Plants kingdom plantae
Sponsored Links
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
1 / 43

Plants (Kingdom Plantae) PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 54 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Plants (Kingdom Plantae). Multicellular eukaryotes Photoautotrophs Terrestrial? Not all plants are terrestrial Return to water from land Move to land was a major step. Move to Land Required Significant Adaptations. Water uptake and loss Gas exchange Reproduction Support. Move to Land.

Download Presentation

Plants (Kingdom Plantae)

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Plants (Kingdom Plantae)

  • Multicellular eukaryotes

  • Photoautotrophs

  • Terrestrial?

    • Not all plants are terrestrial

  • Return to water from land

  • Move to land was a major step


Move to Land Required Significant Adaptations

  • Water uptake and loss

  • Gas exchange

  • Reproduction

  • Support


Move to Land

  • Plants probably evolved from a group of green algae called the charophytes

  • Are a fringe species exhibiting multicellular traits

  • Why a fringe species?


Features Common to Green Algae and Plants

  • Chlorophyll a and other accessory pigments (Chl b, b-carotene)

  • thylakoid membranes stacked into grana


Features Common to Green Algae and Plants

  • Chlorophyll a and other accessory pigments (Chl b, b-carotene)

  • similar photosynthesizing organelles

  • cell walls of cellulose

  • store carbohydrates as starch

  • alternation of generation


Highlights of Plant Evolution

  • Four major periods

  • Move onto land (~425 - 475 mya)

    • prevent desiccation of whole plant

    • protect reproductive structures

    • Features seen in mosses (bryophytes)


Highlights of Plant Evolution

  • Evolution of vascular tissue and diversification (~400 mya)

    • simple diffusion not an option

    • Mosses - water-conducting tubes

    • transport and support

    • larger body size

      These are features first seen in ferns, horsetail, whisk ferns

      ****Similar protection of gametes


Whisk Fern

Horsetail


Highlights of Plant Evolution

  • Evolution of seed (~360 mya)

    • additional protection from desiccation and predation

    • dispersal


Highlights of Plant Evolution

  • Emergence of flowering plants (~130 mya)

    • Seeds in protective ovary

    • Expanded potential for diversity

    • Complex structure with great potential for adaptation

    • Greater sexual reproductive success

    • Coevolution between insects and angiosperms


Nontracheophytes

  • Mosses, liverworts and hornworts

  • Probably closest to ancestral form

  • protected gametangia

  • lack vascular tissue

  • Encrusting

  • Water needed for fertilization


Gametophyte

Sporophyte

Sporophyte relies on gametophyte for nutrients


Nonseed Tracheophytes Plants

  • Ferns, horsetail, club mosses

  • Retain some traits of mosses

  • Evolved some traits also seen in seed-producing vascular plants


Traits Shared with Nontracheophytes

  • Antheridia and archegonia retain similar structure

  • Require water/moisture for sexual reproduction

  • Production of spores


Traits Shared with Seed-Producing Plants

  • Vascular tissue - greater body size

  • Sporophyte is dominant stage of life cycle


Sporophyte

Gametophyte


Seedless tracheophytes were the dominant vascular plants for ~ 50 million years

  • Continents in tropical/subtropical zone

  • As continents drifted away from equator, conditions changed

  • Seed-producing plants were present during height of seedless vascular plant success


Rise of Seed-Producing Tracheophytes

  • Well suited for environmental changes

  • Gametophyte smaller and retained in moist tissues of sporophyte

  • Pollination rather than swimming sperm

  • Evolution of seed

  • gymnosperms and angiosperms


Gymnosperm

  • “naked seed”

  • still have a seed coat

  • four divisions

  • Coniferophyta best known

  • evergreens

  • needle-shaped leaves, thick cuticle


Sporophyte

Gametophyte

Gametophyte passes within sporophyte


Angiosperms

  • “protected seed”

  • most diverse group

    • 235,000 known species vs. 721 species of gymnosperms

  • One division - Anthophyta

  • Two classes

    • Monocotyledones

    • Dicotyledones


Angiosperms

  • successful and effective design

  • different themes of the same design


Sporophyte

Gametophyte

Gametophyte passes within sporophyte


Develops

into fruit

Develop into

seeds


  • Login