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LING 388: Language and Computers. Sandiway Fong Lecture 22. Exercise 4 from last week. Extra Credit Homework 7 review. Exercise 4 from last week. will / shall can be prepended to express a future event: He will eat the sandwich * He will ate the sandwich He will be eating the sandwich

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ling 388 language and computers

LING 388: Language and Computers

Sandiway Fong

Lecture 22

exercise 4 from last week
Exercise 4 from last week
  • Extra Credit Homework 7 review
exercise 4 from last week1
Exercise 4 from last week

will/shall can be prepended to express a future event:

    • He will eat the sandwich
    • *He will ate the sandwich
    • He will be eating the sandwich
    • He will have eaten the sandwich
    • He will have been eating the sandwich
    • The sandwich will be eaten
    • The sandwich will have been eaten
    • The sandwich will have been being eaten
  • will/shall morphologically constrains following verb to have Ending vb (uninflected form)
exercise 4 from last week3
Exercise 4 from last week

will,shall

don’t inflect

pp by phrase
PP by-Phrase
  • Modify the v_aux rule rule associated with passive be:
  • PP phrase is optional:
pp by phrase1
PP by-Phrase
  • Rules:

Parses:

pp by phrase2
PP by-Phrase
  • Following the Stanford Parser’s phrase structure:

acc

  • The sandwich had been eaten by me/him/*I/*he
case constraint
Case Constraint
  • Basic system:
    • Subjects must have nom Case
    • Objects must have acc Case
  • Implementation:
    • All NPs report Case values (nom/acc/_)
    • NPs in all subject positions restricted to nom
    • NPs in all objects positions restricted to acc
case constraint1
Case Constraint
  • Implementation:
    • All NPs report Case values (nom/acc/_Case)
case constraint2
Case Constraint
  • Implementation:
    • NPs in all subject positions restricted to nom
  • Doesn’t work in all situations…
  • I want him/*he to win the race
case constraint3
Case Constraint
  • Example: I want him to win the race

acc

case constraint4
Case Constraint
  • Implementation:
    • NPs in all objects positions restricted to acc
new topic
New Topic
  • Let’s write a grammar for simple Japanese
japanese
Japanese
  • head-final language
    • sentence word order (canonical)
      • Subject Object Verb (Japanese)
      • Subject Verb Object (English)
  • example
    • John bought a book (English)
    • John a book bought (Japanese word order)
    • Taroo-gahon-okaimashita(Japanese)
    • case markers
      • ga = nominative case marker
      • o = accusative case marker
    • note: no determiner present in the Japanese sentence
japanese1
Japanese
  • head-final language
    • sentence word order (canonical)
      • Subject Object Verb
    • Japanese also allows “scrambling”
      • e.g. object and subject can be switched in order
      • Subject Object Verb
      • Object Subject Verb
      • *Subject Verb Object

(must still be head-final)

  • Example
    • John bought a book (English)
    • John a book bought
    • Taroo-gahon-okaimashita (Japanese - canonical)
    • hon-oTaroo-gakaimashita

(Japanese - scrambled)

    • *Taroo-gakaimashitahon-o

(English word order)

    • ga = nominative case marker
    • o = accusative case marker
japanese2
Japanese

example

  • John bought a book
  • John a book bought
  • taroo-gahon-o kaimashita
  • ga = nominative
  • case marker
  • o = accusative
  • case marker
  • Parser input
    • (as a Prolog list with case particles separated)
    • [taroo,ga,hon,o,kaimashita]
  • Example grammar rules

s(s(Y,Z)) --> np(Y), nomcase, vp(Z).

vp(vp(Z,Y)) --> np(Z), acccase, transitive(Y).

transitive(v(kaimashita)) --> [kaimashita].

nomcase --> [ga].

acccase --> [o].

np(np(taroo)) --> [taroo].

np(np(hon)) --> [hon].

