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Unit 5. Pathology, Otorhinolaryngology, and Prefixes dys-, brady-, tachy-, poly-, and syn-. Pathology. path/o/logy = study of disease Especially infectious diseases path/o/genic = causes disease patho/genic organisms = microorganisms that cause infections. Pathogenic Organisms.

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unit 5

Unit 5

Pathology, Otorhinolaryngology, and Prefixes dys-, brady-, tachy-, poly-, and syn-

pathology
Pathology
  • path/o/logy = study of disease
    • Especially infectious diseases
  • path/o/genic = causes disease
  • patho/genic organisms = microorganisms that cause infections
pathogenic organisms
Pathogenic Organisms
  • Microorganisms that have pathogenic forms:
    • Bacteria
    • Viruses
    • Fungi
    • Parasites
animation
Animation

Click Here to Play Infection Control Animation

bacteria
Bacteria
  • bacterium = singular form
  • Generally named for their shape
bacteria cocci
Bacteria: Cocci
  • cocc/us = spherically shaped
  • cocc/i = plural form
  • Origin
    • Greek
    • coccos = grain or seeds
bacteria cocci1
Bacteria: Cocci
  • Examples:
    • dipl/o/cocc/i = grow in pairs
    • strept/o/cocc/i = grow in twisted chains or strips
    • staphyl/o/cocc/i = grow in clusters
      • Like grapes
bacteria cocci2
Bacteria: Cocci
  • Infections caused by cocci:
    • Meningitis
      • Mening/o/coccus
    • Pneumonia
      • Strept/o/coccus pneumoniae
    • Gonorrhea
      • Neisseria gonorrhoeae
bacteria cocci3
Bacteria: Cocci
  • Infections caused by cocci:
    • Sore throat
      • Strept/o/coccus
  • Effects of staphyl/o/cocci:
    • Form pus
    • Cause common form of food poisoning
    • Cause acne infections
slide10
MRSA
  • Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
  • Bacterium that causes serious infection
  • Difficult to treat
    • Resistant to many antibiotics
bacteria bacilli
Bacteria: Bacilli
  • bacill/us = rod-shaped bacteria
  • bacill/i = plural form
  • Examples:
    • dipl/o/bacill/us = rod-shaped double bacillus
    • strept/o/bacill/us = rod-shaped bacillus growing in twisted chains
    • pneum/p/bacill/us = bacilli that cause pneumonia
infestations caused by organisms
Infestations Caused by Organisms
  • Trichomoniasis
    • Trichomonas
  • Moniliasis
    • Yeast
infestations caused by organisms1
Infestations Caused by Organisms
  • Elephantiasis
    • Filarial worm
  • Giardia lamblia
    • Giardiasis
sexually transmitted diseases
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
  • Bacterial:
    • Chlamydia
    • Urogenital infection
    • Gonorrhea
    • Syphilis
sexually transmitted diseases1
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
  • Viral:
    • Hepatitis
    • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)
    • Venereal warts
sexually transmitted diseases2
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
  • Parasitic:
    • Trichomoniasis
    • Urogenital infection
    • Lice
    • Pediculosis pubis
      • Crabs
    • Scabies
      • Mites
sexually transmitted diseases3
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
  • Fungal:
    • Candidiasis
      • Yeast infection
slide18
Pus
  • Thick, yellowish fluid consisting of WBCs, bacteria, and tissue debris
  • Boils and acne infections contain pus
  • py/o = combining form
slide19
Pus
  • Examples:
    • py/o/genic = producing or forming pus
      • Purulent
      • E.g., pyogenic staphylococci
    • py/o/rrhea = flow or discharge of pus
      • py/o/rrhea alveolaris = disease of teeth and gums in which pus discharged
      • py/o/rrhea salivarius = disease of salivary gland from which there is flow of pus
slide20
Pus
  • Examples:
    • py/o/cele = hernia containing pus
    • py/o/thorax = accumulation of pus in thoracic cavity
      • Can be caused by pneumonia or lung abscess
otorhinolaryngology
Otorhinolaryngology
  • Study and treatment of diseases and disorders of ears, nose, and throat
slide22
Ear
  • ot/o = combining form
  • Origin
    • Greek
    • ot = ear
  • ot/ic = pertaining to ear
  • Example:
    • ot/o/scope = instrument used to examine ear
ear conditions
Ear Conditions
  • ot/o/rrhea = discharge from ear
    • Also disease of ear
  • ot/itismedia = ear discharge, inflammation, and deafness
  • ot/algia = ear pain
  • ot/o/dynia = ear pain
slide25
Ear
  • auris sinistra (AS) = left ear
  • auris dextra (AD) = right ear
  • auris uterque (AU) = both ears
eardrum
Eardrum
  • tympan/o = combining form
  • tympan/ic = adjectival form
  • membrana tympani sinistra = left eardrum
  • membrana tympani dextra = right eardrum
eardrum1
Eardrum
  • Examples:
    • tympan/o/tomy = incision into eardrum
    • tympan/ectomy = removal of eardrum
    • tympan/o/metry = process of measuring eardrum function
hearing
Hearing
  • audi/o = combining form
  • Examples:
    • audi/o/logy = study of hearing
    • audi/o/log/ist = one who studies and measures hearing and prescribes and fits hearing devices
    • audi/o/metry = process of measuring hearing
    • audi/o/gram = record of hearing test
animation1
Animation

