Effective nuclear charge
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Effective Nuclear Charge. Z* = Z –  Z = nuclear charge = atomic number  = shielding = electron-electron repulsions H He Li. Example 1: For a 2s electron in a Be atom (1s 2 2s 2 , Z = 4) σ = 2(0.85) + 1(0.35) = 2.05 Z eff = 4 – 2.05 = 1.95

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Effective Nuclear Charge

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Effective nuclear charge

Effective Nuclear Charge

Z* = Z – 

Z = nuclear charge = atomic number

 = shielding = electron-electron repulsions

H

He

Li


Effective nuclear charge

Example 1: For a 2s electron in a Be atom (1s22s2, Z = 4)

σ = 2(0.85) + 1(0.35) = 2.05

Zeff = 4 – 2.05 = 1.95

Example 2: For a 3p electron in a phosphorus atom (1s22s22p63s23p3, Z = 15)

σ = 4(0.35) + 8(0.85) + 2(1.00) = 10.20

Zeff = 15 - 10.20 = 4.80


B c n o f

BCNOF


Why does z increase moving across a period

Why does Z* increase moving across a period?


Li na k compare with ionization energy li 520 kj mol na 496 kj mol k 419 kj mol

LiNaKCompare with ionization energy:Li: 520 kJ/molNa: 496 kJ/molK: 419 kJ/mol


B c n compare with ionization energy b 801 kj mol c 1086 kj mol n 1402 kj mol

BCNCompare with ionization energy:B: 801 kJ/molC: 1086 kJ/molN: 1402 kJ/mol


Z atomic size and pi bonding

Z*, Atomic Size and Pi Bonding


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