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Unit 5. Pathology, Otorhinolaryngology, and Prefixes dys-, brady-, tachy-, poly-, and syn-. Pathology. path/o/logy = study of disease Especially infectious diseases path/o/genic = causes disease patho/genic organisms = microorganisms that cause infections. Pathogenic Organisms.

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Unit 5

Unit 5

Pathology, Otorhinolaryngology, and Prefixes dys-, brady-, tachy-, poly-, and syn-


Pathology
Pathology

  • path/o/logy = study of disease

    • Especially infectious diseases

  • path/o/genic = causes disease

  • patho/genic organisms = microorganisms that cause infections


Pathogenic organisms
Pathogenic Organisms

  • Microorganisms that have pathogenic forms:

    • Bacteria

    • Viruses

    • Fungi

    • Parasites


Animation
Animation

Click Here to Play Infection Control Animation


Bacteria
Bacteria

  • bacterium = singular form

  • Generally named for their shape


Bacteria cocci
Bacteria: Cocci

  • cocc/us = spherically shaped

  • cocc/i = plural form

  • Origin

    • Greek

    • coccos = grain or seeds


Bacteria cocci1
Bacteria: Cocci

  • Examples:

    • dipl/o/cocc/i = grow in pairs

    • strept/o/cocc/i = grow in twisted chains or strips

    • staphyl/o/cocc/i = grow in clusters

      • Like grapes


Bacteria cocci2
Bacteria: Cocci

  • Infections caused by cocci:

    • Meningitis

      • Mening/o/coccus

    • Pneumonia

      • Strept/o/coccus pneumoniae

    • Gonorrhea

      • Neisseria gonorrhoeae


Bacteria cocci3
Bacteria: Cocci

  • Infections caused by cocci:

    • Sore throat

      • Strept/o/coccus

  • Effects of staphyl/o/cocci:

    • Form pus

    • Cause common form of food poisoning

    • Cause acne infections


MRSA

  • Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

  • Bacterium that causes serious infection

  • Difficult to treat

    • Resistant to many antibiotics


Bacteria bacilli
Bacteria: Bacilli

  • bacill/us = rod-shaped bacteria

  • bacill/i = plural form

  • Examples:

    • dipl/o/bacill/us = rod-shaped double bacillus

    • strept/o/bacill/us = rod-shaped bacillus growing in twisted chains

    • pneum/p/bacill/us = bacilli that cause pneumonia


Infestations caused by organisms
Infestations Caused by Organisms

  • Trichomoniasis

    • Trichomonas

  • Moniliasis

    • Yeast


Infestations caused by organisms1
Infestations Caused by Organisms

  • Elephantiasis

    • Filarial worm

  • Giardia lamblia

    • Giardiasis


Sexually transmitted diseases
Sexually Transmitted Diseases

  • Bacterial:

    • Chlamydia

    • Urogenital infection

    • Gonorrhea

    • Syphilis


Sexually transmitted diseases1
Sexually Transmitted Diseases

  • Viral:

    • Hepatitis

    • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    • Venereal warts


Sexually transmitted diseases2
Sexually Transmitted Diseases

  • Parasitic:

    • Trichomoniasis

    • Urogenital infection

    • Lice

    • Pediculosis pubis

      • Crabs

    • Scabies

      • Mites


Sexually transmitted diseases3
Sexually Transmitted Diseases

  • Fungal:

    • Candidiasis

      • Yeast infection


Pus

  • Thick, yellowish fluid consisting of WBCs, bacteria, and tissue debris

  • Boils and acne infections contain pus

  • py/o = combining form


Pus

  • Examples:

    • py/o/genic = producing or forming pus

      • Purulent

      • E.g., pyogenic staphylococci

    • py/o/rrhea = flow or discharge of pus

      • py/o/rrhea alveolaris = disease of teeth and gums in which pus discharged

      • py/o/rrhea salivarius = disease of salivary gland from which there is flow of pus


Pus

  • Examples:

    • py/o/cele = hernia containing pus

    • py/o/thorax = accumulation of pus in thoracic cavity

      • Can be caused by pneumonia or lung abscess


Otorhinolaryngology
Otorhinolaryngology

  • Study and treatment of diseases and disorders of ears, nose, and throat


Ear

  • ot/o = combining form

  • Origin

    • Greek

    • ot = ear

  • ot/ic = pertaining to ear

  • Example:

    • ot/o/scope = instrument used to examine ear



Ear conditions
Ear Conditions

  • ot/o/rrhea = discharge from ear

    • Also disease of ear

  • ot/itismedia = ear discharge, inflammation, and deafness

  • ot/algia = ear pain

  • ot/o/dynia = ear pain


Ear

  • auris sinistra (AS) = left ear

  • auris dextra (AD) = right ear

  • auris uterque (AU) = both ears


Eardrum
Eardrum

  • tympan/o = combining form

  • tympan/ic = adjectival form

  • membrana tympani sinistra = left eardrum

  • membrana tympani dextra = right eardrum


Eardrum1
Eardrum

  • Examples:

    • tympan/o/tomy = incision into eardrum

    • tympan/ectomy = removal of eardrum

    • tympan/o/metry = process of measuring eardrum function


Hearing
Hearing

  • audi/o = combining form

  • Examples:

    • audi/o/logy = study of hearing

    • audi/o/log/ist = one who studies and measures hearing and prescribes and fits hearing devices

    • audi/o/metry = process of measuring hearing

    • audi/o/gram = record of hearing test


Animation1
Animation

Click Here to Play Hearing Animation


Voice
Voice

  • phon/o = combining form

  • Examples:

    • phon/ic = pertaining to voice

    • phon/o/meter = instrument of measuring intensity of vocal sounds

    • a/phon/ia = unable to make sounds

    • dys/phon/ia = weak voice


Speech
Speech

  • phas/o = combining form

  • -phasia = suffix for speech disorder

  • Examples:

    • a/phasia = absence of speech

    • brady/phasia = slow speech


Nose

  • rhin/o = combining form

  • Examples:

    • rhin/o/rrhea = flow or discharge from nose

    • rhin/itis = inflammation of nose

    • rhin/o/tomy = incision of nose

    • rhin/o/plasty = surgical repair of nose


Prefix brady
Prefix: brady-

  • brady- = slow

  • Examples:

    • brady/phag/ia = slowness in eating

      • Abnormally slow swallowing

    • brady/cardi/a = abnormally slow heart action

    • brady/pne/o = slow breathing

      • pne/o = respiration or breathing


Prefix tachy
Prefix: tachy-

  • tachy- = fast

  • Examples:

    • tachy/cardi/a = abnormally rapid heartbeat

    • tachy/o/gram = record of velocity of blood flow

    • tachy/phagia = fast eating

    • tachy/pnea = increased rate of respiration

      • Can be caused by increased amounts of carbon dioxide in blood


Prefixes a and an
Prefixes: a- and an-

  • a- and an- = without

  • Examples:

    • a/pnea = cessation of breathing

      • Caused by low level of carbon dioxide in blood

    • a/genesis = failure to develop

    • a/men/o/rrhea = absence of menstruation

    • a/rrhythm/ia = loss of correct heart rhythm


Prefix dys
Prefix: dys-

  • dys- = painful or difficult

  • Examples:

    • dys/phag/ia = difficult swallowing

    • dys/phon/ia = difficult vocalizing

    • dys/phas/ia = difficult speaking

    • dys/lex/ia = difficult reading


Prefix dys1
Prefix: dys-

  • Examples:

    • dys/men/o/rhea = painful or difficult menstruation

    • dys/rrhythm/ia = irregular or abnormal rhythm

    • dys/pnea = difficult breathing


Prefix syn
Prefix: syn-

  • syn- = with or together

  • Examples:

    • syn/erg/y or syn/erg/ism = working together to create effect greater than separate efforts

    • syn/erg/etic = muscles working together


Prefix syn1
Prefix: syn-

  • Examples:

    • syn/erg/istic = drugs working together

      • E.g., Tylenol and codeine for increased pain relief

      • Alcohol and analgesics not recommended together

        • Due to increased nervous system depression

    • syn/dactyl/ism = two or more fingers jointed together

    • syn/arthr/osis = immoveable joint

    • syn/arthr/ic = pertaining to immoveable joint


Syndrome
Syndrome

  • syn/drome = variety of symptoms occurring together

    • Complete picture of disease

  • Korsakoff’s syndrome

    • Signs and symptoms of brain damage brought on by alcoholism


Syndrome1
Syndrome

  • Reye’s syndrome

    • Post-infection encephalopathy in children linked to acute fever, influenza, or chickenpox


Prodrome
Prodrome

  • pro/drome = symptom that runs before disease

    • E.g., sneezes before common cold

  • pro/drom/al = adjectival form

    • E.g., rash that precedes papules in chickenpox


Prefix micro
Prefix: micro-

  • micro- = small

  • Examples:

    • micro/cyte = very small cell

    • micro/cyst = very small cyst

      • Sac containing fluid

    • micro/cardi/a = condition of having small heart


Prefix micro1
Prefix: micro-

  • Examples:

    • micro/gram = one thousandth of a milligram

      • One millionth of a gram

    • micro/surgery = surgery performed on minute structures using microscope and small instruments


Prefix micro2
Prefix: micro-

  • micro/cephal/ic = adjectival form

  • Example:

    • micro/cephal/us = condition of having very small head

      • Limits size of brain

      • Usually results in mental impairment


Prefix macro
Prefix: macro-

  • macro- = large

  • Examples:

    • macro/cyte = very large cell

    • macro/blast = large embryonic cell

    • macro/cocc/us = very large coccus


Prefix macro1
Prefix: macro-

  • Abnormally large body parts:

    • macro/cephal/us = head

    • macro/gloss/ia = tongue

    • macro/tia = ear

    • macro/rhin/ia = nose

    • macro/cheil/ia = lips


Prefix poly
Prefix: poly-

  • poly- = too much or too many

  • Three terms for extra fingers:

    • poly/dactyl

    • poly/dactyl/ism

    • poly/dactyl/ia


Prefix poly1
Prefix: poly-

  • poly/dips/ia = excessive thirst

    • Caused by:

      • Excessive salt in food

      • Upset in pituitary secretion

      • High blood sugar levels with lack of insulin


Alcoholism
Alcoholism

  • dips/o/man/ia = old term for alcoholism

  • Facts:

    • Chronic physical and psychological disease

    • Treatment includes carefully planned withdrawal from alcohol, nutrition, rest, and psychotherapy

    • Alcoholics Anonymous offers support programs


Digestion
Digestion

  • peps/o = combining form

  • Examples:

    • a/peps/ia = cessation of digestion

    • dys/peps/ia = poor digestion

    • brady/peps/ia = slow digestion

    • peptic ulcers = stomach ulcers


Genesis
Genesis

  • genesis = development or production

  • Examples:

    • a/genesis = failure to develop

    • path/o/genesis = producing disease

    • py/o/genesis = producing pus

    • onc/o/genesis = producing cancer

    • carcin/o/genesis = development of cancer

    • carcin/o/genetic = causes cancer


Heat

  • therm/o = heat

  • Examples:

    • therm/al and therm/ic = pertaining to heat

    • therm/o/plegia = heatstroke

    • therm/o/phobia = abnormal fear of heat

    • therm/o/esthesi/a and therm/o/algesia = oversensitivity to heat


Heat

  • Examples:

    • therm/o/genesis = formation of body heat

    • hyper/therm/ia = high body temperature

      • Body temperature more than 101° Fahrenheit can indicate fever

    • hypo/therm/ia = low body temperature

    • dia/therm/y = generation of heat through tissues

      • dia = through


Stones
Stones

  • Sometimes form in body

    • Also known as calculi

  • lith/o = combining form

  • lith/o/gen/ic = adjectival form


Stones1
Stones

  • Examples:

    • lith/o/logy = studying or dealing with stones

    • lith/o/genesis = generating, producing, or forming stones

    • lith/o/meter = instrument for measuring size of calculi

    • rhin/o/lith = stone in nose

    • chol/e/lith = gallstone


Gallbladder
Gallbladder

  • Stores and releases bile (gall)

    • Fluid produced by liver that aids digestion

  • chol/e = combining form for bile


Gallbladder1
Gallbladder

  • Examples:

    • chol/e/cyst = medical name of gallbladder

    • chol/e/lith/iasis = presence of gallstones in gallbladder

    • chol/e/cyst/itis = inflammation of gallbladder



Gallbladder procedures
Gallbladder Procedures

  • chol/e/cyst/o/gram = x-ray of gallbladder

  • chol/e/cyst/o/graphy = process of taking x-ray of gallbladder

  • chol/e/cyst/o/tomy = incision into gallbladder

  • chol/e/cyst/ectomy = removal of gallbladder


Uvula
Uvula

  • staphyl/o = combining form

    • Same combining form as grape-cluster-shaped bacteria

  • Examples:

    • staphyl/itis and uvul/itis = inflammation of uvula



Uvula procedures
Uvula Procedures

  • staphyl/o/plasty = surgical repair of uvula

  • staphyl/ectomy = removal of uvula

  • uvul/ectomy = removal of uvula


Dactyl
Dactyl

  • dactyl = finger or toe

    • Digit

  • dactyl/o = combining form

  • Examples:

    • dactyl/itis = inflammation of digit

    • dactyl/o/spasm = cramp or spasm of digit


Dactyl1
Dactyl

  • Examples:

    • dactyl/o/gram = fingerprint

    • macro/dactyl/ia = condition of having abnormally large fingers or toes

    • poly/dactyl/ism = having too many fingers or toes


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