Click Here to Play Hearing Animation

voice
Voice
  • phon/o = combining form
  • Examples:
    • phon/ic = pertaining to voice
    • phon/o/meter = instrument of measuring intensity of vocal sounds
    • a/phon/ia = unable to make sounds
    • dys/phon/ia = weak voice
speech
Speech
  • phas/o = combining form
  • -phasia = suffix for speech disorder
  • Examples:
    • a/phasia = absence of speech
    • brady/phasia = slow speech
slide32
Nose
  • rhin/o = combining form
  • Examples:
    • rhin/o/rrhea = flow or discharge from nose
    • rhin/itis = inflammation of nose
    • rhin/o/tomy = incision of nose
    • rhin/o/plasty = surgical repair of nose
prefix brady
Prefix: brady-
  • brady- = slow
  • Examples:
    • brady/phag/ia = slowness in eating
      • Abnormally slow swallowing
    • brady/cardi/a = abnormally slow heart action
    • brady/pne/o = slow breathing
      • pne/o = respiration or breathing
prefix tachy
Prefix: tachy-
  • tachy- = fast
  • Examples:
    • tachy/cardi/a = abnormally rapid heartbeat
    • tachy/o/gram = record of velocity of blood flow
    • tachy/phagia = fast eating
    • tachy/pnea = increased rate of respiration
      • Can be caused by increased amounts of carbon dioxide in blood
prefixes a and an
Prefixes: a- and an-
  • a- and an- = without
  • Examples:
    • a/pnea = cessation of breathing
      • Caused by low level of carbon dioxide in blood
    • a/genesis = failure to develop
    • a/men/o/rrhea = absence of menstruation
    • a/rrhythm/ia = loss of correct heart rhythm
prefix dys
Prefix: dys-
  • dys- = painful or difficult
  • Examples:
    • dys/phag/ia = difficult swallowing
    • dys/phon/ia = difficult vocalizing
    • dys/phas/ia = difficult speaking
    • dys/lex/ia = difficult reading
prefix dys1
Prefix: dys-
  • Examples:
    • dys/men/o/rhea = painful or difficult menstruation
    • dys/rrhythm/ia = irregular or abnormal rhythm
    • dys/pnea = difficult breathing
prefix syn
Prefix: syn-
  • syn- = with or together
  • Examples:
    • syn/erg/y or syn/erg/ism = working together to create effect greater than separate efforts
    • syn/erg/etic = muscles working together
prefix syn1
Prefix: syn-
  • Examples:
    • syn/erg/istic = drugs working together
      • E.g., Tylenol and codeine for increased pain relief
      • Alcohol and analgesics not recommended together
        • Due to increased nervous system depression
    • syn/dactyl/ism = two or more fingers jointed together
    • syn/arthr/osis = immoveable joint
    • syn/arthr/ic = pertaining to immoveable joint
syndrome
Syndrome
  • syn/drome = variety of symptoms occurring together
    • Complete picture of disease
  • Korsakoff’s syndrome
    • Signs and symptoms of brain damage brought on by alcoholism
syndrome1
Syndrome
  • Reye’s syndrome
    • Post-infection encephalopathy in children linked to acute fever, influenza, or chickenpox
prodrome
Prodrome
  • pro/drome = symptom that runs before disease
    • E.g., sneezes before common cold
  • pro/drom/al = adjectival form
    • E.g., rash that precedes papules in chickenpox
prefix micro
Prefix: micro-
  • micro- = small
  • Examples:
    • micro/cyte = very small cell
    • micro/cyst = very small cyst
      • Sac containing fluid
    • micro/cardi/a = condition of having small heart
prefix micro1
Prefix: micro-
  • Examples:
    • micro/gram = one thousandth of a milligram
      • One millionth of a gram
    • micro/surgery = surgery performed on minute structures using microscope and small instruments
prefix micro2
Prefix: micro-
  • micro/cephal/ic = adjectival form
  • Example:
    • micro/cephal/us = condition of having very small head
      • Limits size of brain
      • Usually results in mental impairment
prefix macro
Prefix: macro-
