ROLE OF GENDER IN VALUE CHAIN FROM PRODUCTION TO MARKETING OF FISH
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ROLE OF GENDER IN VALUE CHAIN FROM PRODUCTION TO MARKETING OF FISH Paper presented at the International Institute of Fisheries Economics and Trade 2012 at Dar Es Salam, Tanzania Dr. Debabrata Lahiri Associate Professor Rural Development Centre Indian Institute Technology Kharagpur India.

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ROLE OF GENDER IN VALUE CHAIN FROM PRODUCTION TO MARKETING OF FISH

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Role of gender in value chain from production to marketing of fish

ROLE OF GENDER IN VALUE CHAIN FROM PRODUCTION TO MARKETING OF FISH

Paper presented at the International Institute of Fisheries Economics and Trade 2012 at Dar Es Salam, Tanzania

Dr. Debabrata Lahiri

Associate Professor

Rural Development Centre

Indian Institute Technology

Kharagpur

India


Role of gender in value chain from production to marketing of fish

Introduction:

Value chain as a concept describes the full range of activities that firms, farms and workers do to bring a product from its conception to its end use and beyond.

This includes activities such as design, production, marketing distribution and support to the final consumer.

Value chain approach focuses on ‘vertical’ relationships between buyers and suppliers and the movement of a good or service from producer to consumer.

As an analytical tool, value chain analysis has become a key approach in both research and policy fields, with an increasing number of bilateral and multilateral aid organizations adopting to guide several of their development interventions.

Supply chain refers to the set of processes and activities required to produce a product then deliver it to a target market is considered as supply chain.

The term “produce” encompasses growing, transforming, or manufacturing. The entire chain goes from oceans or farms to hands, chopsticks and forks.


Role of gender in value chain from production to marketing of fish

Among various products in agriculture and allied sectors fish has been a important item. Central and local governments, donor agencies, non-governmental organizations are concerned with a subset of links within the value chain of fish and fishery products.

Smooth functioning of value chain requires not only the factors of production and technology but also the efficient transport, market information systems and management.

DISTRIBUTION (Transportation and logistics)

PRODUCTION

(From: farm or water bodies)

MARKETING

(To final consumer)

Fig 1: Creation of value chain for fish and fishery products


Role of gender in value chain from production to marketing of fish

Assembly of production factors

Production of fish

Post harvest handling and storage

Manufacture (Semi finished products)

Processing (Transformation)

Manufacture (Ready to cook or eat)

Distribution

Marketing

Fig. 2: Key links of fish and fishery products supply chain


Role of gender in value chain from production to marketing of fish

Gender in value chain

Gender is conceptualized as the socially constructed difference between women and men (Kabeer, 1999).

Thus gender is about how society gives meaning to differences in feminity and masculinity, and the power relation and dynamics that come about as a result of this (Laven et al. 2009).

Women are always more disadvantaged than men in the context of value chain operations.

Understanding women’s position in a value chain, how changes in a value chain might affect gender inequality, and the main constraints for women in terms of gaining from value chain participation, requires one to place gender in the context of intra-household bargaining and of broader social process dimensions (Wyred, 2008); Parpart et.al 2002); Laven et al. 2009)

Objectives

i) To highlight the involvement of women in various stages starting from production, processing and marketing;


Role of gender in value chain from production to marketing of fish

  • ii) To estimate the change in the value of fish at various stages from processing to marketing;

  • iii) To assess the reasons for involvement of women in the value chain.

  • Methodology

  • Data collection

  • Data had been collected from both primary and secondary sources. Primary data had been collected by employing the following techniques:

  • Participatory rural appraisal (PRA): For collecting socio-economic information of the fishermen household including women. The information included the following:

  • (i) Identification of local resources and opportunities for improving the existing income generating activities and identification of the potential alternative ones;

  • .

  • (ii)Ranking of the identified opportunities for women;

  • (iii) Assessment of the contribution of fish to the livelihood earnings of the people.


