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Plants (Kingdom Plantae). Multicellular eukaryotes Photoautotrophs Terrestrial? Not all plants are terrestrial Return to water from land Move to land was a major step. Move to Land Required Significant Adaptations. Water uptake and loss Gas exchange Reproduction Support. Move to Land.

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plants kingdom plantae
Plants (Kingdom Plantae)
  • Multicellular eukaryotes
  • Photoautotrophs
  • Terrestrial?
    • Not all plants are terrestrial
  • Return to water from land
  • Move to land was a major step
move to land required significant adaptations
Move to Land Required Significant Adaptations
  • Water uptake and loss
  • Gas exchange
  • Reproduction
  • Support
move to land
Move to Land
  • Plants probably evolved from a group of green algae called the charophytes
  • Are a fringe species exhibiting multicellular traits
  • Why a fringe species?
features common to green algae and plants
Features Common to Green Algae and Plants
  • Chlorophyll a and other accessory pigments (Chl b, b-carotene)
  • thylakoid membranes stacked into grana
features common to green algae and plants1
Features Common to Green Algae and Plants
  • Chlorophyll a and other accessory pigments (Chl b, b-carotene)
  • similar photosynthesizing organelles
  • cell walls of cellulose
  • store carbohydrates as starch
  • alternation of generation
highlights of plant evolution
Highlights of Plant Evolution
  • Four major periods
  • Move onto land (~425 - 475 mya)
    • prevent desiccation of whole plant
    • protect reproductive structures
    • Features seen in mosses (bryophytes)
highlights of plant evolution1
Highlights of Plant Evolution
  • Evolution of vascular tissue and diversification (~400 mya)
    • simple diffusion not an option
    • Mosses - water-conducting tubes
    • transport and support
    • larger body size

These are features first seen in ferns, horsetail, whisk ferns

****Similar protection of gametes

slide15

Whisk Fern

Horsetail

highlights of plant evolution2
Highlights of Plant Evolution
  • Evolution of seed (~360 mya)
    • additional protection from desiccation and predation
    • dispersal
highlights of plant evolution3
Highlights of Plant Evolution
  • Emergence of flowering plants (~130 mya)
    • Seeds in protective ovary
    • Expanded potential for diversity
    • Complex structure with great potential for adaptation
    • Greater sexual reproductive success
    • Coevolution between insects and angiosperms
nontracheophytes
Nontracheophytes
  • Mosses, liverworts and hornworts
  • Probably closest to ancestral form
  • protected gametangia
  • lack vascular tissue
  • Encrusting
  • Water needed for fertilization
slide22

Gametophyte

Sporophyte

Sporophyte relies on gametophyte for nutrients

nonseed tracheophytes plants
Nonseed Tracheophytes Plants
  • Ferns, horsetail, club mosses
  • Retain some traits of mosses
  • Evolved some traits also seen in seed-producing vascular plants
traits shared with nontracheophytes
Traits Shared with Nontracheophytes
  • Antheridia and archegonia retain similar structure
  • Require water/moisture for sexual reproduction
  • Production of spores
traits shared with seed producing plants
Traits Shared with Seed-Producing Plants
  • Vascular tissue - greater body size
  • Sporophyte is dominant stage of life cycle
slide28

Sporophyte

Gametophyte

seedless tracheophytes were the dominant vascular plants for 50 million years
Seedless tracheophytes were the dominant vascular plants for ~ 50 million years
  • Continents in tropical/subtropical zone
  • As continents drifted away from equator, conditions changed
  • Seed-producing plants were present during height of seedless vascular plant success
rise of seed producing tracheophytes
Rise of Seed-Producing Tracheophytes
  • Well suited for environmental changes
  • Gametophyte smaller and retained in moist tissues of sporophyte
  • Pollination rather than swimming sperm
  • Evolution of seed
  • gymnosperms and angiosperms
gymnosperm
Gymnosperm
  • “naked seed”
  • still have a seed coat
  • four divisions
  • Coniferophyta best known
  • evergreens
  • needle-shaped leaves, thick cuticle
slide37

Sporophyte

Gametophyte

Gametophyte passes within sporophyte

angiosperms
Angiosperms
  • “protected seed”
  • most diverse group
    • 235,000 known species vs. 721 species of gymnosperms
  • One division - Anthophyta
  • Two classes
    • Monocotyledones
    • Dicotyledones
angiosperms1
Angiosperms
  • successful and effective design
  • different themes of the same design
slide41

Sporophyte

Gametophyte

Gametophyte passes within sporophyte

slide42

Develops

into fruit

Develop into

seeds

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