  • macro- = large
  • Examples:
    • macro/cyte = very large cell
    • macro/blast = large embryonic cell
    • macro/cocc/us = very large coccus
prefix macro1
Prefix: macro-
  • Abnormally large body parts:
    • macro/cephal/us = head
    • macro/gloss/ia = tongue
    • macro/tia = ear
    • macro/rhin/ia = nose
    • macro/cheil/ia = lips
prefix poly
Prefix: poly-
  • poly- = too much or too many
  • Three terms for extra fingers:
    • poly/dactyl
    • poly/dactyl/ism
    • poly/dactyl/ia
prefix poly1
Prefix: poly-
  • poly/dips/ia = excessive thirst
    • Caused by:
      • Excessive salt in food
      • Upset in pituitary secretion
      • High blood sugar levels with lack of insulin
alcoholism
Alcoholism
  • dips/o/man/ia = old term for alcoholism
  • Facts:
    • Chronic physical and psychological disease
    • Treatment includes carefully planned withdrawal from alcohol, nutrition, rest, and psychotherapy
    • Alcoholics Anonymous offers support programs
digestion
Digestion
  • peps/o = combining form
  • Examples:
    • a/peps/ia = cessation of digestion
    • dys/peps/ia = poor digestion
    • brady/peps/ia = slow digestion
    • peptic ulcers = stomach ulcers
genesis
Genesis
  • genesis = development or production
  • Examples:
    • a/genesis = failure to develop
    • path/o/genesis = producing disease
    • py/o/genesis = producing pus
    • onc/o/genesis = producing cancer
    • carcin/o/genesis = development of cancer
    • carcin/o/genetic = causes cancer
slide53
Heat
  • therm/o = heat
  • Examples:
    • therm/al and therm/ic = pertaining to heat
    • therm/o/plegia = heatstroke
    • therm/o/phobia = abnormal fear of heat
    • therm/o/esthesi/a and therm/o/algesia = oversensitivity to heat
slide54
Heat
  • Examples:
    • therm/o/genesis = formation of body heat
    • hyper/therm/ia = high body temperature
      • Body temperature more than 101° Fahrenheit can indicate fever
    • hypo/therm/ia = low body temperature
    • dia/therm/y = generation of heat through tissues
      • dia = through
stones
Stones
  • Sometimes form in body
    • Also known as calculi
  • lith/o = combining form
  • lith/o/gen/ic = adjectival form
stones1
Stones
  • Examples:
    • lith/o/logy = studying or dealing with stones
    • lith/o/genesis = generating, producing, or forming stones
    • lith/o/meter = instrument for measuring size of calculi
    • rhin/o/lith = stone in nose
    • chol/e/lith = gallstone
gallbladder
Gallbladder
  • Stores and releases bile (gall)
    • Fluid produced by liver that aids digestion
  • chol/e = combining form for bile
gallbladder1
Gallbladder
  • Examples:
    • chol/e/cyst = medical name of gallbladder
    • chol/e/lith/iasis = presence of gallstones in gallbladder
    • chol/e/cyst/itis = inflammation of gallbladder
gallbladder procedures
Gallbladder Procedures
  • chol/e/cyst/o/gram = x-ray of gallbladder
  • chol/e/cyst/o/graphy = process of taking x-ray of gallbladder
  • chol/e/cyst/o/tomy = incision into gallbladder
  • chol/e/cyst/ectomy = removal of gallbladder
uvula
Uvula
  • staphyl/o = combining form
    • Same combining form as grape-cluster-shaped bacteria
  • Examples:
    • staphyl/itis and uvul/itis = inflammation of uvula
uvula procedures
Uvula Procedures
  • staphyl/o/plasty = surgical repair of uvula
  • staphyl/ectomy = removal of uvula
  • uvul/ectomy = removal of uvula
dactyl
Dactyl
  • dactyl = finger or toe
    • Digit
  • dactyl/o = combining form
  • Examples:
    • dactyl/itis = inflammation of digit
    • dactyl/o/spasm = cramp or spasm of digit
dactyl1
Dactyl
  • Examples:
    • dactyl/o/gram = fingerprint
    • macro/dactyl/ia = condition of having abnormally large fingers or toes
    • poly/dactyl/ism = having too many fingers or toes
ad