  • note:
  • new nonterminalsnomcaseacccasedo not create structure
  • order of np, transitive in the VP reflects Japanese word order
japanese3
Japanese

s(s(Y,Z)) --> np(Y), nomcase, vp(Z).

vp(vp(Z,Y)) --> np(Z), acccase, transitive(Y).

transitive(v(kaimashita)) --> [kaimashita].

nomcase --> [ga].

acccase --> [o].

np(np(taroo)) --> [taroo].

np(np(hon)) --> [hon].

  • example
    • John a book bought
    • taroo-gahon-okaimashita
    • ga = nominative case marker
    • o = accusative case marker
  • computation tree
    • ?-s(X,[taroo,ga,hon,o,kaimashita],[]).
      • ?- np(Y,[taroo,ga,hon,o,kaimashita],L1).
      • ?- nomcase(L1,L2).
      • ?- vp(Z,L2,[]).
    • ?- np(Y,[taroo,ga,hon,o,kaimashita],L1).
      • Y = np(taroo) L1 = [ga,hon,o,kaimashita]
    • ?- nomcase([ga,hon,o,kaimashita],L2).
      • L2 = [hon,o,kaimashita]
    • ?-vp(vp(Z’,Y’), [hon,o,kaimashita],[]). Z = vp(Z’,Y’)
      • ?- np(Z’,[hon,o,kaimashita],L1’).
      • ?- acccase(L1’,L2’).
      • ?- transitive(Y’,L2’,[]).
japanese4
Japanese

s(s(Y,Z)) --> np(Y), nomcase, vp(Z).

vp(vp(Z,Y)) --> np(Z), acccase, transitive(Y).

transitive(v(kaimashita)) --> [kaimashita].

nomcase --> [ga].

acccase --> [o].

np(np(taroo)) --> [taroo].

np(np(hon)) --> [hon].

  • example
    • John a book bought
    • taroo-gahon-okaimashita
    • ga = nominative case marker
    • o = accusative case marker
  • computation tree
    • ?-vp(vp(Z’,Y’), [hon,o,kaimashita],[]).
      • ?- np(Z’,[hon,o,kaimashita],L1’).
      • ?- acccase(L1’,L2’).
      • ?- transitive(Y’,L2’,[]).
    • ?- np(Z’,[hon,o,kaimashita],L1’)
      • Z’ = np(hon) L1’ = [o,kaimashita]
    • ?- acccase([o,kaimashita],L2’).
      • L2’ = [kaimashita]
    • ?-transitive(Y’,[kaimashita],[]).
      • Y’ = v(kaimashita)
  • answer
    • ?-s(X,[taroo,ga,hon,o,kaimashita],[]).
    • X = s(np(taroo), vp(np(hon), v(kaimashita)))
japanese5

Parser

Sentence

Parse tree

Generator

Sentence

Parse tree

Japanese

s(s(Y,Z)) --> np(Y), nomcase, vp(Z).

vp(vp(Z,Y)) --> np(Z), acccase, transitive(Y).

transitive(v(kaimashita)) --> [kaimashita].

nomcase --> [ga].

acccase --> [o].

np(np(taroo)) --> [taroo].

np(np(hon)) --> [hon].

  • example

John a book bought

taroo-gahon-okaimashita

ga = nominative case marker

o = accusative case marker

  • grammar
    • can be run “backwards” for sentence generation
    • we’ll need this
  • query
    • ?-s(s(np(taroo), vp(np(hon), v(kaimashita))),L,[]).
    • L = [taroo, ga, hon, o,kaimashita]
japanese6
Japanese

s(s(Y,Z)) --> np(Y), nomcase, vp(Z).

vp(vp(Z,Y)) --> np(Z), acccase, transitive(Y).

transitive(v(kaimashita)) --> [kaimashita].

nomcase --> [ga].

acccase --> [o].

np(np(taroo)) --> [taroo].

np(np(hon)) --> [hon].

