The antares neutrino telescope
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The ANTARES Neutrino Telescope. Mieke Bouwhuis 27/03/2006. 1’. 1’. 1’. 1’. radio 10 -8 eV optical 10 eVx rays 10 4 eV gamma rays10 12 eV. Broadband light source. The pulsar in the Crab nebula. The observed radiation. g. e -. e -. g. Synchrotron radiation.

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The ANTARES Neutrino Telescope

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The antares neutrino telescope

The ANTARES Neutrino Telescope

Mieke Bouwhuis

27/03/2006


Broadband light source

1’

1’

1’

1’

radio 10-8 eV optical 10 eVx rays 104 eV gamma rays1012eV

Broadband light source

The pulsar in the Crab nebula


The observed radiation

The observed radiation

g

e-

e-

g

Synchrotron radiation

Inverse Compton scattering

But: for some sources no synchrotron radiation is seen…


All particle cosmic ray spectrum

All particle cosmic ray spectrum

relative particle flux (logarithmic units)

energy (eV)

No point sources found yet


E g p and n from cosmic accelerators

e, g, p and n from cosmic accelerators


The antares neutrino telescope

Pulsar

Supernova

Remnant (SNR)

Gamma-ray

Burst (GRB)

Active Galactic

Nucleus (AGN)

Microquasar

Neutrinos from high-energy sources

  • Neutral point back

  • Weak interaction no absorption


Indirect neutrino detection

Indirect neutrino detection

Neutrino interaction (ne, nm, nt):

Scattering angle

median scattering angle (degrees)

neutrino energy (GeV)


Neutrino cross section

Neutrino cross section

Mean free path:

cross section (cm2)

~108 m at 1 TeV

neutrino energy (GeV)

Very large volume needed


The antares neutrino telescope1

The ANTARES neutrino telescope

Mediterranean Sea, near Toulon


Detection volume and medium

Detection volume and medium

  • sea + earth = large volume

    Instrumented volume= 0.02 km3

    Effective volume = 0.2 km3 (at 10 TeV)

    = 1 km3 (at 10 PeV)

  • water for production of Cherenkov light

  • water is transparent

  • depth of 2.5 km for shielding against atmospheric background


The antares neutrino telescope

Detection principle

c(tj - t0) = lj + dj tan(qc)

water properties

dx = 20 cm

dt = 1 ns

dq = 0.2°


The antares neutrino telescope

Signals in the detector


The antares neutrino telescope

Signals in the detector

100 kHz

n crosses the detector in 2 ms


Different types of background

proton

atmospheric m

atmospheric n

Earth

sea

atmosphere

proton

cosmic n

Different types of background


Antares data processing system

filter

PC

ANTARES data processing system

  • finds all correlated data

  • real time

  • data reduction by factor 104

  • high efficiency (50%)

  • high purity (90%)

  • low threshold: En > 200 GeV

m

all raw data

10 Gb/s

finds cosmic neutrinos

physics data

analysis

1 Mb/s

shore station


Angular resolution

Angular resolution


The antares neutrino telescope

February 14, 2006


The antares neutrino telescope

March 2, 2006


Line 1 data taking

Line 1: data taking

Physics

data taking

LED beacon

calibration


Led beacon for time calibration

LED beacon for time calibration

Line 1

MILOM

~70 m


Event display led beacon

Event Display – LED beacon


Muon trigger rate

real data

Monte Carlo

4 ms

space-time correlated hits

“snapshot” hit

Muon trigger rate

Physics event

found by filter:

rate (Hz)

number of correlated hits


Event display

4 ms

space-time correlated hits

“snapshot” hit

: hits used by the fit

Event Display

Physics event 17267 in run 21241

Physics event

found by filter:


Event display1

zenith angle q = 179°

Event Display

Physics event 17267 in run 21241


Event display2

zenith angle q = 146°

Event Display


Event display3

zenith angle q = 80°

Event Display

Upgoing!


Zenith angle distribution

Zenith angle distribution

1394 events after 14 hours of data taking


Gamma ray bursts grb

Gamma-ray bursts (GRB)

  • short and intense flashes of MeV gamma rays

  • happen unexpectedly, and take place at random locations in the sky

  • detected by satellites

  • most information from the observation of the ‘afterglow’

  • mechanism:


Grb warning systems

GRB warning systems


Detection of neutrinos from grbs

Specific ANTARES features

GRB features

GRB warning systems

  • All-data-to-shore

  • concept

  • Data processing

  • farm

  • Software filters

filter

PC

GRB duration (s)

Detection of neutrinos from GRBs

Combine into the “GRB method”


Data taking after a grb alert

Data taking after a GRB alert


Delays and buffering

Delays and buffering


Gain in sensitivity for grbs

ratio of effective volumes

GRB method

standard

neutrino energy (GeV)

Gain in sensitivity for GRBs


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • Composition of jets → e versus p

  • Origin of UHE cosmic rays

  • Line 1 operational, 12 lines end of 2007

  • Measured time resolution of ~1 ns

  • Expected angular resolution 0.2°

  • GRB method increases the sensitivity


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