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หน่วยที่ 6 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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หน่วยที่ 6. การแทรกสอดคลื่นแสง. แสงช่วงที่ตามนุษย์มองเห็น เป็นส่วนหนึ่งของคลื่นแม่เหล็กไฟฟ้ า ความยาวคลื่น : 400-700 นาโนเมตร. Optics. ทัศนศาสตร์เชิงเลขาคณิต (Geometrical Optics) การสะท้อน (reflection) การหักเห (refraction) … ทัศนศาสตร์เชิงกายภาพ (Physical Optics)

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หน่วยที่ 6

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6


:400-700


Optics

  • (Geometrical Optics)

    • (reflection)

    • (refraction)

  • (Physical Optics)

    • (interference)

    • (diffraction)

    • (polarization)


6.1 2



(Constructive Interference)

d2 - d1 = n l, n = 0, 1, 2, 3, .....----------------------------------


(Destructive Interference)

d2 - d1 = (2n + 1) (l/2) n = 0, 1, 2, 3, ....



(Young's Double Slit Experiment)

(Thomas Young, ..1801)


(Young's Double Slit Experiment)

(Thomas Young, ..1801)


(Young's Double Slit Experiment)

(path difference)

d = d sinq

:

d = d sinq= ml

:

d = d sinq = (m+1/2)l

m = 0, 1, 2, ....


(Young's Double Slit Experiment)

d << L:

sinq tanq = y/L

m:

ym/L= ml/d

m:

ym/L = (m+1/2)l/d

m = 0, 1, 2, ....


: 0.1 50 400

  • m:

  • ym/L= ml/d

  • ym+1 - ym= (m+1)lL/d - mlL/d = lL/d

= (400 nm)(500 mm)/0.1m

= 2,000,000

= 2


2

Iave=2I0cos2(f/2)

d<<L:f=2pdy/(lL)

Iave=2I0cos2(pdy/(lL))


  • ...

n1

n2=n

n3


: n1&n3<n2

  • 180


: n1&n3<n2


: n1&n3<n2

2t=(m+0.5)ln

2nt =(m+0.5)l, m=0,1,2,

2t=mln

2nt =ml, m=0,1,2,

n =


: n1&n3<n2

  • qr

2t/cosqr=(m+0.5)ln

2nt/cosqr =(m+0.5)l, m=0,1,2,

2t/cosqr=mln

2nt/cosqr =ml, m=0,1,2,

n =


: n1&n3>n2


: n1&n3>n2

2t =(m+0.5)l,

m=0,1,2,

n2=1 ()

2t =ml,

m=0,1,2,


: 600 1.5 R 2.5 r 5

t<<R

r2=R2-(R-t)2 ----> r2= 2Rt

  • 5 m=4

  • t= (4.5)(6x10-7 m)/2 = 1.35x10-6 m

r2= 2Rt

r= 2.6x10-3m


: n1<n2<n3

:

2tn = (m+0.5)l

m=0

t = l/4n

t = ln/4


: n1<n2<n3

: 550

t = l/4n

t= 550/(4*1.45)

t= 94.8 nm


(Michelson Interferometer)

The Michelson interferometer produces interference fringes by splitting a beam of monochromatic light so that one beam strikes a fixed mirror and the other a movable mirror. When the reflected beams are brought back together, an interference pattern results.


(Michelson Interferometer)

Precise distance measurements can be made with the Michelson interferometer

by moving the mirror and counting the interference fringes which move by a

reference point. The distance d associated with m fringes is

d=ml/2


(Michelson Interferometer)

= 632.8 nm

= 420 nm


6.2

  • ( 2 )

  • 3

  • N



P


(phase difference)


E1

E2

Ep


Ep


3


3


3

(primary maximum)

(secondary maximum)

3 slit vs. double slit

3 slit


N


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