  • example

John a book bought

taroo-gahon-okaimashita

  • query (generation)
    • ?-s(s(np(taroo),vp(np(hon),v(kaimashita))),L,[]).
      • Y = np(taroo) Z = vp(np(hon),v(kaimashita)))
      • ?- np(np(taroo),L,L1).
      • ?- nomcase(L1,L2).
      • ?- vp(vp(np(hon),v(kaimashita))),L2,[]).
    • ?- np(np(taroo),L,L1).
      • L = [taroo|L1]
    • ?- nomcase(L1,L2).
      • L1 = [ga|L2]
    • ?- vp(vp(np(hon),v(kaimashita))),L2,[]).
      • Z’ = np(hon) Y’ = v(kaimashita)
      • ?- np(np(hon),L2,L3).
      • ?- acccase(L3,L4).
      • ?- transitive(v(kaimashita),L4,[]).
japanese7
Japanese

s(s(Y,Z)) --> np(Y), nomcase, vp(Z).

vp(vp(Z,Y)) --> np(Z), acccase, transitive(Y).

transitive(v(kaimashita)) --> [kaimashita].

nomcase --> [ga].

acccase --> [o].

np(np(taroo)) --> [taroo].

np(np(hon)) --> [hon].

  • example
    • John a book bought
    • taroo-gahon-okaimashita
  • query (generation)
    • ?- vp(vp(np(hon),v(kaimashita))),L2,[]).
      • Z’ = np(taroo) Y’ = v(kaimashita)
      • ?- np(np(hon),L2,L3).
      • ?- acccase(L3,L4).
      • ?- transitive(v(kaimashita),L4,[]).
    • ?- np(np(hon),L2,L3).
      • L2 = [hon|L3]
    • ?- acccase(L3,L4).
      • L3 = [o|L4]
    • ?- transitive(v(kaimashita),L4,[]).
      • L4 = [kaimashita|[]]
japanese8
Japanese

s(s(Y,Z)) --> np(Y), nomcase, vp(Z).

vp(vp(Z,Y)) --> np(Z), acccase, transitive(Y).

transitive(v(kaimashita)) --> [kaimashita].

nomcase --> [ga].

acccase --> [o].

np(np(taroo)) --> [taroo].

np(np(hon)) --> [hon].

  • example
    • John a book bought
    • taroo-gahon-okaimashita
  • query (generation)
    • back-substituting ...
    • ?- np(np(taroo),L,L1).
      • L = [taroo|L1]
    • ?- nomcase(L1,L2).
      • L1 = [ga|L2]
    • ?- np(np(hon),L2,L3).
      • L2 = [hon|L3]
    • ?- acccase(L3,L4).
      • L3 = [o|L4]
    • ?- transitive(v(kaimashita),L4,[]).
      • L4 = [kaimashita|[]]
  • answer
    • L = [taroo, ga, hon, o,kaimashita]
scrambling
Scrambling
  • Idea:
    • object moves (i.e. “scrambled”) to the front of the sentence
    • leaves a trace behind in canonical object position
    • adjoins to S
  • Implementation:
scrambling1
Scrambling
  • Result:
japanese9
Japanese
  • wh-NP phrases
    • English
    • examples
      • John bought a book
      • Who bought a book? (subject wh-phrase)
      • *John bought what? (echo-question only)
      • What did John buy? (object wh-phrase)
  • object wh-phrase case
        • complex operation required from the declarative form:
          • object wh-phrase must be fronted
          • do-support (insertion of past tense form of “do”)
          • boughtbuy (untensed form)

what did John buy

what did John bought

what John bought

John bought what

John bought a book

japanese10
Japanese
  • wh-NP phrases
    • English
      • Who bought a book? (subject wh-phrase)
      • *John bought what? (only possible as an echo-question)
      • What did John buy? (object wh-phrase)
    • Japanese
      • wh-in-situ:
        • meaning wh-phrase appears in same position as a regular noun phrase
        • easy to implement! (no complex series of operations)
      • taroo-ganani-okaimashitaka
        • nani: means what
        • ka: sentence-final question particle
      • dare-gahon-okaimashitaka
        • dare: means who

register differences:

ka or no?

