not all Vietnamese nationalists accepted _________ ____________________, especially since not all nationalists _______________________

        • Would Communism place Vietnam under ____ ___________________________________?

      • Foreign powers were ____________________________

        • A small nation could get __________________

        • ____________________ were the two countries most interested in Vietnam in the short term

  • Ho tried to __________________________________

    • He let France return to __________________________

      • Why a good bet from Ho’s perspective? - ___________ _____________________________________________

    • Formed the Vietminh

      • A group dedicated to ____________________________

      • Is a coalition, including __________________________

    • Appealed to the U.S.

      • Declaration of Independence

      • Multiple letters to _____________________ asking for American help _________________________

  • U.S., Increasingly Influenced by the Looming Cold War, Decided to ________________________________________

    • France would keep ______________________

    • Also, American friendliness might keep ___________________ ___________________________________________________

  • The War Began

    • French and Vietminh friction built as each tried to _________________ __________________________________________________________

  • A fight over customs revenue in Haiphong Harbor resulted in ___________________________________________________

  • Vietminh headed for the _________________________________ in order to prepare for a __________________________________

  • Guerrilla Warfare

    • The French were ____________

      • ‘We can win _________________________’

      • ___________ v _______________ military

    • Ho was convinced that the Vietnamese’ desperate need for _____________________________________________________

      • “You may kill 10 men for every 1 you lose, but _________ _______________________________________________”

    • Also, Vietnam is pretty ideally suited to Guerrilla warfare… ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

      ►Part III. Growing American Involvement

  • ______________________________

  • The Domino Theory - ___________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________

    • In 1949, _____________________________________ . Was this the __________________________?

    • The U.S. developed the strategy of ________________ - using military force to ______________________________________

  • One example of containment was the Korean War… (fought at the same time as the 1st Indochina War)

    • Similarities between Korea and Vietnam

      • _____________________________________________________

      • _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________

      • nationalists wanted to reunite the nation

      • _________ (communist) _________ (capitalist)


  • The first vietnam war

    • As the war dragged on, it increasingly harmed France’s international reputation

      • why? ____________________________________ _________________________________________

        Part V. Dien Bien Phu

  • The Fight

    • French plan to disrupt Vietminh supply lines (which?- ____________ ) and to lure the Vietminh into a conventional battle

      • Location- ______________________________________

    • While the French were fortifying Dien Bien Phu, the United Nations called for ___________________________________ (the Geneva Conference) to try to bring peace to Indochina. All major players were invited: ____, France, Russia, China, ________ , Bao Dai, etc.

    • One might expect the fighting to let up during these three months, but it didn’t

      • Why not? ________________________________________

    • Vietnamese managed to move heavy artillery

      • How? - __________________________________________

    • U.S. aid to the French _________________________________

    • Casualties

      • Vietminh

        • _______ dead, __________ wounded

      • France

        • _____ dead , _______ wounded, _______ captured

    • Point of these #s…? ______________________________________

  • Geneva

    • On the first day of the Geneva Conference, __________________________

    • ______________________________ refused to speak to each other

    • American ambassador refused to shake the hand of ___________________

    • Agreement at Geneva

      • ___________________

        • Vietminh _____________________

        • _______________ get south

      • ___________________ to be held in 2 years to decide the fate of the south (Why were Vietminh Ok with this?- ______________)

    • Most experts felt that Ho Chi Minh would win the election when it happened.

      • _________________. (cue the eerie music!!!)

    • _______ supported the south_______ supported the north

    • Proxy War- __________________________________________ ____________________________________________________

    • End Result

      • ________________________

      • _______________ (to this day!)

  • The French War in Vietnam Began to Turn Into Proxy War, Too

    • North Vietnamese began to get supplies from China and the USSR

    • Americans supported the French, who soon became exhausted by the fight

      • By Dien Bien Phu, ______________________________ ______________________________________________

        ► Part IV. French Determination ___________________________

  • Attempts Were Made by the French to ___________________________

    • Mid-War, The French declared Vietnam ___________________ ____________________________________________________

    • he was a _______________________________________ (from before the French arrived)

    • The French had used __________________________________

    • ______________________________________ Bao Dai because they knew he was a puppet

  • The French Increasingly Limped Along

    • French were weakened by their system of government

      • Parliamentary System

        • This means that governments __________________

          • Positive _______________________

          • Negative If a few members of coalition _________________________________

        • During the last few years of the war with Vietnam, French ________________________________________________

        • Hard to follow a _______________________ with a new gov every 3 months

    • “Yellowing” of the French army - ________________________ ____________________________________________________

    • War lasted from ________________________


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