Life cycle money space and the allocation of time
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Life-Cycle, Money, Space, and the Allocation of Time. by David Levinson, University of California, Berkeley. Levinson, David (1999) Title: Space, Money, Life-cycle, and the Allocation of Time . Transportation 26: 141-171. http://nexus.umn.edu/Papers/LifeCycle.pdf. Outline. Introduction Data

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Life cycle money space and the allocation of time

Life-Cycle, Money, Space, and the Allocation of Time

by David Levinson,

University of California, Berkeley

Levinson, David (1999) Title: Space, Money, Life-cycle, and the Allocation of Time. Transportation 26: 141-171. http://nexus.umn.edu/Papers/LifeCycle.pdf


Outline

Outline

  • Introduction

  • Data

  • Travel Duration

  • Correlations

  • Activity Duration

  • Choice Model

  • Conclusions


Introduction

Introduction

  • Travel and Activity are Two Sides of the Same Coin

  • Time in Travel = f (Time at Activity)

  • Time at Activity = f (Life-Cycle, Money, Space, Temporal Factors, Constraints)

  • Activities Considered (Home, Work, Shop, Other)

  • Daily Activity Budget (24 hrs)


Life cycle money space and the allocation of time

Data

  • 1990/91 Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey

  • Survey Inverted to Get Activity Diary

  • 21800 Households, 47000 individuals, 150000 Trips

  • Individuals whose total activities did not add to 1440 minutes, excluded

  • This study looks only at adults (18-65)


Travel duration

Travel Duration

  • Travel Duration = f( Activity Duration & Frequency)

  • TDi = ß0 + ß1 * ADi + ß2 * AFi

  • Transport Planning Models Only Consider Activity Frequency, not Duration

  • ADi positive & significant in 6 of 9 activity categories, negative & significant for 1 of 9 (home) [ Staying Home is Substitute for Travel ]


Correlations activity complements or substitutes

Correlations: Activity Complements or Substitutes

  • Non-Travel Activities are Substitutes

  • Travel is Complementary to Like Activity & Travel to Home; Substitutes for Other Activities.


Activity duration

Activity Duration

  • Space (density, metro area, region)

  • Money (income, work-status, gender)

  • Life-Cycle (age, gender, household size, # adults, age of oldest child)


Lifecycle time at home

LifeCycle & Time at Home


Lifecycle time at work

LifeCycle & Time at Work


Lifecycle time at shop

LifeCycle & Time at Shop


Lifecycle time at other

LifeCycle & Time at Other


Lifecycle time at travel

LifeCycle & Time at Travel


Choice model

Choice Model

  • Logit model to predict share of time between 4 activities (incl. travel to act.) for individuals who undertook all four

  • Greatest part of explanatory power is in Activity Specific Constant.

  • 2nd most sig = activity frequency


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • Activity Duration a key factor explaining travel duration

  • Activities are substitutes

  • Travel is complement only to like activity & return trip

  • Activity Duration is fairly constant between groups, with large individual variations which are not easily predicted


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