japanese11
Japanese
  • wh-in-situ:
    • taroo-ganani-okaimashitaka
      • nani: means what
      • ka: sentence-final question particle
    • dare-gahon-okaimashitaka
      • dare: means who
  • grammar
    • s(s(Y,Z)) --> np(Y), nomcase, vp(Z).
    • vp(vp(Z,Y)) --> np(Z), acccase, transitive(Y).
    • transitive(v(kaimashita)) --> [kaimashita].
    • nomcase --> [ga].
    • acccase --> [o].
    • np(np(taroo)) --> [taroo].
    • np(np(hon)) --> [hon].
  • add new wh-words
    • np(np(dare)) --> [dare].
    • np(np(nani)) --> [nani].
japanese12
Japanese
  • wh-in-situ:
    • taroo-ganani-okaimashitaka
    • dare-gahon-okaimashitaka
  • grammar
    • s(s(Y,Z)) --> np(Y), nomcase, vp(Z).
    • vp(vp(Z,Y)) --> np(Z), acccase, transitive(Y).
    • transitive(v(kaimashita)) --> [kaimashita].
    • nomcase --> [ga].
    • acccase --> [o].
    • np(np(taroo)) --> [taroo].
    • np(np(hon)) --> [hon].
    • np(np(dare)) --> [dare].
    • np(np(nani)) --> [nani].
  • allows sentences
    • Taroo-gahon-okaimashita
    • Taroo-ganani-o kaimashita (ka)
    • dare-gahon-okaimashita (ka)

Assuming for simplicity that a sentence-final particle is required for wh-questions…

How to enforce the constraint that ka is obligatory when a wh-phrase is in the sentence?

japanese13
Japanese
  • wh-in-situ:
    • taroo-ganani-okaimashitaka
    • dare-gahon-okaimashitaka
  • grammar
    • s(s(Y,Z)) --> np(Y,Q), nomcase, vp(Z).
    • vp(vp(Z,Y)) --> np(Z,Q), acccase, transitive(Y).
    • transitive(v(kaimashita)) --> [kaimashita].
    • nomcase --> [ga].
    • acccase --> [o].
    • np(np(taroo),notwh) --> [taroo].
    • np(np(hon),notwh) --> [hon].
    • np(np(dare),wh) --> [dare].
    • np(np(nani),wh) --> [nani].
  • answer
    • employ extra argument to encode the lexical feature wh(e.g with values wh, notwh)for nouns
japanese14
Japanese
  • wh-in-situ:
    • taroo-ganani-okaimashitaka
    • dare-gahon-okaimashitaka
  • grammar
    • s(s(Y,Z)) --> np(Y,Q1), nomcase, vp(Z,Q2).
    • vp(vp(Z,Y),Q) --> np(Z,Q), acccase, transitive(Y).
    • transitive(v(kaimashita)) --> [kaimashita].
    • nomcase --> [ga].
    • acccase --> [o].
    • np(np(taroo),notwh) --> [taroo].
    • np(np(hon),notwh) --> [hon].
    • np(np(dare),wh) --> [dare].
    • np(np(nani),wh) --> [nani].
  • answer
    • employ an extra argument to encode the lexical feature whfor nouns
    • propagate this feature up to the (top) sentence rule
      • means adding extra argument Q to the VP nonterminal
japanese15
Japanese
  • wh-in-situ:
    • taroo-ganani-okaimashitaka
    • dare-gahon-okaimashitaka
  • grammar
    • s(s(Y,Z)) --> np(Y,Q1), nomcase, vp(Z,Q2), sf(Q1,Q2).
    • vp(vp(Z,Y),Q) --> np(Z,Q), acccase, transitive(Y).
    • transitive(v(kaimashita)) --> [kaimashita].
    • nomcase --> [ga].
    • acccase --> [o].
    • np(np(taroo),notwh) --> [taroo].
    • np(np(hon),notwh) --> [hon].
    • np(np(dare),wh) --> [dare].
    • np(np(nani),wh) --> [nani].
  • answer
    • employ an extra argument to encode the lexical feature whfor nouns
    • propagate this feature up to the (top) sentence rule
      • means adding extra argument Q to the VP nonterminal
    • add a sentence-final particle rule (sf) that generates ka when this feature is wh
japanese16
Japanese