Role of gender in value chain from production to marketing of fish

  • (iv) Assessment of the production and marketing fish at local markets.

  • (b) Focus Group Discussion (FGD): Specific aim of those discussions were to collect information on mechanism of raw-fish collection, pricing and value addition on raw fish at different levels,

  • (c) Stakeholders: The following stakeholders had been identified in the supply and marketing chain of marine dried fishery products:

  • Fishers;

  • (ii) wholesalers (Aratdar);

  • (iii) Commission agents (Paikers/Phores);

  • (iv) Whole sellers/Super market operators.

  • Main considering factors

  • (a) Identification of trading partners Value chain analysis has been a comprehensive look at the activities of different trading partners, e.g. Raw fish suppliers, middle men/aratdars, wholesalers, retailers, consumers etc..


Role of gender in value chain from production to marketing of fish

  • Understanding the interaction of these trading partners as well as their roles within the supply chain it is important to understand the product and information flow.

  • Production and distribution channel: The value chain analysis more importantly examines the channels. The distribution channels recognize that product flow is identical at the front and back ends of the supply chain, although between the producers and the retailer's store shelves the flows are very different .

  • Considering factors at production level: Production and distribution channel as well as the value addition and the profitability of dried fish business are strongly influenced by the following external factors, which need to be considered and examined properly; the considering factors for domestic markets had been:

  • Sources of finance, NGO/ public financial (iv) Contractual production system.

  • institutions/local Mahajans; v) Illegal toll by the local extortionists

  • ii) Inbound transportation cost;

  • iii) Quality of fresh raw fish;


Role of gender in value chain from production to marketing of fish

Fig 1: General channel based value chain

Fishermen

Both men and women

Phore

Only men

Wholesaler

Only men

Retailer

Both men and women

Both men and women

Consumers


Role of gender in value chain from production to marketing of fish

Table 1: Average value addition scenario


Role of gender in value chain from production to marketing of fish

Table 2 :Value addition for of different fish types at different steps

Note: Women are not involved where data is not given


Role of gender in value chain from production to marketing of fish

  • Conclusions:

  • The paper reveals the following aspects:

  • In developing countries like India women does not perform all the functions (from production to marketing) along the value chain;

  • Along the value chain, wherever women takes part, value addition in comparison to the male counterparts has always been lower;

  • This has been due to less amount of produce with them to sell and market


Role of gender in value chain from production to marketing of fish

References:

Ahmed Munir, M. Nazrul Islam and Md. Shamsuddoha: Value Chain Analysis in the Dry Fish Production and Marketing of Post Harvest Fishery Products (PHFP) in the Coastal Belt of Bangladesh, Bangladesh Fisheries Development Forum, Bangladesh.

Alam, Ferdous, Salauddin Palash, Idris Ali Mian and Madan Mohan Dey (2012): Marketing of Major Fish Species in Bangladesh: A Value Chain Analysis, Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome.

(Kabeer, 1999): Kabeer, N. (1999), ‘Resources, Agency, Achievements: Reflections on the Measurement of Women’s Empowerment’, Development and Change, 30, 435-464

Laven, A., A. van Eerdewijk, A. Senders, C. van Wees and R. Snelder (2009), ‘Gender in Value Chains. Emerging Lessons and Questions’, a draft working paper, Agri-ProFocus, Netherlands.

Riisgaard, Lone , Anna Maria Escobar Fibla and Stefano Ponte (2010): Evaluation Study Gender and Value Chain Development, The Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS), Copenhagen, Denmark.


Role of gender in value chain from production to marketing of fish

Wyrod, R. (2008), ‘Between Women’s Rights and Men’s Authority: Masculinity and shifting discourses of gender difference in Urban Uganda’, Gender and Society, 22(6), 799-823.

Parpart, J.L., S. M. Rai and K. Staudt (eds.) (2002), Rethinking Empowerment: Gender and development in a global/local world, Routledge, London.


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