Earth s hydrosphere aka the water planet
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Earth’s Hydrosphere aka – The water Planet! PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Earth’s Hydrosphere aka – The water Planet!. Key Terms: Polar Molecule Capillary action Surface tension Solution Solvent Specific heat Evaporation Condensation Adhesion Cohesion. Hydrosphere: the water (as vapors, lakes, oceans etc.) of the earth. THE STRUCTURE OF WATER

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Earth’s Hydrosphere aka – The water Planet!

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Earth s hydrosphere aka the water planet

Earth’s Hydrosphereaka – The water Planet!


Earth s hydrosphere aka the water planet

  • Key Terms:

    • Polar Molecule

    • Capillary action

    • Surface tension

    • Solution

    • Solvent

    • Specific heat

    • Evaporation

    • Condensation

    • Adhesion

    • Cohesion


Earth s hydrosphere aka the water planet

Hydrosphere:

the water (as vapors, lakes, oceans etc.) of the earth.


Earth s hydrosphere aka the water planet

  • THE STRUCTURE OF WATER

  • Water is made up of atoms – just like all matter.

  • Atoms attach (bond) together to form molecules.

  • Two hydrogen atoms bonded to an oxygen atom form a water molecule


Chemical formula h o

Chemical Formula H₂O

Hydrogen Atom

Hydrogen Atom: each hydrogen atom has a slight positive charge

+

+

__

Oxygen Atom: The oxygen atom has a slight negative charge


Earth s hydrosphere aka the water planet

  • A molecule that has electrically charged areas is a polar molecule.

  • Because water is a polar molecule it is called a polar substance.


Earth s hydrosphere aka the water planet

Key Properties of Water

The properties of water include:

-Capillary action

-Surface Tension

-Universal Solvent

-High specific heat


Earth s hydrosphere aka the water planet

  • Capillary Action: is the combined force of attraction among water molecules and with the molecules of surrounding materials.

  • Capillary Action allows water to move through materials with pores inside.

  • This action also causes water molecules to cling to the fibers of materials like paper and cloth.


Earth s hydrosphere aka the water planet

Question:

What is the advantage of the interaction of water and fibers in clothing?


Earth s hydrosphere aka the water planet

Surface Tension:

is the tightness across the surface of water that is caused by the polar molecules pulling on one another.


Earth s hydrosphere aka the water planet

Universal Solvent:

Solution: is a mixture that forms when one substance dissolves another.

Solvent: is the substance doing the dissolving.


Earth s hydrosphere aka the water planet

  • Water can dissolve solids, liquids, and many gases: oxygen and carbon dioxide.

  • Nonpolar substances do not dissolve well in water. A nonpolar substance has no charged region on the molecule.


Earth s hydrosphere aka the water planet

Specific Heat:

is the amount of heat needed to increase the temperature of a certain mass of a substance by 1°C.

Water requires a lot of heat to increase its temperature due to the strong attraction among its molecules.


Earth s hydrosphere aka the water planet

Question:

What effect does water’s high specific heat index have on land areas? How does it affect where you live?


Earth s hydrosphere aka the water planet

The three states of water

Solid

Liquid

Gas (vapor)


Earth s hydrosphere aka the water planet

  • Solid state means that the molecules are close together and form a rigid structure.

  • Liquid state means that the molecules move more freely.

  • Gas state means the molecules move VERY freely and spread out to fill up space.

    • The boiling point of water is 100°C which then turns it into a gas.


Earth s hydrosphere aka the water planet

  • Evaporation: is the process by which molecules at the surface of a liquid absorb enough energy to change to the gaseous state.


Earth s hydrosphere aka the water planet

What are some examples of Evaporation?


Earth s hydrosphere aka the water planet

  • Condensation:

  • is the process by which a gas changes to a liquid.

  • This process begins when the gas (water vapors) cools down and the molecules slow down.

  • When the gas reaches 100°C and cooler it begins to change to the liquid state before boiling occurred.


Earth s hydrosphere aka the water planet

  • Water begins to freeze at 0°C and turn into its solid form.

  • Water begins melting at 0°C and turn into its liquid form.


Earth s hydrosphere aka the water planet

  • Changing states of water recap:

  • Water moves between the liquid and gaseous states by evaporation and condensation.

  • Water moves between the liquid and solid states by freezing and melting.


Adhesion and cohesion

Adhesion and Cohesion

Adhesion: the ability of water to stick firmly to something not similar to it. (i.e. water to another substance)

Cohesion: the force of attraction by which the molecules of water, solid or liquid, tend to remain together. ( i.e. water to water)


Earth s hydrosphere aka the water planet

Activity:

Frayer models:


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