sentence-final particle rule (sf/2)

sf(wh,notwh) --> [ka].

sf(notwh,wh) --> [ka].

sf(notwh,notwh) --> []. (empty)

sf(wh,wh) --> [ka].

  • wh-in-situ:
    • taroo-ganani-okaimashitaka
    • dare-gahon-okaimashitaka
  • grammar
    • s(s(Y,Z)) --> np(Y,Q1), nomcase, vp(Z,Q2), sf(Q1,Q2).
    • vp(vp(Z,Y),Q) --> np(Z,Q), acccase, transitive(Y).
    • transitive(v(kaimashita)) --> [kaimashita].
    • nomcase --> [ga].
    • acccase --> [o].
    • np(np(taroo),notwh) --> [taroo].
    • np(np(hon),notwh) --> [hon].
    • np(np(dare),wh) --> [dare].
    • np(np(nani),wh) --> [nani].
  • answer
    • employ an extra argument to encode the lexical feature whfor nouns
    • propagate this feature up to the (top) sentence rule
      • means adding extra argument Q to the VP nonterminal
    • add a sentence-final particle rule (sf) that generates ka when this feature is wh

sf(wh,wh) --> [ka].

example:dare-ganani-o kaimashitaka (who bought what)

japanese17
Japanese

we may want to modifiy the parse tree to represent the sentence-final particle ka as well

  • wh-in-situ:
    • taroo-ganani-okaimashitaka
    • dare-gahon-okaimashitaka
  • computation tree
    • ?- s(X,[taroo,ga,nani,o,kaimashita,ka],[]).
    • X = s(np(taroo),vp(np(nani),v(kaimashita)))
    • ?- s(X,[taroo,ga,nani,o,kaimashita],[]).
    • false

s(s(Y,Z)) --> np(Y,Q1), nomcase, vp(Z,Q2), sf(Q1,Q2).

vp(vp(Z,Y),Q) --> np(Z,Q), acccase, transitive(Y).

transitive(v(kaimashita)) --> [kaimashita].

nomcase --> [ga].

acccase --> [o].

np(np(taroo),notwh) --> [taroo].

np(np(hon),notwh) --> [hon].

np(np(dare),wh) --> [dare].

np(np(nani),wh) --> [nani].

sf(wh,notwh) --> [ka].

sf(notwh,wh) --> [ka].

sf(notwh,notwh) --> [].

sf(wh,wh) --> [ka].

appendix
Appendix

Alternative implementations…

  • so far, we used:
    • s(s(Y,Z)) --> np(Y,Q1), nomcase, vp(Z,Q2), sf(Q1,Q2).
  • could have written (equivalently)
    • s(s(Y,Z)) --> np(Y,notwh), nomcase, vp(Z,notwh).
    • s(s(Y,Z)) --> np(Y,Q1), nomcase, vp(Z,Q2), {\+ Q1=notwh ; \+ Q2=notwh}, sf.
    • sf --> [ka].
  • or (also equivalently)
    • s(s(Y,Z)) --> np(Y,notwh), nomcase, vp(Z,notwh).
    • s(s(Y,Z,ka)) --> np(Y,Q1), nomcase, vp(Z,Q2), {\+ Q1=notwh ; \+ Q2=notwh}, sf.
    • sf --> [ka].
    • generates different structures for declarative vs. wh-NP questions
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