The circulatory system
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The Circulatory System. Function: Transport system: Carries oxygen from the lungs to tissue cells throughout the body so they can do cell respiration Carries carbon dioxide, a waste product of cell respiration, from tissue cells to the lungs where it can be expelled

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The Circulatory System

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The Circulatory System

Function: Transport system:

Carries oxygen from the lungs to tissue cells throughout the body so they can do cell respiration

Carries carbon dioxide, a waste product of cell respiration, from tissue cells to the lungs where it can be expelled

Carries digested nutrients from the small intestine to cells of all tissues

Carries hormones from glands to target organs

Carries water to all cells

Carries water soluble wastes to the kidney where they are removed from the blood and excreted via the urinary system

Carries various lymphocytes (white blood cells) throughout the body as part of our immune system

The circulatory system also helps control our body temperature

Parts of the Circulatory System

Heart: (Cardiac muscle, nerve, connective tissues)4 chambered heart : 1 receives blood from the body, 1 pumps blood to the lungs, 1 receives blood from the lungs and one to pump blood to the body.

Arteries: (connective tissue) Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart

Veins: (connective & smooth muscle tissue)Blood vessels that carry blood to the heart

Both arteries and veins branch and get smaller and smaller. These branches are called arterioles and venuoles.

Capillaries: (connective tissue) Eventually blood vessels are so small that blood cells must move through them one cell at a time. (increased surface area) This is when diffusion occurs.

Blood: (connective tissue)Is the transport medium

Parts of the Circulatory System

Capillaries: CO2 diffuses out of tissues into blood

Capillaries: O2 diffuses into cells of all tissues.

Capillaries: Gas exchange occurs, CO2 out and O2 in to blood

Heart: O2 rich blood returns to the heart

And is pumped out to the body

Heart: Oxygen poor blood enters heart here.

This blood is now pumped to the lungs.

Capillaries: Nutrients from small intestine diffuse into blood

Capillaries: water and wastes are filtered into the kidney

Capillaries: blood is purified by the liver and filtered by the kidneys.

Capillaries: nutrients diffuse into cells of all tissues

The Heart

What is the only vein that does does not have oxygenated blood in it?

  • The Pulmonary vein. It brings oxygenated blood back to the heart from the lungs.

The Heart and Lungs

Blue indicates oxygen poor blood in capillaries at the lung and the red represents oxygenated blood on it's way back to the heart.

Notice the large arteries taking blood to the body.

Notice how much the brain gets.


  • Types of blood cells. Hemocytoblast = blood stem cell. Found in red bone marrow. Cell

    division takes

    About 5 days

Red Blood cells

  • Note the shape of the cell. Like a cough drop. This gives the cell a greater

  • ___________ for gas exchange. And it has no nucleus which gives it a greater _________ to hold more oxygen and carbon dioxide.


What element do you see in the center of a haemoglobin molecule.

Fe + O2 FeO which is the colour _____.

White Blood Cells

  • White blood cells are part of your immune system

Platelets are responsible for the clotting of blood

Composition of blood



Arteries vs Veins

The blood in veins is not under such pressure from the heart as the arteries. So the walls are thinner. BUT the blood has to get back to the heart so there is smooth muscle to contract and one way valves to keep the blood from flowing backwards.

The blood pressure in arteries is great due to the pumping of the heart. so the walls are thick and elastic.


Capillaries are only one cell layer thick. Surface area to volume ratio is great.

Their diameter is only 5 to 10 nm so blood cells are forced to move through one at a time. This allows for maximum time for diffusion. White blood cells can even "crawl" out of the capillaries to go to a site of infection.

Heart Disease

  • Coronary Heart Disease: The heart needs a steady supply of blood for it to function. If the coronary arteries get "clogged" with plaque (a deposit of fat, cholesterol, calcium) then the heart will not get enough oxygen and nutrition.

  • Smoking, lack of exercise, high fat diet

An angiogram can diagnose this.

Electrocardiogram ECG

Detects anything irregular in the heart beat.

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