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หน่วยที่ 6 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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หน่วยที่ 6. การแทรกสอดคลื่นแสง. แสงช่วงที่ตามนุษย์มองเห็น เป็นส่วนหนึ่งของคลื่นแม่เหล็กไฟฟ้ า ความยาวคลื่น : 400-700 นาโนเมตร. Optics. ทัศนศาสตร์เชิงเลขาคณิต (Geometrical Optics) การสะท้อน (reflection) การหักเห (refraction) … ทัศนศาสตร์เชิงกายภาพ (Physical Optics)

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หน่วยที่ 6

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6

6


6

:400-700


Optics

Optics

  • (Geometrical Optics)

    • (reflection)

    • (refraction)

  • (Physical Optics)

    • (interference)

    • (diffraction)

    • (polarization)


6 1 2

6.1 2


6


6

(Constructive Interference)

d2 - d1 = n l, n = 0, 1, 2, 3, .....----------------------------------


6

(Destructive Interference)

d2 - d1 = (2n + 1) (l/2) n = 0, 1, 2, 3, ....


6


6

(Young's Double Slit Experiment)

(Thomas Young, ..1801)


6

(Young's Double Slit Experiment)

(Thomas Young, ..1801)


6

(Young's Double Slit Experiment)

(path difference)

d = d sinq

:

d = d sinq= ml

:

d = d sinq = (m+1/2)l

m = 0, 1, 2, ....


6

(Young's Double Slit Experiment)

d << L:

sinq tanq = y/L

m:

ym/L= ml/d

m:

ym/L = (m+1/2)l/d

m = 0, 1, 2, ....


6

: 0.1 50 400

  • m:

  • ym/L= ml/d

  • ym+1 - ym= (m+1)lL/d - mlL/d = lL/d

= (400 nm)(500 mm)/0.1m

= 2,000,000

= 2


6

2

Iave=2I0cos2(f/2)

d<<L:f=2pdy/(lL)

Iave=2I0cos2(pdy/(lL))


6

  • ...

n1

n2=n

n3


6

: n1&n3<n2

  • 180


6

: n1&n3<n2


6

: n1&n3<n2

2t=(m+0.5)ln

2nt =(m+0.5)l, m=0,1,2,

2t=mln

2nt =ml, m=0,1,2,

n =


6

: n1&n3<n2

  • qr

2t/cosqr=(m+0.5)ln

2nt/cosqr =(m+0.5)l, m=0,1,2,

2t/cosqr=mln

2nt/cosqr =ml, m=0,1,2,

n =


6

: n1&n3>n2


6

: n1&n3>n2

2t =(m+0.5)l,

m=0,1,2,

n2=1 ()

2t =ml,

m=0,1,2,


6

: 600 1.5 R 2.5 r 5

t<<R

r2=R2-(R-t)2 ----> r2= 2Rt

  • 5 m=4

  • t= (4.5)(6x10-7 m)/2 = 1.35x10-6 m

r2= 2Rt

r= 2.6x10-3m


6

: n1<n2<n3

:

2tn = (m+0.5)l

m=0

t = l/4n

t = ln/4


6

: n1<n2<n3

: 550

t = l/4n

t= 550/(4*1.45)

t= 94.8 nm


6

(Michelson Interferometer)

The Michelson interferometer produces interference fringes by splitting a beam of monochromatic light so that one beam strikes a fixed mirror and the other a movable mirror. When the reflected beams are brought back together, an interference pattern results.


6

(Michelson Interferometer)

Precise distance measurements can be made with the Michelson interferometer

by moving the mirror and counting the interference fringes which move by a

reference point. The distance d associated with m fringes is

d=ml/2


6

(Michelson Interferometer)

= 632.8 nm

= 420 nm


6

6.2

  • ( 2 )

  • 3

  • N


6


6

P


6

(phase difference)


6

E1

E2

Ep


6

Ep


6

3


6

3


6

3

(primary maximum)

(secondary maximum)

3 slit vs. double slit

3 slit


6

N


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